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    15 September 2015, Volume 35 Issue 5
     
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2015, 35(5):  641-646.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.001
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    Five species of the genus Ranunculus, R.dayiensis, R.tongrenensis, R.zhouquensis, R.chongzhouensis and R.gongheensis, are described as new from West China, and the diagnostic differences between them and their allies are given respectively.
    A Taxonomic Revision of Coniogramme Fée from Hainan Province,China
    ZHANG Gang-Min1;DONG Shi-Yong2;ZHANG Xian-Chun3
    2015, 35(5):  647-651.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.002
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    Coniogramme Fée is one of the genera of Pteridaceae s.l. subfamily Cryptogrammoideae, and its taxonomy has long been in a mess. Based on research of original documents and specimens together with fieldwork, we revised the taxonomy of Coniogramme from Hainan Province. We recorded three species: C.macrophylla Blume Hieron., C.intermedia Hieron., and C.japonica Thunb. Diels. The name C.merrillii Ching and C.lanceolata Ching ex K.H. Shing were reduced as synonymies under C.macrophylla. We firstly recorded C.japonica from Hainan, and supplemented the distribution of two other species in Hainan.
    Taxonomic Position of Horsfieldia pandurifolia Hu(Myristicaceae)
    WU Yu1;MAO Chang-Li1;ZHANG Feng-Liang1;YANG Xiao-Ling1;ZENG Jian-Sheng1;DUAN An-An2
    2015, 35(5):  652-659.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.003
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    Horsfieldia pandurifolia Hu was discovered in 1963. There have been many controversial opinions about its taxonomic position. The taxonomic position of H.pandurifolia was studied based on plant morphology, chemical taxonomy and DNA molecular marking from 11 wild species of Myristicaceae in China. H.pandurifolia was in accordance with H.macrocoma ssp. prainii, and was distinguished from Horsfieldia, Knema and Myristica obviously. These evidences supported that H.pandurifolia was reduced to H.macrocoma ssp. prainii effectively and the genus Endocomia was established with the type species H.macrocoma. We suggested that Endocomia macrocoma(Miq.) de Wilde ssp. prainii(King) de Wilde takes place of the sciential name H.pandurifolia Hu.
    Discovery and Evolutionary Significance of Homalanthus populifolius Seed Coat Stomata
    LU Yan-Jun1;Thomas Stützel2;KANG Yong-Xiang1;WANG Li-Bing3;YU Hai-Yan3;ZHANG Xin1*
    2015, 35(5):  660-664.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.004
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    The stomata on the seed coat, a rare character of angiosperms, is reported on Homalanthus populifolius Graham for the first time, which is distributed in northeast and north of Australia. The stomata on the seed coat were compared with those on the leaf. The research history, morphology, development, physiology function and evolutionary implications of this rare character were reviewed. The hypothesis was proposed that the stomata may be the relic of the outer integument as a leaf structure, and the future research direction was prospected.
    Phylogenetic Analysis of Onychium Based on Five Chloroplast DNA Sequences
    DOU Ping1;YANG Wen-Li2;ZHAO Ran-Ran1;ZHANG Gang-Min1*
    2015, 35(5):  665-671.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.005
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    Onychium Kaulfuss, subfamily Pteridoideae of Pteridaceae, has long been in dispute with respect to its sectional circumscription and interspecific definition. We studied the phylogenetic relationships of Onychium based on five chloroplast DNA sequences(rbcL/atpA/matK/trnL-trnF/trnG-trnR) using Maximum Likelihood(ML) and Bayesian(BI) methods. (1)All species of Onychium were clearly divided into two main groups: Onychium japonicum(Thunberg) Kunze, O.tibeticum Ching & S.K.Wu, O.moupinense Ching, O.moupinense var. ipii(Ching) K. H. Shing, O.japonicum var. lucidum(D. Don) Christ, O.cryptogrammoides Christ and O.plumosum Ching were clustered in a group, while O.siliculosum(Desvaux) C. Christensen and O.tenuifrons Ching were clustered in another group; (2)It provided the molecular evidences for the taxonomy of Onychium at section level. O.japoniucm and O.japoniucm var. lucidum were not united together in the phylogenetic trees, while they were separated by other species, suggesting that O.japoniucm var. lucidum should be treated as a separate species rather than a variety of O.japonicum; (3)O.moupinense and O.moupinense var. ipii were gathered in a strongly supported clade, supporting the taxonomic treatment of O.moupinense var. ipii as a variety of O.moupinense in Flora of China; (4)O.tibeticum and O.japonicum were grouped in a clade with a high bootstrap value with close relation.
