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    20 November 2015, Volume 35 Issue 6
    Ranunculus laohegouensis,a New Species of Ranunculaceae from Sichuan
    WANG Wen-Tsai;CHEN Shu-Rong
    2015, 35(6):  801-802.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.001
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    A species of the genus Ranunculus(Ranunculaceae), R.laohegouensis, is described as new from Sichuan Provice and the diagnostic differences between it and its ally are given.
    A New Species of Sonerila Roxb.(Melastomataceae) from Fujian Province
    LIN Qin-Wen
    2015, 35(6):  803-806.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.002
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    A new species of Sonerila Roxb.(Melastomataceae), S.trinervis Q.W. Lin, is described, illustrated and photographed from Fujian Province,China. The new species is morphologically similar to Sonerila erecta Jack, but easily differs from the latter bystems terete, wingless, puberulous; leaf blade adaxially puberulous, basally 3-veined; petals white, suborbicular, 2 mm in diameter; stamens ca. 2.5 mm in length, and anthers ca. 1 mm in length.
    Lectotypifications of Sixteen Names in Dicotyledon
    LIN Yun1;LIU Wen-Qun1;WU Hui-Bing1;SUN Miao2;SUN Qian2;YANG Zhi-Rong2;LIN Qi2*
    2015, 35(6):  807-811.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.003
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    In type specimens deposited at China National Herbarium(PE), Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the types of sixteen names, Ficus formosana Maxim.(Moraceae), Elatostema ficoides(Wall.) Wedd. var. brachyodontum Hand.-Mazz.(Urticaceae), Aristolochia delavayi Frarch.(Aristolochiaceae), Amygdalus communis Linn. var. tangutica Potal.(Rosaceae), Prunus brachypoda Batal.(Rosaceae), Prunus brachypoda Batal. var. pseudessiori Koehne(Rosaceae), Raphiolepis gracilis Nakai(Rosaceae), Spiraea mongolica Maxim.(Rosaceae), Ardisia tenera Mez(Myrsinaceae), Symplocos formosana Brand(Symplocaceae), Chionanthus chinensis Maxim.(Oleaceae), Fraxinus trifoliolata W.W.Smith(Oleaceae), Jasminum subhumile W.W.Smith(Oleaceae), Buddleia fallowiana I.B.Balf. & W.W.Smith(Loganiaceae), Vincetoxicum mongolicum Maxim.(Asclepiadaceae) and Omphalodes trichocarpa Maxim.(Boraginaceae) of taxa in Dicotyledon are found to be syntypes under Article 9.5 of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants(Melbourne Code). According to Article 8.1, 9.11 and 9.12, and Recommendation 9A.3, lectotypes for these sixteen names are here designated.
    Development of Male and Female Gametophytes between Fertile Line and Male Sterile Line’s Flowers of Catalpa bungei C.A.Meyer.
    ZHANG Bo;LI Li-Ping;MAO Wei-Bing;WANG Chang-Lan;CHEN Fa-Ju*
    2015, 35(6):  812-818.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.004
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    Catalpa bungei C.A.Meyer, a deciduous tree belonged to Catalpa Bignoniaceae, is a unique timer tree species with high quality and value in China. Paraffin sectioning with optical microscopy was conducted to investigate the development of megasporogenesis, microsporogenesis and the developing process of female and male gametophytes in fertile and sterile lines of C.bungei flowers. The development of pistil in fertile plants and sterile plants were basically the same, including anatropous ovule with simple integument and tenuinucellus, and polygonum type embryo sac. The anther of fertile plants was tetrasporangiate and anther connective parenchyma was well-developed. The heterotype tapetum consisted of anther wall tapetum and anther connective tapetum. Before the meiosis of microspore mother cell, the epidermal cells of anther wal began to elongate and thicken radially without degradation till anther cracking, which might be related to anther cracking. The matured pollen of fertile plants were tetrasomic. The anther development of sterile plants in early secondary sporogeous cells stage was almost the same with fertile stamen. The tapetum developed incompletely during the meiosis period of microspore mother cells. The tapetum cells were highly vacuolated with thin cytoplasm and prematurely degraded during the tetrad stage, and the tetrad microspore developed abnormally due to structural and functional abnormity of tapetum. Therefore, the male sterility of C.bungei was structural type male sterility.
