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    20 November 2021, Volume 41 Issue 6
    Research Report
    Leaf Epidermal Micromorphological Features and Their Systematic Significance of Six Wild Speciesof Camellia chrysantha
    Li-Qiong ZHU, Dong-Mei QIN, Li-Jun ZHAO, Bin-Sheng DENG, Sheng-Yuan LIU, Chang-Jie JIANG
    2021, 41(6):  841-850.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.001
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    To compare the differences in leaf epidermis micro-morphology of Camellia chrysantha, the light microscope and scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the mature leaf epidermis micro-morphological features of six wild C. chrysantha species in Guangxi Nonggang National Nature Reserve. The results showed that: ①The leaf epidermis was composed of epidermal fine stomata apparatus in six C. chrysantha species, and the stomata were randomly distributed on the leaf abaxial surface. Each stomata had three guard cells with different sizes, which categorized as annular type stomata. There were significant differences in stomatal length, stomatal width, stomatal density, stomatal index and cell density of upper and lower epidermis cell density among six species of C. chrysanthaP<0.05). ②Cluster analysis results with epidermal traits showed that C. ptilosperma and C. longgangensis were classified into one category, and the other four species were classified into each own category separately. Similar results were shown from the micro-morphological features, such as location of the flat peripheral wall and cell wall of epidermal cells, the ornamentation of cuticle and waxy layer covering epidermal cells, the location of stomata and epidermal cells, the morphology of the surface and inner edge of stomatal outer arches, and the cuticle membrane on the outer edge of stomatal outer arches. ③Filamentous or chain-like wax decoration lines were commonly found on epidermal cells of the six species leaves, which might be used as an important evidence for the classification of cultivated species and wild species of C. chrysantha. ④Wild C. chrysantha species showed strong adaptability to the arid karst habitat based on the leaf epidermal traits, including the distribution of stomata, the existence of cuticle and wax layer, thick epidermal cell wall and sunken stomata.

    Phenotypic Variation and Genetic Diversity of Leaves Traits of Tabebuia and Handroanthus(Bignoniaceace) in China
    Jie ZHANG, Rong-Rong LI, Jing-Xiang MENG, Yong ZHANG, Chong-Lu ZHONG
    2021, 41(6):  851-861.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.002
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    Tabebuia and Handroanthus species are famous woody plants in the world, which plays an important role in urban landscaping. To comprehensively understand the genetic diversity of cultivated species of Tabebuia and Handroanthus in China, as well as to establish a reliable phenotypic identification method, the phenotypic variation and genetic diversity of 18 leave traits among 6 species in total 812 individual trees cultivated in 11 cities in the southeast and south of China were analyzed respectively, and the 6 species(Tabebuia aurea, T. rosea, Handroanthus heptaphyllus, H.impetiginosus, H. chrysotrichus and H. chrysanthus) were compared as the control respectively and grown in Jianfengling Tropical Forestry Experimental Station, Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry. The results showed that: ①All the 18 phenotypic traits of species were significantly different among species and individual trees, and the phenotypic differentiation coefficient and interspecific repeatability of the 9 phenotypic traits, such as compound leaf length, leaflet length, leaflet width, leaflet length/width, leaf apex length/width, Leaf margin, leaf texture, leaf coat or not, leaf shape, were all over 60%, indicated that the high genetic correlation in interspecific variation and could be available taxonomy and genetic analysis of these species; ②The individual trees commonly cultivated in southeast China could be divided into 4 categories and 10 types, where the class A included T. aurea, the class B included H. heptaphyllus T. rosea, H. impetiginosus, the class Cincluded H. chrysotrichus and class Dincluded H. chrysanthus, respectively. Additionally, different types with class B, C, D are divergent in leaf shape, leaf size, leaf length, leaf texture, margin serrate state and coat, suggested a certain diversity variation of species. This study found 9 reliable traits available to species identification and evaluated the genetic diversity of species in urban landscape cultivated in southeast and south China. These results would provide reference for the future study in classification, cultivation, production and application of Tabebuia and Handroanthus species in China.