    Micromorphological Structure of Leaf Apex of Ten Species of Bryophytes from No.1 Glacier of Tianshan Mountains
    ZENG Jian1;WU Yu-Huan2;WANG Hong1*;AIFEIRE Abuduaini1;CHEN Qiu-Yan1
    2015, 35(5):  672-678.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.006
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    We recorded the micromorphological structure of bristle, wart and cutile ornamentation of leaf apex of ten mosses from No.1 glacier of Tianshan Mountains by LM and SEM. Most cells on the top and margin of the leaf apex of ten species were transparent with thick wall and large cell lumen. Margin of the leaf apex was involuted and rough, and the cell wall was sunken with small pore when it was dry. These characteristics shows obvious desiccation tolerance. They are beneficial to the absorption of water, resistance long period cold, and reflection solar radiation. Types of leaf apex have little significance to the classification of family and genus of bryophytes, but the micromorphological structure of wart, cutile ornamentation and cell wall, and cell number of the cells on the top and margin of the leaf apex are obviously different betweeb different species in the same genus.
    Tissue Culture System of Muscari botryoides Mill Leaf and Flower Organs
    MA Yang-Yang1;LUO Yan-Jun1;LI Ya-Juan1;YUE Ding-Yi1;FENG Jia-Yue1,2*
    2015, 35(5):  679-683.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.007
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    We studied the tissue culture of Muscari botryoides Mill from four species of leaves and flower organs of Muscari aucheri ‘Dark Eyes’ with different concentrations of hormones, and established an efficient tissue culture system. With the variety of Muscari armeniacum, the most suitable sterilization time of mercuric chloride was 7 min. Callus could be induced from the leaves of every variety, and the appropriate medium was MS+2,4-D 0.5 mg·L-1+TDZ 0.1 mg·L-1. Different parts of one leaf showed high to low induction rate in the order of leaf base, leaf middle and leaf tip. Flower organs of M.aucheri ‘Dark Eyes’ showed high to low induction rate in the order of pedicels, petal and anthers. The optimal induction medium of anther was MS+2,4-D 0.1 mg·L-1+6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1.
    Induction and Culture of Carpinus betulus Callus
    JIN Jian-Bang1,3;CHENG Long-Xia1,3;SHI Man1,3;ZHU Zun-Ling1,2,3*
    2015, 35(5):  684-691.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.008
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    We used the leaves of Carpinus betulus as explants to culture on WPM medium, and studied the effects of the different types and concentration of plant hormones on the induction, proliferation and differentition of callus. The rate of callus was 96.76%, highest at 0.5 mg·L-1 2,4-D. The inducing rate of callus was 97.22% at 0.5 mg·L-1 IBA. The inducing rate of callus was 95.03% at 0.5 mg·L-1 NAA. The callus rate was 92.83% of WPM+0.5 mg·L-1 BA+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA+0.5 mg·L-1 IBA and the callus rate was 96.44% of WPM+0.5 mg·L-1 BA+0.5 mg·L-1 NAA+0.01 mg·L-1 IBA. The quality of calli preceded the calli indeced by single hormone, and two treatments were most suitable for inducing of leaves of European hornbeam. WPM+BA 2.0 mg·L-1+KT 2.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.05 mg·L-1 possessed the best proliferation effect and was appropriate for callus proliferation. WPM+BA 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA0.1 mg·L-1+2,4-D 0.1 mg·L-1 had the best differentiation rate with the differentiation rate of 13.54%.