    Rapid Propagation of Parathelypteris angustifrons(Miq.) Ching
    CHEN Xi1,2,3;HE Mei-Na1,2,3;ZHUANG Hui-Hui1,2,3;GUO Li-Zhu1,2,3;ZHOU Pan1,2,3;HE Wei1,2,3;GUO Bin1,2,3;WEI Ya-Hui1,2,3*
    2015, 35(6):  819-824.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.005
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    The rapid propagation system of Huperzia serrata(Thunb.) Trev. associated fern (Parathelypteris angustifrons(Miq.) Ching) was established by culturing its prothallium. MS+1.0 mg·L-1 NAA was the most suitable medium for prothallium proliferation. After 60 days of growing in this medium, the fresh weight of prothallium weighed twice heavier compared with one in the control medium (MS without hormone). MS without plant hormone was the optimal medium for inducing sporophyte. The shortest induction time was 22 days and the induction rate was 15%. 6-BA and TDZ showed inhibitory effect on the formation of the sporophyte. The best medium for root induction of sporophyte was MS+1.0 mg·L-1 IAA. Within 60 days, the medium induced a mean root length of 1.72 cm and 13 roots per explant. Sporophyte grew best in water moss by which the survival rate of transplantation reached 100%.
    Establishment and Optimization of Wild Beltilla striata Regeneration System
    LI Fang1;XIAO Xiao-Jun1*;LIN Zhong-Quan2;DU Ming-Lin1;HU Zhang-Wei1;HUANG Zuo-Xi1
    2015, 35(6):  825-831.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.006
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    We used the ripe capsules from wild Bletilla striata as explants to establish regeneration system. The optimal medium for seed germination was 1/2MS+6-BA 1.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1+AC 0.5 g·L-1. The most suitable medium for PLB multiplication was MS+KT 1.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1+AC 0.5 g·L-1, while MS+6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1+KT 1.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1+AC 0.5 g·L-1 was appropriate for PLB differentiation. The optimal medium for adventitious buds multiplication was MS+6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1+KT 1.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1+AC 0.5 g·L-1+potato juice 150 g·L-1, and the proliferation rate was up to 343% after 30 days. The most suitable rooting medium was 1/2MS+IBA 0.5 mg·L-1+AC 0.5 g·L-1+potato juice 100 g·L-1 with the rooting rate of 100%. The best way of tube seedlings transplanting was under the volume ratio of sphagna: batk: Coconut chaff: wood flour of 2∶2∶1∶1 with 99% of survival rate.
    Hemianatropous Ovule and Allium Type Embryo-sac of Vitex rotundifolia(Lamiaceae)
    KONG Dong-Rui1;WANG Zhong-Li1;SONG Yi-Gang2
    2015, 35(6):  832-835.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.007
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    We studied the development of the ovule and embryo-sac of Vitex rotundifolia by paraffin sections to add the embryological data of Viticoideae. The ovule is hemianatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. The endothelium is present. Development of the embryo-sac is of Allium type which may be derived from the monosporic Polygonum type. Allium type embryo-sac in V.rotundifolia is first reported in Viticoideae as well as the whole Lamiaceae.
    Salt-responsive MicroRNAs in Populus euphratica by Deep Sequencing
    SI Jing-Na;ZHOU Tao;XU Fang;BO Wen-Hao;WU Rong-Ling*
    2015, 35(6):  836-842.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.008
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    MicroRNAs(miRNAs) have important regulatory functions in plant growth, development, cell cycle, gene expression regulation and response to abiotic stress. For studying the resistance of Populus euphratica to salt, we used 1-year-old poplar cutting clones to construct four small cDNA libraries from P.euphratica plantlets. We used the high-throughput sequencing to identify differentially expressed miRNAs treated with or without salt(300 mmol·L-1 NaCl, 7 days). The different miRNA had significantly different expression. More than 90% expression were appeared in miR156, miR157, miR165, miR166, and miR167. The miRNA specific expressed in root played extremely important role in physiological, molecular regulation and signal transduction. Especially, many miRNAs were found in response to salt stress, and their target genes were predicted and annotated. These miRNAs were related to NAC and SPL transcription factor family, and they regulated ATP enzyme andhormone response factor.