    Interspecies Difference of Astragalus on Root Development, Component Accumulation and Apparent Growth in Northern China
    Hai-Jun XU, Qin YAO, Xin-Yu CHENG, Xiao-Fei WANG
    2021, 41(6):  862-869.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.003
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    To clarify the interspecies difference of Astragalus has an important impact on its industrial planting, the differences between Astragalus mongolicus and A. membranaceus were analyzed including root structure development, root morphology, medicinal components and apparent growth respectively. The results showed that: ①On the early stage, there was no significant difference in root structure between Astragalus species, while sowing 60 d later, starch accumulation in phloem ray and xylem ray parenchyma cells of A. mongolicus were significantly higher than that of A. membrane. ②The contents of calycosin-7-glucoside, formononetin and polysaccharide in root of A. mongolicus were 1.8, 1.6 and 1.3 times as much as that of A. membranaceus, respectively. ③The root morphological distortion rate of A. membranaceus (70%) was significantly higher than that of A. mongolicus(53.1%), and the confidence intervals of the root shape coefficient(RS1) of A. membranaceus and A. mongolicus were [0.77 0.82] and [0.74 0.79], respectively. ④The plant height, ground diameter and A/U values of A. membranaceus were 1.14-1.22, 1.13-1.46, 1.21-1.80 times as much as that of A. mongolicusP<0.05), respectively, but the root length was significantly lower than that of A. mongolicus. Therefore, it is suggested that planting varieties should be selected species according to the production target.

    Effect of Soaking Seeds with NaHS on Seed Germination Characteristics of Naked Oat under Saline-Alkali Stress
    Jian-Xin LIU, Rui-Rui LIU, Xiu-Li LIU, Hai-Yan JIA, Ting BU, Na LI
    2021, 41(6):  870-877.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.004
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    Hydrogen sulfide(H2S) signaling plays an important role in seed germination and stress response. To explore the influence of soaking seeds with sodium hydrosulfide(NaHS, a donor of H2S) on the seed germination of crops under saline-alkali stress, naked oat(Avena nude) seeds were selected as experimental material which were soaked with different concentration(0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μmol·L-1) of NaHS for 8 h, and then germinated in different concentrations of mixed saline-alkaline(the mole ratio of NaCl∶Na2SO4∶Na2CO3∶NaHCO3 is 12∶8∶1∶9) solution(0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mmol·L-1) in petri dishes in incubator. Changes in germination percentage(Gp), germination index(Gi), vigor index(Vi), mean germination time(MGT), dry weight of seedlings(SDW) and comprehensive evaluation value of membership function(D) were analyzed. The effects of different concentrations of saline-alkali and NaHS and their interaction on Gp, Gi, Vi, MGT, SDW and D were significant(P<0.05) or extremely significant(P<0.01). The Gp, Gi, Vi, MGT, SDW and D decreased significantly with the increase of saline-alkali concentration. Compared with 0 μmol·L-1 NaHS(CK), 50 and 100 μmol·L-1 NaHS increased the Gp, Gi, Vi and D under 0 mmol·L-1 saline-alkali stress to different degrees. The 50 μmol·L-1 NaHS significantly increased the Gp under 30 mmol·L-1 saline-alkali stress. The 50 and 100 μmol·L-1 NaHS increased Gi under 15, 30 and 45 mmol·L-1 saline-alkali stress to different degrees. The 50 μmol·L-1 NaHS significantly increased Vi under 30 mmol·L-1 saline-alkali stress. The 50 and 100 μmol·L-1 NaHS significantly increased D under 45 mmol·L-1 saline-alkali stress. However, the germination index values of other treatments were not significantly different or significantly reduced. These results suggest that soaking the seed with NaHS of appropriate concentration could relieve the inhibition of saline-alkali stress on seed germination of naked oats, optimal effects were reached at NaHS concentrations of 50 μmol·L-1 under saline-alkali stress at below 45 mmol·L-1, 200 and 400 mmol·L-1 NaHS aggravated the inhibition of salinity-alkali stress on seed germination, and NaHS had no palliative effect on the inhibition of seed germination of naked oat under high concentration of salinity-alkali stress(60 mmol·L-1).