    The Expression of VATPase Subunits in Overexpression ThVHAc1 Arabidopsis under Salt Stress
    YANG Gui-Yan1,2;GUO Yu-Cong1;ZHAO Yu-Lin1;ZHANG Feng-Jiao1;GAO Cai-Qiu1*
    2015, 35(5):  692-695.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.009
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    V-ATPase is a muti-subunits protein complex, the c subunit is mainly responsible for V-ATPase assembly and proton channel formation. We measured the expression profiles of V-ATPase subunits in exogenous overexpression ThVHAc1 Arabidopsis under salt by using real time RT-PCR. Twenty-eight V-ATPase subunits were all effected by exogenous ThVHAc1, and five Arabidopsis c subunits were down-regulated expression, indicating that ThVHAc1 affected the V-ATPase activity by altered the expression of V-ATPase all subunits. Between the expression of V-ATPase subunit and V-ATPase activity showed non-monolithic relationship, they were functioned together coordinately on V-ATPase to response to slat stress.
    Establishment and Regeneration of Suspension Cell Lines in Hybirds of (Populus pseudo-simonii×P.nigra ‘Zhenyin3#’)×P.×beijingensis
    HUANG Zhen1,2;LI Yun1,2;LI Yuan1,2;WANG Pei-Qi1,2;KANG Xiang-Yang1,2*
    2015, 35(5):  696-703.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.010
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    We used the “solid-liquid-liquid-solid” culture method to establish suspension cell line and embryonic suspension cell line from seeds, cotyledons and hypocotyls of Populus hybrids[(Populus pseudo-simonii×P.nigra ‘Zhenyin3#’)×P.×beijingensis]. Seed callus induction rates of different genotypes were significantly different, while cotyledon callus and hypocotyl callus induction rates of different genotypes had no significantly different, and the packed cell volume among different genotypes had significantly different. Double filtration with cytoscreeners after standing and layering process could well enrich uncombined embryonic suspension cell, and the number of uncombined embryonic cells among different genotypes had no significantly different. Only in the media without NH+4, we could obtain embryonic suspension cell lines which were originated from seeds and cotyledon, seed and cotyledon round calli regenerated from differentiation medium including CPPU, and 20 genotypes of the regenerated plants from seed round calli and other 20 genotypes of the regenerated plants from cotyledon round calli.
    Induction and Effects of Elicitor on Camptothecin Content in Camptotheca acuminata Callus
    WANG Ling-Li1,2;LIU Wen-Zhe2*
    2015, 35(5):  704-709.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.011
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    Callus from vegetative organs of Camptotheca acuminata were induced and subcultured, different callus were also screened out, and their contents of camptothecin(CPT) were determined by HPLC. We studied the effects on CPT by putting elicitors on culture medium. The CPT content in callus from leaf was higher than the others, and the CPT contents of red and yellow callus from any organs were higher than that of the brown callus. However, in the whole, the CPT contents in callus were far lower than that in the plant. Elicitors in culture medium had the effects on CPT content in the callus. CPT content in callus was increased by 0.1 mg·L-1, 1 mg·L-1 salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate, 0.1 mg·L-1 salicylic acid obviously accelerated the accumulation of CPT, and the effect of methyl jasmonate was little. While the CPT contents in callus was decreased by 3 mg·L-1 salicylic acid and 5 mg·L-1 and methyl jasmonate, and there was no CPT in callus by 5 mg·L-1 methyl jasmonate.
    Extracellular H2O2 and NADPH Oxidase are Involved in the Copper-Induced Cell Death
    FENG Han-Qing;BAI Jing-Yue;GUAN Dong-Dong;JIA Ling-Yun;SUN Kun
    2015, 35(5):  710-715.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.012
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    By using the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bright Yellow-2) cell suspension culture, we studied the roles of extracellular H2O2 and NADPH oxidase in the copper-induced cell death. With the increase of exogenous CuCl2 from 0 to 700 μmol·L-1, the level of cell death were increased followed by the increase of extracellular H2O2. In the cell subjected to 300 μmol·L-1 CuCl2, the addition of exogenous dimethyl thiourea (DMTU, a scavenger of H2O2) alleviated the increases of both the cell death level and the production of extracellular H2O2, which were induced by CuCl2(300 μmol·L-1). The copperinduced increase in the cell death was associated with the increase of extracellular H2O2. The CuCl2(300 μmol·L-1) stress induced an increase of the activity of NADPH oxidase. The addition of diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase) alleviated the increases of both the cell death level and the production of extracellular H2O2, which were induced by CuCl2 (300 μmol·L-1). Our results indicate that extracellular H2O2 and NADPH oxidase are involved in the copper-induced cell death.