    Effects of Leaf-spraying Nitrate on Stomatal Dynamics and Photosynthesis of Syringa oblata Lindl. Leaves
    WANG Ke;DIAO Jian;YANG Rui;HU Yan-Bo*;SUN Guang-Yu
    2015, 35(6):  843-847.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.009
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    With Syringa oblata Lindl. seedling, a greening tree species in Harbin, we investigated the effects of leaf-spraying nitrate(50 mmol·L-1 NaNO3) on stomatal behavior and photosynthetic physiology by gas-exchange and electron microscope techniques. We analyzed stomatal distribution in upper and lower epidermis and stomatal opening as well as photosynthesis-dark respiration induction, photochemical efficiency, chlorophyll content, intercellular CO2 concentration and stomatal conductance. The stomata and glandular hairs are distributed in the upper and lower epidermis, the effects of leaf-spraying depend on treatment time. For five-day treatment, there were no significant differences in the parameters of stomatal behavior and photosynthesis between the treated and controlled leaves. However, 14-day treatment significantly declined stomatal opening and conductance, and inhibited photosynthesis-dark respiration.
    Diurnal Changes of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics of Japanese Yew Seedlings under Different Light Conditions
    LIU Tong1;XU Hao-Yu1;JIN Hui-Ying1;ZHANG Yu-Hong2;ZHOU Zhi-Qiang2*
    2015, 35(6):  848-853.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.010
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    In order to know the characteristics of light adaptation of Japanese yew for the efficient cultivation, we selected fiveyear seedlings to study the diurnal changes of chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics under three levels of the light control of full light(FL) , 60% full light(F1) and 30% full light(F2). From 7:00 am to 17:00, Fo of seedlings under FL and F1 controls increased by 23.0% and 14.0%, respectively, and under F2 control Fo fell slightly. Fm and Fv/Fm of three groups of seedlings fell to the minimum and then rebounded, the Fm values of seedlings under FL, F1 and F2 light controls decreased at the most by 38.0%, 28.0% and 23.0%, respectively, Fv/Fm of seedlings under FL, F1 and F2 light controls decreased at the most by 14.0%, 6.4% and 4.2%, respectively. The ΦPSⅡ of seedlings under F2 control reached the maximum and showed the raising tendency during the day, the tendency of ΦPSⅡ under FL and F1 light controls were similarity, the ΦPSⅡ value under FL and F1 reached at a higher level at 9:00, then decreased gradually, and at 15:00 got the minimum value, and the ΦPSⅡ value of the seedlings under FL control had the more lower level. The significant differences of ETR in three sample groups of seedlings appeared during 11:00-15:00, the ETR of seedlings under F2 control got the maximum value during the time, and the ETR of seedlings under F1 maintained stable, and the ETR of seedlings under FL reached the minimum value. The qP of seedlings under F2 control was higher in value than the those under FL and F1 controls, the tendency under F2 was consistent with the daily light intensity change; the qP of seedlings under FL and F1 controls got the minimum in 13:00 and 15:00, respectively. The NPQ of seedlings under F2 control decreased during the day slightly, the NPQ under FL and F1 controls reached two times peak values at 9:00 and 13:00(15:00). Based on the above variation in fluorescence parameters, the photochemical reactions was the primary way in the optical utilization of the yew seedlings under F2 control during the day, and wasted lesser optical energy in the form of thermal energy radiation. The seedlings under FL and F1 controls appeared the photoinhibition in the high-light-temperature periods, at the time the seedlings improve the protection by increasing thermal dissipation, and the photosynthetic organ were not damaged.
    Effects of Fertilization on Plant Growth,Leaves Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters and Fruit Quality of Blueberry
    ZHOU Lin;ZHANG Hui-Hui;WEI Dian-Wen;ZHANG Yue*
    2015, 35(6):  854-859.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.011
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    With Blueberry (Blomidon) as the research material, we studied the effects of fertilization on the plant growth, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and quality of the fruit of blueberry during full fruit period in Daxing'an Mountains to provide some basic data for optimizing the blueberry cultivation techniques in northern China. The fertilization could significantly promote the plant growth of blueberry, and the fertilization amounts of 7.5 g/plant had the most obvious promotion on the shoot length and crown width of blueberry, while the effects of different fertilization amounts on the shoot length and coarseness of blueberry showed no significant differences. Fertilization treatments also significantly promoted the actual photochemical efficiency, electron transport rate and the openness of PSII reaction Center in blueberry leaves, and energy distribution parameters of PS II reaction center in fertilization treated blueberry leaves were more prone to photochemical reaction, which also showed that fertilization amounts of 7.5 g/plant had the optimum effects on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Fertilization treatment also changed the quality of blueberry fruit, although the contents of vitamin C and anthocyanin, and pH in blueberry fruit showed no significant differences under different treatments. However, total sugar content increased obviously, total acid content decreased gradually except 10 g/plant treatment, which showed that ratio of sugar/acid increased are is reduced trend, performance for than of increased, but 5 g/plant treatment was optimum for the quality of blueberry fruit, which was different from the fertilization treatment on the changes of growth and chlorophyll fluorescent parameter of changes of blueberry. Therefore, fertilization could significantly accelerate the growth of blueberry plant, improve their photosynthetic ability and fruit quality, but the factors of growth and quality of blueberry should be considered when fertilization amount was controlled.