    Effects of UV-B Radiation on Phenolic Acid Accumulation and Physiological and Biochemical Characters in 84K Poplar
    Qing-Yan GAI, Zi-Ying WANG, Yu-Jie FU, Jiao JIAO, Hui-Mei WANG, Yao LU, Jing LIU, Jin-Xian FU, Xiao-Jie XU, Lan YAO
    2021, 41(6):  878-887.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.005
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    As a typical environmental stress factor, UV-B radiation could make a significant impact on the growth, development, and physiological metabolism of plants, and it could be of great significance to understand the defensive response of wood species poplar to UV-B radiation. In this study, 84K poplar seedlings used as materials were subjected to different intensities of UV-B radiation. The contents of six defensive phenolic acids in 84K poplar seedlings before and after the stress were analyzed, and the accumulation mechanism of target compounds was discussed from the perspective of photosynthetic pigments and ROS system. The results indicated that the proper UV-B treatment was helpful for the accumulation of five target phenolic acids(ferulic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and isoferulic acid), especially the content of chlorogenic acid increased about 15 times after 8 h of UV-B radiation; the accumulation trend of photosynthetic pigments was the same as phenolic acids, and the content of total chlorophyll increased 1.21 times after 16 h of UV-B radiation; antioxidant enzymes(especially POD) were found cooperate with phenolic acids to resist the oxidative stress caused by UV-B radiation. Overall, this study provided a theoretical basis for elucidating the metabolic regulation mechanism of defensive phenolic acids in poplars under UV-B radiation stress.

    Cloning and Expression Vector Construction of a Flowering Related Gene MiMADS-box from Macadamia integrifolia
    Qiu-Jin TAN, Tao ZHANG, Yuan-Rong WEI, Shu-Fang ZHENG, Xiu-Hua TANG, Wen-Lin WANG
    2021, 41(6):  888-895.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.006
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    In order to clarify the mechanism of MADS-box transcription factor gene family member in flowering and floral organ development in Macadamia integrifolia, aMiMADS-box gene was cloned from the leaves of M. integrifolia “GUIRE1” cultivar by PCR technique and analyzed its structure and function by Bioinformatics method. The cloned cDNA sequence of MiMADS-box gene was 1 179 bp in length, 729 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoded 242 amino acids. MiMADS-box, an unstable hydrophilic protein that had no transmembrane structure, no signal peptide and localized in the nucleus, had MADS superfamily and K-box superfamily conserved domains belonging to the MIKCc-type family. Phylogenetic analysis clustered MiMADS-box and AGL7/AP1, AGL10/CAL1, AGL8/FUL, AGL79 into FUL-AP1(SQUA) subfamily. The transcriptome data were used to analyze the expression patterns of MiMADS-box gene in branch, flower and leave of M. integrifolia “GUIRE1” and “695” cultivar. Results indicated that MiMADS-box had the lowest expression in the flower of “GUIRE1”, but the expression level of “695” was the highest. The green fluorescent protein fusion vector pGREEN-MiMADS-box-ORF-GFP was constructed by homologous recombination. It was speculated that MiMADS-box was closely related to flowering and floral organ development. The study provided a theoretical and technical guide for clarification the role MiMADS-box in flowering regulation mechanism of M. integrifolia.

    Phylogenetic Analysis of DNA Barcoding Sequences in the Genus Salix
    Wei-Chao REN, Jiao XU, Wei SUN, Mei-Qi LIU, Xin-Xin YU, Si-Jia WANG, Wei MA
    2021, 41(6):  896-903.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.007
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    We used phylogenetic analysis to compare the ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences of the plant of the genus Salix samples, so as to explore the genetic diversity and genetic relationship of these resources. Extract genomic DNA of the genus Salix and Tamarix chinensis samples. The ITS2 and psbA-trnH gene sequences of each samples were amplified and sequenced by PCR. The intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances and the neighbor joining(NJ) methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the phylogenetic tree of ITS2. S. pentandraS. roridaS. linearistipularis and S. schwerinii formed a monophyletic clade, distinguished from the same genus. Phylogenetic tree constructed by psbA-trnH sequences were unable to distinguish the genus Salix samples from different geographical sources. Therefore, ITS2 sequence was suitable for the authentication, and would provide a certain reference for the subsequent development and research of the plant of genus Salix.