    Decomposition Characteristics and Interaction of Mixed Leaf Litter Mixtures of Pinus koraiensis and Quercus mongolica in Original Broadleaved-Korean Pine Forest.
    GUO Kun1;LIU Rui-Peng1;ZHANG Ling1,2;MAO Zi-Jun1*
    2015, 35(5):  716-723.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.013
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    We studied litter decomposition within mesh bag in original broadleavedKorean pine forest by simulating possible forest litter composition proportion of Pinus koraiensis koraiensis(P) and Quercus mongolica(M)(P; M/P1∶3; M/P1∶1; M/P 3∶1 and M) during the succession process. We clarified the decomposition characteristics, mechanism and the interaction of the mixed litter of two species(P.koraiensis and Q.mongolica) with different composition proportion and mixing effects by using decomposition bag method. The decomposition speeds of the mixed litter of two species were faster than those of pure P.koraiensis and pure Q.mongolica leaf litter, which indicated that the mixing of P.koraiensis and Q.mongolica leaf litter accelerated the decomposition compared to the single-species leaf litter. The fastest decomposition rate was in the composition proportion of the mixed litter of M/P1∶3, and the rate of the mixed decomposition decreased first and then increased with the increasing of Q.mongolica in the mixed litter. For C and N dynamics, litter C showed release model in the all treatments; however, the litter N appeared complex manifestations. N was accumulated in P.koraiensis, while released in Q.mongolica during the whole observation period. Q.mongolica litter could accelerate C release and N enrichment in P.koraiensis litter and then reduced the C/N ratio in P.koraiensis litter. The P.koraiensis litter have a positive effect on C release of Q.mongolica, but no significant effect on N release of Q.mongolica. There was no consistent effect of P.koraiensis litter on C/N ratio of Q.mongolica litter.
    Optimization of Prokaryotic Expression Factors for Blackberry UGT78H2 Using Responsive Surface Methodology and Protein Purification
    CHEN Qing1;JIANG Lei-Yu1;WANG Yan1;ZHU Fang-Li1;TANG Hao-Ru1*;WANG Xiao-Rong1,2
    2015, 35(5):  724-729.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.014
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    UGT78H2 is a newly discovered glycosyltransferase from blackberry fruit, and the successfully obtained protein is the basis for further functional characterization. We constructed a prokaryotic expression vector and optimized the induction factors(induction temperature, cell and IPTG concentration, and induction duration) using responsive surface methodology(RSM). (1)the constructed pET32a-UGT78H2 plasmid was successfully transformed into the bacteria BL21(DE3)pLysS; (2)By RSM, incubating at 29.5℃ till cell OD600=0.51, IPTG was added to the final concentration of 0.4 mmol·L-1 to incubate for 7.4 hours, and the most quantities of recombinant UGT78H2 was obtained (166.4 μg·mL-1); (3)Incubation temperature and the length of culture time extremely significant affected the overall quantities of protein, and IPTG concentration and cell OD interactively determined the recombinant protein at significant level; (4)The recombinant protein was 67.9 kDa in molecular weight, existing as inclusion bodies in most fraction, and purified by utilizing Ni-NTA affiliation column system.