    Effect of Low Temperature Stress on Physiological Changes in Oil Palm(Elaesis guineensis Jacg.) Seedling under Different Time
    LIU Yan-Ju1,2;CAO Hong-Xing1,2*;ZHANG Ru-Lian3
    2015, 35(6):  860-865.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.012
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    We used eight months of oil palm seedlings as materials to study the effect of different time of low temperature stress on physiological and biochemical changes of oil palm seedling, and according to the temperature variation in Hainan, set up four different minimum temperature treatments including CK(natural temperature treatment), 18℃(T1 treatment), 12℃(T2 treatment) and 6℃(T3 treatment) after 0, 7, 14, 21 d sampling, respectively. With the decreasing of temperature and the increasing of time, the oil palm seedling leaf water content and SOD activity continued to decrease, the soluble protein, sugar content, H2O2 and MDA content continued to increase, and POD, CAT, APX activity first increased and then decreased. Under T2, T3 the seedling leaf became brown and oil palm seedling growth slowed down significantly after twoweek treatment. Low temperature caused obviously oxidative damage, but oil palm seedlings used adaptation mechanisms by increasing the contents of soluble protein, sugar and antioxidant enzyme activity to resist oxidative damage caused by low temperature for normal growth.
    Identification of Protein Interactions between Flowering Repressors BpFLC and BpSVP from Betula platyphylla
    ZANG Li-Na;ZHENG Tang-Chun;DAI Li-Juan;LIU Cai-Xia;QU Guan-Zheng*
    2015, 35(6):  866-872.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.013
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    The experiment was conducted to study the mechanism of interaction between SVP and FLC in Betula platyphylla. The truncated genes of BpFLC1-6 and BpSVP1-6 were, respectively, cloned from yeast recombination plasmids pGBKT7-BpFLC and pGBKT7-BpSVP. pGBKT7-BpFLC1-6×pGADT7-BpSVP and pGBKT7-BpFLC×pGADT7-BpSVP1-6 were co-transferred into yeast Y2HGold. The yeast strains of Y2HGold[pGBKT7-BpFLC2-5×pGADT7-BpSVP] could grew on selective agar plates TDO, QTO/A and QDO/X/A with blue stains. BpSVP truncated forms and BpFLC2-5 protein could act with each other to form heterodimers. Then, Y2HGold[pGBKT7-BpFLC×pGADT7-BpSVP2-5] were brought into proximity to form protein compounds and activate transcription of four independent reporter genes of AUR1-C, HIS3, ADE2 and MEL1. The interactions between BpFLC3 and BpSVP3 were tested to confirm the acting domains. The yeast Y2HGold[pGBKT7-BpFLC3×pGADT7-BpSVP3] exhibited blue stains on selective agar plates QDO/X/A. The K domain of BpFLC and that of BpSVP were the key structure domains and mediated the protein interactions between BpFLC and BpSVP.
    Analyzing and Evaluating the Salt Tolerance of Four Kinds of Birch Seedlings.