    Effects of PEG Osmotic Treatment on Thermal Dormancy Induction and Water Status of Fraxinus mandshurica Seeds
    Cheng-Cheng CUI, Ming-Yue LI, Peng ZHANG
    2021, 41(6):  904-910.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.008
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    Taking the seeds of Fraxinus mandshurica as the material to release the initial dormancy, after two batches of seeds of pre-water absorption and non-pre-water absorption, at 25℃, with different concentrations (0, 25%, 50%) of PEG treatment different time(3 days, 7 days, 3 days PEG+4 days H2O environment) and germination under suitable conditions. The changes of seed water content and seed germination performance during different treatments were determined to explore the changes of water content of seeds treated with PEG at different concentrations and the relationship between the water content and seed germination ability. The results showed that: after PEG treatment, the seed water content of seeds was as follows: contrast>25% PEG>50% PEG, that was, the lower the PEG concentration, the higher the seed water content. Among them,after PEG treatment, the water content of seeds treated with pre-water decreased, while the water content of seeds without pre-water increased gradually. At the same PEG concentration for the same time, the germination rate of seeds treated with pre-water and non-pre-water was significantly different, that was, whether PEG treatment or pre-water treatment all affected the change law of seed water content and seed germination ability. The seed water was negatively correlated with the seed germination rate. PEG osmotic treatment attenuated the induction of thermal dormancy of F. mandshurica seeds, which was related to seed water status)

    Tissue Expression Patterns of PdPapWRKY51 in Shanxin Poplar (Populus davidiana × P. alba var. pyramidlis) under Stress Conditions
    Bo-Chao ZHANG, Jia-Lin WANG, Yuan YIN, Yi-Da CHE, Jun-Jie DENG, Rong-Shu ZHANG
    2021, 41(6):  911-920.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.009
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    In order to identify and verify crucial genes that regulate the stress resistance of poplar, based on the RNA-seq data of poplar(Populus davidiana × P.alba var. Pyramidlis, cv ‘Shanxin’) leaves induced by Trichodermaasperellumon or Alternaria alternata, a key responding gene was cloned and named as PdPapWRKY51. In silico analysis showed that the coded protein of PdpapWRKY51 was a IIc class transcription factor of the WRKY family and a non-transmembrane hydrophilic protein localized in the nucleus. The tissue-specific expression profile of PdPapWRKY51 in poplar seedlings was investigated through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR). The results showed that PdPapWRKY51 was broadly expressed in plants and the highest expression was found in roots. The expression of PdPapWRKY51 was investigated after 48 hours of induction by salt, alkali, PEG(Polyethylene glycol), five soil-borne plant fungal pathogens or phytohormones respectively. The results showed that the PdPapWRKY51 expression level was greatly affected by alkali stress. Fusarium oxysporumCytospora chrysosperma or A. alternata induction significantly up-regulated PdPapWRKY51 expression in the apex respectively. F. oxysporum induction significantly up-regulated PdPapWRKY51 in the leaf. C. chrysosperma and A. alternata induced significantly higher PdPapWRKY51 expression in the root. PdPapWRKY51 expression could be broadly induced by SA(salicylic acid) in plants. When induced by JA(jasmonic acid) or ABA (abscisic acid), the PdPapWRKY51 expression was up-regulated in the apex but down-regulated in the root. The results revealed the tissue-specific expression patterns of PdPapWRKY51 gene in respond to multiple induction, and would provide a basis for further elucidating the function of PdPapWRKY51 and insights into breeding novel stress-resistant poplar cultivars through modifying PdPapWRKY51 expression.