    Genetic Diversity Analysis for Leaf Main Traits of Camellia azalea
    XU Bin1;PENG Li-Xia2;YANG Hui-Xiao1*;PAN Wen1;ZHANG Fang-Qiu1
    2015, 35(5):  730-734.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.015
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    In order to develop elite genotypes of Camellia azalea, we determined phenotypic traits based on 14 quantitative leaf traits from 37 samples, and analyzed the variation coefficient, correlations between traits, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The variation coefficients of the traits ranged from 5.3% to 47%, and the average variation coefficient was 18.52%. The quantitative leaf traits of C.azalea resources had extensive variation with rich genetic diversity. The correlation coefficients between leaf length and leaf shape index, leaf area and leaf dried weight, and piteous length and piteous length/leaf length ratio were 0.967, 0.942 and 0.828, respectively. By principal component analysis indicated six leaf traits (leaf area, leaf length, piteous length/leaf length, left leaf width/leaf width, and leaf area/leaf dried weight) were the most important characteristics discriminating variation among 37 C.azalea samples. By hierarchical cluster analysis, 37 samples were divided into five groups.
    Quantitative Characteristics of Ormosia hosiei under Different Disturbance Levels
    ZHANG Qun-Fang;PENG Pei-Hao*;WANG Juan;LIU Xian-An
    2015, 35(5):  735-740.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.016
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    Ormosia hosiei is a native endangered plant in China, the characteristics of many populations have been largely altered by increasing human activities. We used age-diameter relationships to study the age structures, and built the life tables, the survival curves, killing power value curves and mortality rate curves of three O.hosiei populations. In the heavily disturbed population, there was a declining population; the population , which was disturbed recently, had many young-aged individuals, accounting for 78.77% of the total individuals. The survival curves of three populations were characterized by high death rates of young-aged individuals. The age structure of the long-term exposure to less disturbed population was stable with sufficient numbers of young-aged individuals. For the life tables, the death rates of the age class Ⅰ and Ⅱ were negative with a shortage of young-aged individuals. The age structure and dynamics of three populations were similar to those of the other endangered species in China. Compared with ten years ago, the resources of O.hosiei was reduced. Therefore, more attention should be paid for the conservation of this species, the on-site conservation and off-site preservation methods should be combined, and strengthening the scientific research to promote the population development in the successive progressive direction.
    Construction and Identification of Bait Vector Containing BBTV nsp Gene in Yeast Two-hybrid System
    WANG Xiang;ZHANG Xiu-Chun;YU Nai-Tong;LIANG Jie;ZHOU Peng;LIU Zhi-Xin*
    2015, 35(5):  741-745.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.017
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    The nuclear shuttle protein(NSP) which encoded by banana bunchy top virus(BBTV) DNA6 plays an important role in infection, replication and transportation of virus. In order to research the interaction of BBTV DNA6 and host banana protein, the yeast two-hybrid system were used for the assay. pGBKT7-nsp genes was amplified using two pairs of specific primers, and their PCR products were mixed and amplified to obtain the 1/4 DNA products which contained EcoRⅠ and BamHⅠ enzyme site sequence. And then the DNA was cloned to pGBKT7 of yeast two-hybrid system. After confirmation with sequence analysis, the plasmid was transformed into the yeast cell Y2H, and its toxicity and transcriptional activation were tested by color assay. The pGBKT7-nsp had no selfactivation, and non-toxic to yeast cells, and it was consistent with the requirements of yeast two hybrid bait plasmids for the next step in the experiment.
    Studies on Dynamic Change of Alkaloids Contents and Expression of the Associated Biosynthetic Genes in Catharathus roseus Leaves
    LIU Ying;LI De-Wen;MENG Qing-Huan;ZHANG Zhong-Hua;DUAN Xi-Hua*
    2015, 35(5):  746-750.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.018
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    Catharanthus roseus seedlings of 45d were grown in water-culture. The different PEG6000 concentration(15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%(V/V)were set to treat seedlings in greenhouse. The effect of on the proline content and the relative water content(RWC) of leaves were determineted, 35% PEG6000 concentration was selected. On the first 12-24 h hours under 35% PEG6000 treatment, the POD activities were increased gradually compared to control. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed, there were gradual increase and then decrease in the contents of vindoline(VIN) and catharanthine(CAT) under stress, but the content of VBL increased gradually and reached the maximum on the 24 h hour of treatment. In addition, the data from the SQ-RT-PCR determination indicated that the genes(Tdc, Str, Dat) expression level were higher than the control on the 3th hour of treatment. The further correlation analysis indicated that CAT accumulation was significantly correlated with Tdc gene expression, and VBL accumulation was significantly correlated with POD activities(P<0.05).