    NA Xiao-Ying1;WANG Xiu-Wei1*;XU Hao-Yu1;QIAO Li-Na1;WANG Sui1;LIU Gui-Feng1;Kentbayev Yerzhan2;Kentbayeva Botagoz2
    2015, 35(6):  873-882.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.014
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    Introducing and breeding salt-tolerant plants are a main way to exploit saline land with an important research value. We used one-year seedlings of Betula kirghisorum, B.pendula, B.pubescens brought from Kazakhstan and local B.platyphylla Suk. as the test materials. Neutral salt(NaCl) and alkaline salts(NaHCO3) stress tests were conducted in July 2014 in Northeast Forestry University. We measured growth, photosynthesis and chlorophyll content. We used factor analysis method to compare and evaluated the salt tolerance of four kinds of birch seedlings. At last, we screened the birch species with an excellent comprehensive performance. As the salt concentration increases, the high growth and photosynthetic efficiency of birch seedlings were significantly inhibited and while the concentration≥0.5%, most seedlings withered. Correlation of height and diameter-increment, net photosynthetic rate(Pn), photosynthetic-light-use efficiency(SUE), carboxylation efficiency(CUE), apparent quantum yield(AQY) and chlorophyll content reached a significant level. We obtained the following comprehensive evaluation formula for salt stress treatment of 0.1% NaCl, 0.3% NaCl, 0.1% NaHCO3 and 0.3% NaHCO3 and screened out the best individual plants with exceptional comprehensive characters. The optimum individual plants for NaCl stress were 32, 33, 34 and 35, and for NaHCO3 stress were 262, 263, 264 and 35, respectively. B.kirghisorum had the strongest resistance to neutral salt and B.platyphylla Suk. had the strongest resistance to alkaline salt with low concentration, and B.kirghisorum and B.pubescens had more resistance to alkaline salt with high concentration.
    Flower Distyly and Breeding System of Limonium chrysocomum
    XU Xiao-Yuan;ZHOU Ling-Ling*;WANG Zhong-Ke;ZHUANG Li
    2015, 35(6):  883-890.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.015
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    Plumbaginace is one of the family with more heterostyle plants. Using Limonium chrysocomum as materials, we studied the effects of style polymorphism on reproduction by investigating its floral traits, flowering phenology and breeding system. L.chrysocomum is distyly, which contains stigmas with polygonal cells and A type pollen(C plants) or stigmas with papillose cells and B type pollen(P plants), and the size and surface ornamenation of pollen are also dimorphic. During the development of flowering, the divergence of calyx and pistil reveals obsoletely, and then dribbles away in maturing. Existing the phenomenon of approach herkogamy, and C plants keep flowering 2 days longer. The fastigium of A type pollen viability comes at 13:00, while at both 11:00 and 15:00 shows a peak for B type pollen. The strongest cob stigma receptivity is at 13:00-15:00, and papillate stigma is at 15:00. The highest pollen fertility of L.chrysocomum is in the time of flowering-culmination, however in flowering-termination time the pollen fertility rate of B type pollen is far higher. By fluorescent staining, the speed of pollen germination and tube growth is in the order of heterotype>homotype, and the fertility process of B type pollen adhered to papillate stigmas can not be completed. By artificial pollination experiments, the seed-setting rate of heterotype is significantly higher than homotype, however, among homotype treatments the seed-setting rate of P plants is exiguous and having little apomixes. Actually, the researchs indicated that: L.chrysocomum was distyly and breeding system was facultative xenogamy. The cob stigmas were compatibility for A/B type pollen, while the papillate stigmas were compatibility for A type pollen, but incompatibility for B type pollen, which broke the self-incompatibility rule in plumbaginace.
    In Vitro and ex Vitro Rooting Technology Comparison of Acacia mangium×A.auriculiformis hybrids
    SHI Qiong1;HU Feng2;HUANG Lie-Jian1*
    2015, 35(6):  891-897.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.016
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    For improving the rooting percentage and providing an optimal technology for seedling production, we studied the rooting technology of in vitro and ex vitro of Acacia mangium×A.auriculiformis hybrid by using the proliferation seedlings as materials (in vitro rooting with the proliferation cultured for 30 d, 2-3 cm seedling; and ex vitro rooting with the proliferation cultured for 45 d, 3-5 cm seedlings), and compared the economic benefits of two techniques for seedling production. Inoculating the aseptic plants which had been multiplication cultured for 30 d to 1/2MS with combination of 1.0 mg·L-1 IBA, 0.5 mg·L-1 NAA, 3% sucrose could get the highest rooting rate of 99.43%, and the survival rate was 98.0% after transplanted to the greenhouse 15 d. However, when immersing the aseptic seedlings which had been multiplication cultured for 45 d with 100 mg·L-1 IBA for 1 hour, the rooting rate was 94.67%. For producing 10 000 seedlings, the economic benefit of ex vitro rooting was more than RMB 1 288.26 Yuan than that of in vitro rooting when the benefit was considerable. The ex vitro rooting technique was more available for the seedling production of Acacia mangium×A.auriculiformis.