    Megasporogenesis and Microsporogenesis and Development of Female and Male Gametophytes in Mutants lpls with Long Pistil and Long Stamen from Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
    Xuan WANG, Zhi-Xiong LIU
    2021, 41(6):  921-927.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.010
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    The Mega-and Micro-sporogenesis and development of female and male gametophytes in mutant Buckwheat with long pistil and long stamen were investigated by the paraffin section. The results showed that anthers were tetradymous and the anther wall was composed of four layers of cells. The meiosis of microspore mother cells was followed by simultaneous cytokinesis and resulted in tetrahedral tetrads. A few microspores with two nuclei were observed in tetrahedral tetrads. Most of mature pollen grains were 2-cell type, while a few 3-cell mature pollen grains were also observed in anther sac. Orthotropous and bi-integument ovule, as well as thick nucellus was found in embryo sac. The megaspore mother cells underwent meiosis and were divided into liner type tetrads, and the megaspore in the chalazal end was functional one. The embryo sac was Polygonum type. The stamen primordia emerged before the appearance of gynoecium primordia. Single or tow-nucellus microspores were released from tetrahedral tetrads when the forth leaf arose from the main stem, and the mature pollen grains were observed when the seventh leaf arose from the main stem. Megaspore mother cells emerged when the tetrahedral tetrads formed, while the functional megaspore appeared until 2-cell pollen grains formed. 2-cell and 3-cell mature pollens coexisted after development of the seventh leaf on the main stem, while the mature embryo sac with 8 nucellus and 7 cells resulted from continuous mitosis of the functional megaspore.

    Different Improved Soil Substrates on the Growth and Physiological Characters of Seedlingsfrom Trollius chinensis Bunge
    Jin-Yu LIU, Sheng-Wei LIN, Jing-Yu PAN, Qin ZHANG
    2021, 41(6):  928-937.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.011
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    In order to screen suitable substrate formulations and to improve the quality of Trollius chinensis seedlings, and to explore the physiological mechanism of the influence of cultivation substrates on its seedling growth, the pot experiment peat and vermiculite and perlited on the growth, physiology and photosynthetic characteristics of the T. chinensis seedlings were conducted respectively. The results showed that T4, T5 and T7 significantly improved the physical and chemical properties of the garden soil, among which T7 treatment had the best effect on the seedlings. The plant height, width, leaf area and leaves number of the seedlings of T.chinensis increased by 32.08%, 26.62%, 56.22% and 64.41% respectively compared with the control; the antioxidant enzyme activity, mineral nutrient content, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of T. chinensis leaves were significantly increased(P<0.05). Therefore, it could be used as the substrate formula of T. chinensis seedling to replace garden soil.

    Photoprotective Mechanisms under Low Temperature and High Light Stress of Photinia × fraseri and Osmanthus fragrans During Overwintering
    Wen-Hai HU, Yi-An XIAO, Xiao-Hong YAN, Zi-Piao YE, Jian-Jun ZENG, Xiao-Hong LI
    2021, 41(6):  938-946.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.012
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    Evergreen plants in subtropical region were suffered from the combination of low temperatures and high solar irradiances in winter. Low temperature inhibited photosynthetic CO2 assimilation, but light energy continued to be absorbed by green leaves. Therefore, there was a potential risk of photoinhibition to evergreens in overwintering. Different photoprotective strategies were observed in overwintering evergreens. The differences of the chorophyll fluorescence and intrinsic characteristics of light-harvesting pigment molecules of sun- and shading-leaves of Photinia × fraseri(growth type in winter) and Osmanthus fragrans(growth stagnant type in winter) were compared with during overwintering, to explore the choice of photoprotective strategies of overwintering evergreens in the subtropical region. Both P. × fraseri and O. fragrans in the subtropical region adapted to the low temperature with high light condition of winter. However, there were different photoprotective strategies in two evergreens. The absorption of light energy decreased in P. × fraseri , the actual absorption capacity of light-harvesting pigment molecules reduced, and high photochemical capacity and electron transport rate maintained, which would protect photosynthetic apparatus against damage due to low temperature with high light in winter. Meanwhile, high chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiencymaintained in P. × fraseri, which would be conducive to the rapid conversion of energy metabolism pathway from photoprotection to carbon assimilation when temperature rises during overwintering. Different from photoprotective strategy of P. × fraseriO. fragrans mainly adopted relatively slow reversal photoprotective strategies such as reducing chlorophyll content and enhancing energy dissipation. That could be the main reason that P. × fraseri still maintained growth, while O. fragrans was stagnant in the subtropical region in winter.

    Effects of Drought Stress on Leaf Structure of Eucommia ulmoides
    Feng HE, Hong-Yan DU, Pan-Feng LIU, Lu WANG, Jun QING, Lan-Ying DU
    2021, 41(6):  947-956.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.013
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    To explore the effects of drought stress on leaf structure of Eucommia ulmoides and understand the characteristics of drought adaptation, 2-year-old cutting seedlings of ‘Huazhong No.6’ were used as experimental materials. The results showed the leaf relative water content, sponge tissue thickness and lower epidermis thickness were significantly lower on the 16th day of drought stress compared with the control group respectively. During the drought stress, the stomatal density of leaves increased at first and then decreased, while the stomatal size expressed by stomatal area, stomatal length and stomatal width pointed a trend of “increase-decrease-increase” and there was a significant negative linear correlation among stomatal length and width and stomatal density. The main reason of the cutting seedling thickness thinning of Eucommia ulmoides was that the sponge tissue thickness became smaller. Under drought stress for 11 days, the stomata of leaves were small and dense, the stomata closure increased, while the stomata showed larger and sparser adaptation characteristics for 16 days under drought stress.

    Evaluation of Drought Tolerance Based on Stomatal Characters and Selection of Germplasm Resources from Xanthoceras sorbifolia
    Meng-Ke WANG, Meng-Ni TIAN, Quan-Xin BI, Xiao-Juan LIU, Hai-Yan YU, Li-Bing WANG
    2021, 41(6):  957-964.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.014
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    In order to study the differences in the leaf stomata characteristics of yellowhorn(Xanthoceras sorbifolium) with different germplasm resources and to understand the physiological and ecological response of yellowhorn leave stomata structure to drought stress, We used 108 yellowhorn trees from Erdos City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China as the research object. The 12 indicators including stomatal length, length of stomatal gap long axial, stomatal width, stomatal density, stomatal area index and so on were measured. We used the principal component analysis(PCA), subordinate function values and cluster analysis to identify the drought resistance, and screen out germplasm resources which were suitable for planting in arid areas. This study can provide a reference for the cultivation of the yellowhorn in arid and semi-arid areas in China. The results showed that stomatal area was significantly correlated with stomatal length, long axial length of stomata, stomatal width, stomatal perimeter, stomatal opening perimeter, the proportion of stomatal area to leaf area, stomatal area index and stomatal opening area index. Using principal component analysis to 12 characters summarized as three principal components(the cumulative contribution rate is 93.408%), the first principal component load mainly was stomatal density, the second principal component load mainly was stomatal opening area index, and the last principal component load mainly was stomatal area index. The 108 germplasm resources were clustered into three types, one of the types was drought-resistant and water-conserving which included 31 germplasm resources were suitable for planting in arid areas. The stomatal density, stomatal open area index and stomatal area index can be used as the effective indexes for evaluating drought resistance of germplasm resources of yellowhorn.

    The Allometry Growth of Pinus yunnanensis Seedlings from Different Families
    Dan WANG, Ya-Qi LI, Ji-Wei SUN, Jiang-Fei LI, Shi CHEN, Yu-Lan XU, Nian-Hui CAI
    2021, 41(6):  965-973.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.015
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    In order to understand the growth rate of Pinus yunnanensis Franch seedlings and the life history strategy of seedlings, the allometric growth of P. yunnanensis Franch. seedlings from different families was studied. The 49 annual families of P. yunnanensis were selected as materials, the allometric growth analysis method was used to the allometric growth of seedling height and ground diameter. The results showed that different families had different allometric growth index. The allometric growth index of 28 families was 1.0, which was in accordance with the geometric similarity model, and the other 21 families were allometric growth relationship. The results also showed that there were both allometric and isokinetic growth in seedling height and ground diameter among different families. Therefore, the difference of allometric growth mainly come from genetic differences, which reflected the resource utilization strategy of seedlings by adjusting their own resource allocation.