    Characterization and Expression Analysis of TNAC Genes of Tomato
    SONG Fang-Yuan1;SU Hong-Yan2*;CHENG Xian-Hao2;ZHU Lu-Ying2;WANG Lei1
    2015, 35(6):  898-903.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.017
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    TNACs(tobacco NAC genes) is a novel subgroup of NACs unique to Solanaceaea. Now, little information was available about TNACs of tomato(Solanum lycopersicum). In our previous studies, based on the alignment of sequences from tomato, Arabidopsis and rice, we constructed a unrooted phylogenetic tree and found a subgroup included only 26 SlNACs(Solanum lycopersicum NAC). In this study, we characterized 26 SlNACs further. Of all, 10 SlNACs shared the typical characteristics with TNACs. By the real-time quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression patterns of the tomato TNACs in different organs and under drought, high salinity and low temperature stresses, respectively. Except for one tomato TNAC, two were expressed in all tested organs and seven showed organ-specific expression patterns. Among ten tomato TNACs, eight were detected to respond to one or more stress treatments. Our findings will provide important clues for predicting the functions of tomato TNACs, and understanding the roles of the group NAC specific to Solanaceaea.
    Rapid Propagation and Regeneration System of Populus simonii×Populus nigra
    DU Zhao-Wei;ZHENG Tang-Chun;LI Shuang;ZANG Li-Na;QU Guan-Zheng;YOU Xiang-Ling*
    2015, 35(6):  904-907.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.018
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    The young leaves of aseptic seedling from Populus simonii×Populus nigra were used to test the effect of different culture media and plant hormone on adventitious bud induction, rosette buds induction and seedling rooting. The culture media and hormone have the effects on adventitious bud induction and seedling rooting. The best medium of adventitious bud induction from leaves is MS+6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA 0.05 mg·L-1, the induction rate is 100%, and the best medium of rosette buds induction is MS+6-BA 0.2 mg·L-1+NAA 0.05 mg·L-1. The best medium of seedling rooting has two kinds including MS+NAA 0.25 mg·L-1 and MH+IBA 0.2 mg·L-1 with the rooting rate of more than 99%.
    Effects of 24-Epibrassinolide on Antioxidant System and Expression of Drought-tolerance Relative Genes in Pepper Seedlings under Drought Stress
    HU Wen-Hai1*;ZAN Xiu-Hua2;YAN Xiao-Hong1;WAN Xu-Ming1;HUANG Li-Feng3
    2015, 35(6):  908-914.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.019
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    We studied the effects of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide(EBR) on H2O2 and MDA content, antioxidant enzymes activities, and the expression of drought-tolerance relative genes in pepper(Capsicum annuum L.) under drought stress. The results showed that 0.1 μmol·L-1 EBR induced H2O2 producing slightly, and significantly promoted the activities of SOD, APX, CAT, DHAR, MDAR and GR in leaves of pepper. While EBR significantly increased antioxidant enzymes activities, and alleviated H2O2 and MDA content in leaves of pepper under drought stress. EBR also induced the expression of antioxidant enzymes(cAPX and MDAR) and transcription factors(WRKY3, WRKY6 and MYB) genes. It was considered that the suitable exogenous EBR(0.1 μmol·L-1) enhanced drought tolerance in pepper seedling maybe through induction of droughttolerance relative genes expression and activations of antioxidative enzymes, and H2O2 signal was involved in EBR-induced drought-tolerance relative genes expression.
    Species Diversity and Niche Characteristics of Defective Forest in Jiufeng National Forest Park
    XING Ya-Lei1;WEI Tian-Xing1;GE Genbatu2
    2015, 35(6):  915-922.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.020
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    As a low- efficiency forest, defective forest has worse forest form and ecological stability, resulting in poor landscape and ecological function. By sample-plot survey method, we analyzed the main defective communities forest and the species diversity in different site conditions of Jiufeng Forest Park for the forest form transformation technology after studying its structure and function of ecosystems. The defective degree of each community type of defective forest in Jiufeng National Forest Park was different, the order of species diversity was as follows: Chinese pine plantation>Robinia pseudoacacia plantation>Acer mono and Prunus mixed plantation>Shrub and grass plantation>Oriental Arborvitae plantation>Quercus variabilis plantation. In different site, in terms of the distribution of defective forest, the impacts of slope and soil conditions is more obvious, and the order of species diversity were slope>semi-shady slope>sunny, thick soil layer>thin soil, with the non-obvious effects in shrub layer. The typical characteristics of Jiufeng defective forest is lack of trees and grass, and in the specific performance the forest form of tree layer is dilapidated and herb layer coverage is low population differentiation. The population with wider niche may have a higher degree of overlaps, however, this situation is not certain, and the frequency distribution is an important factor affecting the degree of overlap of species. Therefore, the diversity of relict forest species has great difference with common forest species, and the different stand of the defective degree, serious differentiation, single species and poor site conditions are the main reasons for the formation of relict forest.
    Effects of Different Rare Species Treatments on Two-way Indicator Species Analysis
    KANG Yan-Ling;ZHANG Qin-Di*;DUAN Xiao-Mei;LI Ting-Ting;BI Run-Cheng
    2015, 35(6):  923-928.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.021
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    For comparing the impact of different treatment methods on TWINSPAN, we studied two different methods of eliminating rare species and untreated with the plant communities and environmental survey data of Xiaolongmen Forest Farm. Match coefficient and Davies-Bouldin index(DBI) were taken to compare the result of two different TWINSPAN classification for ensuring the best classification division. Before and after eliminating accidental species, the TWINSPAN classification result among the same classification principles of termination was, respectively, divided into 12 and 11 associations. With the combination coefficient r, the low grade of TWINSPAN classification results of before and after eliminating rare species were not consistent, with the increase of classification level, the ground adhesion coefficient was higher and higher, and the rare species greatly influenced the result of the low grade of TWINSPAN classification. DBI index as the division criterion was introduced to obtain the optimum TWINSPAN classification results. Although the best classification of grade was different before and after eliminate rare species, but with higher classification results of alignment the degree of agreement between two ones was higher. Therefore, in the application of TWINSPAN classification, when introducing DBI index to determine the best classification, the low classification results of rare species should be deleted.
    Carbon Stocks Model of Compatible Individual Tree in the Natural Larch Forest of Daxing’an Mountains
    JIANG Lei;LIU Zhao-Gang*;DONG Ling-Bo;SUN Yun-Xia
    2015, 35(6):  929-936.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.022
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    Forest is an important part of the ecosystem and is the body in improving the global warming trend with the ability of the forest carbon sequestration and more attention, and the trees of forest carbon stocks in forest ecosystems is important to quantify carbon sequestration significance. With 44 wood analytic data of Daxing’an Mountains natural larch and various organs carbon sample wood density data, we drew the ideological compatibility biomass model to study compatibility carbon storage model. By the models of y=aDb and y=a(D2H)b, we used nonlinear equations of measurement error to establish the compatible of single and binary models of total carbon stocks and stem, branches, leaves and roots. By comparing the goodness of fit and independent test statistic of the model. For the goodness of fitting, the determination coefficient R2 of the trunk in the single and binary models of four organs were 0.960 and 0.985, respectively, and all two values were the maximum. But for the branches, leaves and roots, the values were relatively low, reaching more than 85%, indicating that the overall model were feasible. By the model test, the efficiencies of EF values in different analog trunk model were 0.904 and 0.951, with the estimated accuracy of 80.5% and 85.5%, respectively, followed by the branches simulation efficiencies of 0.830 and 0.898 with the accuracy of more than 70%, and the leaf and root forecast accuracies were low with the values of 70%. The forecast binary model accuracy of fitting and prediction was better than that in the single model.
    Growth Variation and Stability Analysis of Birch Crossbreed Families
    LIU Yu1;XU Huan-Wen1;LI Zhi-Xin1;TENG Wen-Hua1;ZHANG Lian-Fei2;ZOU Jian-Jun3;SHANG Fu-Qiang4;LIU Gui-Feng1*
    2015, 35(6):  937-944.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.023
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    Launching stable selection research in the period of young forest and selecting excellent tree for adjacent areas is a key step of genetic improvement. We measured the height(H) and basic diameter(BD) of 21 families planted two years ago in the counties of Huinan and Qing’an, and the cities of Shangzhi and Dandong. H and BD differences among sites and families, and interaction between sites and families, were highly significant(P<0.01). Families 201 and 203 had excellent traits at Qing’an, followed by 203, 206, 201, 312, 316 and 205 at Shangzhi, 203 at Huinan, and 325, 203, 310, 204, 201 and 316 at Dandong. We obtained stable evaluation results using D based on the Tai model. Families 203 and 201 owned excellent growth performance and strong stability of optimal family, followed by 309, 308, 205, 316, 302 and 206, 311 greatly affected by environmental was sensitivity family, 325 inconsistent growth performance among sites was instability family. These results can provide a theoretical basis for excellent family selection and constitute a reference for birch superior parent selection.