    Shading Effect on Morphology and Leaf Structure of Bletilla striata
    Xiu-Yun YUAN, Shen-Ping XU, Yi-Ran ZHOU, Xi-Meng WNG, Bo CUI
    2021, 41(6):  974-981.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.016
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    To explore the response of Bletilla striata to shading conditions, the two-year-old B. striata were cultivated under sunshade nets of 0%(as the control, CK), 50%, 70% and 90% shading rate, the external morphology and leaf structure of B. striata were measured. The results showed that the plant height, leaf length, leaf width and leaf area were increased significantly under three shading treatments respectively, and the 50% shading treatment was the best. The stomatal density and wax particles in epidermis decreased gradually with the decrease of light intensity while the shape of chloroplast changed from nearly spherical to long fusiform. Moreover,the leaf thickness was increased, whereas the distance of adjacent vascular bundles was decreased under 50% shading treatment by the leaf cross-cutting observation. The less number of grana and thylakoid lamellae in chloroplast under CK treatment, and the more number of grana and the higher degree of thylakoid stacking in chloroplast under 50% treatment. However, there were the more stromal thylakoids and spacing between the lamellae under 70% and 90% shading treatment. These results suggested that the stomatal density,epidermis wax,mesophyll thickness, chloroplast shape,thylakoid lamellae and its thylakoid stacking might as the main structural basis factors of photosynthetic physiological response of B. striata to shading treatment.

    Difference of Tolerance to Heavy Metal Zinc Stress of Five Sedum Plants
    Ying WANG, Hong-Bo XU, Yang WANG, Meng-Qian WANG, Cheng-Zhong WANG, Yuan-Sen YIN, Xue SUN, Hui ZHOU, Li-Huan ZHUO
    2021, 41(6):  982-992.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.017
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    For the pollution of farmland around zinc mines was seriours in China, so an ideal method to screen plant materials with strong resistance to zinc was needed. 5 Sedum plants including Sedum spectabileS. aizoonS. hybridumS. lydium and S. spurium ‘Coccineum were used as materials and potted planting, the different concentrations of exogenous zinc(0,80,160,320,800,1600,2 000 mg·kg-1) added on the plants growth(biomass and plants height ) and the tolerance of to heavy metal zinc stress of plants was compared and analyzed respectively. The results showed that:The biomass and height of 5 Sedum plants increased first and then decreased with the concentration of heavy metal zinc increased and the growth of plants was inhibited, of which Sedum aizoon and Sedum lydium suffered more severe from zinc toxicity; The maximum growth of 5 Sedum plants appeared in different zinc concentrations, and the increase rate becoming negative appeared in different zinc concentrations either; The R2 values in linear analysis of growth and zinc stress of 5 Sedum plants were better, coefficient of regression equation could explain the promotion and inhibition rate of biomass and plant height of 5 Sedum plants, in terms of biomass, the growth promotion rate of S. spurium ‘Coccineum’ was largest, inhibition rate of S. hybridum was largest, and in terms of plant height, the growth promotion and inhibition rate of S. spectabile was largest.