    Plant Diversity of Virgin Broadleaved-Korean Pine Forest and Birch Secondary Forest in Liangshui
    ZOU Li1;ZHANG Guo-Quan1;SAXI Yaertu2;YU Yang1;TANG Qing-Ming3
    2015, 35(6):  945-951.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.024
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    We used typical sampling and community-ecology survey methods to study the plant community structure and species diversity of Amur linden(Tilia amurensis)-Korean pine(Pinus koraiensis) forest, Mongolian oak(Quercus mongolica)-Korean pine forest and Birch(Betula platyphylla) secondary forest in Heilongjiang Liangshui National Nature Reserve. There were 31 vascular plant species in Amur linden-Korean pine forest, belonging to 21 families and 25 genuses. There were 32 vascular plant species in Mongolian oak-Korean pine forest, belonging to 25 families and 28 genuses. There were 31 vascular plant species, belonging to 20 families and 28 genuses in Birch secondary forest. The species richness index S of tree layer and herb layer of Birch secondary forest were significantly higher than two kinds of broadleaved-Korean pine forest, and the shrub layer was lowest. Based on Simpson species diversity index, there was no significant difference between tree layers of three forest types, the shrub layer of Amur linden-Korean pine forest was significantly higher than the other two forest types, and the herb layers of three forest types were totally different. Based on Shannon-Wiener species diversity index, the tree layer of Amur linden-Korean pine forest was significantly lower than the other two forest types, and shrub layer of Birch secondary forest was significantly lower than the other two broadleaved-Korean pine forest, but the herb layer of Mongolian oak-Korean pine forest was highest. Pielou species homogenous index of tree layer of Mongolian oak-Korean pine forest was significantly higher than the other two forest types, there was no significant difference between shrub layers of three forest types, and the herb layer of Amur linden-Korean pine forest was lowest.
    Rapid Identification of Blumea balsamifera by Specific PCR and Fluorescence Detection
    ZHAO Dan1;ZHOU Tao1*;YUAN Yuan2;XIAO Cheng-Hong1;JIANG Wei-Ke1;KANG Chuan-Zhi1,2
    2015, 35(6):  952-956.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.025
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    The experiment was conducted to establish a rapid and reliable molecular identification method for Blumea balsamifera DC. By genomic DNA extraction method, we screened B.balsamifera and its adulterants, designed primers with the specific loci of B.balsamifera, and optimized the amplification conditions of PCR. We detected the PCR products by fluorescence reaction. The alkaline lysis method of extracting genomic DNA was more appropriate for B.balsamifera. It could specifically amplified by primers of tDNA, and its products were green fluorescent by fluorescence detection. While, its adulterants were non-reaction occurring. This method simplified operation steps and saved time with accurate result, and it could be served as identification method for B.balsamifera.
    Complex Network Analysis of Flavonoids Activities of Juglans mandshurica
    LIU Ju-Zhao;NIE Si-Ming*;JIANG Li-Sha;WANG Xi-Qing
    2015, 35(6):  957-961.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.06.026
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    With the natural flavonoids in Juglans mandshurica, we studied the relation between multi-substances and multi-targets, and predicted their activities. We constructed the interaction network between flavonoids of J.mandshurica and different targets by PharmMapper, which reversed docking flavonoids. By analyzing the network features, we revealed the relationships between molecules and targets. The flavonoids of J.mandshurica possessed broad-spectrum bioactivities. Among them, several molecules correspond to the same kind of disease. Avicularin and Afzelin had potential antitumor activity. Avicularin had potential antibacterial activity. 3-hydroxyflavone, myricetin, avicularin, afzelin, astragalin, myricitrin and quercitrin had potential antiparasite activity. This results could forecast data to further develop the flavonoids of J.mandshurica with instructive significance.