    Genome-wide Identification and Expressional Analysis of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases(CCD) Gene Family in Populus trichocarpa under Drought and Salt Stress
    Shuang-Hui TIAN, He CHENG, Yang ZHANG, Cong LIU, De-An XIA, Zhi-Gang WEI
    2021, 41(6):  993-1005.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.018
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    Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases(CCD) specifically catalyzed the cleavage of conjugated double bonds of carotenoids to form various apocarotenoids and their derivatives, which played various important roles in plant growth and development and stress response. However, no research has been reported on PtrCCD in the woody model plant Populus trichocarpa. This study found that its expression level was significantly different under salt stress and drought stress. Based on this, it was planned to reveal the function of PtrCCD family at the molecular level.. The number of PtrCCD family members, evolutionary relationship, chromosome location, gene structure, basic characteristics of the encoded protein, promoter cis-acting elements, and response to drought and salt stress of PtrCCD gene family were analyzed at genome-level of P. trichocarpa, respectively. The results demonstrated that the PtrCCD family could be divided into two sub-families, CCD4 and CCD8, which included 9 and 2 genes, respectively. There were 5 pairs of paralogous genes, with Ka/Ks far less than 1. All proteins encoded by the PtrCCD family contained 5 common Motifs, such as Motif 1, Motif 2, Motif 3, Motif 9, and Motif 11. The promoter regions of PtrCCD gene family contained a large number of abiotic stress and hormone response cis-elements, among which the PtrCCD8a promoter contained 5 types and 16 elements. Analysis of the expression characteristics of the PtrCCD family showed that the PtrCCD family genes exhibited tissue-specified expression patterns and mainly expressed in stems compared with in roots and leaves, respectively. Moreover, there were significant differences of expression levels of PtrCCD family genes among roots, stems, and leaves of poplar in response to drought and salt stress during different times. The PtrCCD gene family had different response to drought and salt stress, which further indicated that this gene family played an important role in abiotic stress.

    Cloning and Expression Analysis of HD-Zip Transcription Factor PsnHB63 in Populus simonii × P. nigra
    Lian-Bin HAN, Qing GUO, Kai ZHAO, Ting-Bo JIANG, Bo-Ru ZHOU, Li LI
    2021, 41(6):  1006-1014.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.019
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    The PsnHB63 gene was cloned from the leaves of Populus simonii × P.nigra, and by using bioinformatics analysis, the results showed that the full-length cDNA fragment was 717 bp in length, encoded 238 amino acids, and had an unstable hydrophilic protein with a conserved domain, belonged to Homeobox/HALZ family. The phylogenetic tree showed that PsnHB63 was closely related to Populus tomentosaPopulus alba and Populus. The PsnHB63 was localized in the nucleus by subcellular localization. Under salt and drought stresses, the expression of PsnHB63 was up-regulated. The results indicated that the HD-Zip transcription factor HB63 might respond to high salt and drought stresses.

    Construction and Transformation of Arabidopsis CKX3 Gene Editing Vector Based on CRISPR/Cas9
    Ze-Chen WANG, Rong XIAO, Le-Jun OUYANG, Li-Mei LI, Chu-Yan LIANG, Jing-Yin PAN, Zhi-Chao LIU
    2021, 41(6):  1015-1022.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.020
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    Performance of Growth, Yield, Composition of an introduced Lycium ruthenicum Murr. under different Soil Conditions in Tianjin
    Yingyu Qian, Jinfeng Mao, Jiangli Nie, Yi Pei, Yujie Lang
    2021, 41(6):  1023-1028.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.06.021
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    The two-year-old L. ruthenicum seedlings, which introduced from Minqin in Gansu Province to Tianjin under different soil conditions were used as materials to study the differences in growth, yield and composition. The growth period of L. ruthenicum introduced to Tianjin was 8-36 days longer than that of Minqin in Gansu Province. The yield of L. ruthenicum in clay loam was 0.34 kg·m-2, which was higher than that in Minqin area, and the yield in sandy soil was 0.05 kg·m-2, which was lower than that in Minqin area. The anthocyanin contents of L. ruthenicum in clay loam and sandy soil were 14.43 and 13.67 mg·g-1 respectively, which were significantly higher than those in Gansu Minqin. The betaine content in the fruit of clay loam was 2.36%, which was significantly higher than that of L. ruthenicum in sandy soil and Minqin. According to the growth condition and various indexes of L. ruthenicum under different soil conditions, L. ruthenicum showed strong growth adaptability after being introduced into Tianjin, among which it grew better in clay loam.