    Analytic Hierarchy Process in Plant Species Selection of Revegetation in the Taihang Mountains in Hebei Province
    YAN Hui-Ling1,2;LIU Dong-Ming2;LI Zuo-Heng3;CHEN Hong-Feng2;WANG Bing-Xing3;ZHAO Wen-Zhong3;WANG Jun2
    2015, 35(5):  751-758.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.019
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    Vegetation selection is the significant material basis in building forest of soil and water conservation and other types of forest, and it is an effective measure for restoration and rebuilding of degraded ecosystem. Based on the objective of vegetation selection alongside the regions of Xingfen highway of Hebei Province, we used analytic hierarchy process(AHP) to analyze 19 index factors, and comprehensively evaluated 89 plant species including trees, shrubs, and herbs. We selected ten main index factors in terms of selected plant species, and took the cluster analysis by SPSS statistical software. In the regions of each altitude, the proportion of drought resistance was the biggest for the weighted average of every index factor, and that of cold resistance changed the most greatly. Therefore, 11 herbs were ranked as level 1, 12 herbs were ranked as level 2, 8 shrubs were ranked as level 1, 13 herbs were ranked as level 2, 6 trees were ranked level 1, and 5 trees were ranked as level 2.
    Effects of Different Plants Cultivation on Soil Physical-chemical Properties and Fine Root Growth in Saline-alkaline Soil in Songnen Plain,Northeastern China
    WEI Chen-Hui1;SHEN Guang1,2;PEI Zhong-Xue1;REN Man-Li1;LU Jia-Li1;WANG Qiong1;WANG Wen-Jie1*
    2015, 35(5):  759-764.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.020
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    The effects of different land use on soil properties and its functioning depth are prevailing hotspots in soil ecology, but few researches are available in degradation saline-alkaline soil, in Songnen Plain, northeastern China. Taking the Zhaodong Experimental Forest Farm as the research site,we sampled 3 soil layers from 8 vegetation types and measured 13 soil parameters.The results showed: root density, pH, available-P, soil moisture, EC, SOC and total N were significantly influenced by different vegetation types. Interspecies differences of first three parameters varied at different soil layers, while the other four parameters showed similar interspecies differences among whole soil profile. Root density in Fraxinus mandshurica plantation was the top in 0-40 cm of the soil, but root density in grassland was the top in 40-60 cm of the soil. Soil pH in Phellodendron amurense was higher than any other plant types in 0-20 cm of the soil, but it was lower than the others in 40-60 cm of the soil. Soil pH in grassland was higher than the others from 20-60 cm of the soil. Available-P in Pinus sylvestris was higher than any others respectively in the first and third soil layer, however it was lower than any other plant species in the second soil layer. Peak soil moisture was in grassland, that was 1.8 times higher than that in Larix gmelinii plantation; EC in grassland (503.4 μs·cm-1) was significantly higher than that in all the other vegetation types. SOC in plantations of Populus, P.sylvestris were significantly lower than those in plantations of P.amurense, Ulmus pumila, F.mandshurica and grassland; Soil total N in Populus and P.sylvestris were only about 72.3% of that in grassland; There was no differences in total P, total K and available-K among different plants.Therefore, afforestation with proper species in Songnen Plain could reduce soil salinity-alkalinity with the expense of more water consumption and similar soil nutrients depletion reflected in SOC and total N. Our findings would provide the guidance for local afforestation and comparison of region interspecies differences, evaluation of soil fertility, and soil nutrient balance in the future.
    Influences of Different Vegetation Types on Soil Parameters in Degraded Sandy Lands of Songnen Plain
    REN Man-Li;WEI Chen-Hui;PEI Zhong-Xue;LU Jia-Li;WANG Qiong;WANG Wen-Jie*;ZU Yuan-Gang
    2015, 35(5):  765-771.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.021
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    Data scarcity on the relations between vegetation types and soil properties have hindered the biological rehabilitation of degraded lands, particularly in the degraded sandy lands of Songnen Plain with overburden human actives. With six vegetation types, farmland, grassland, poplar forest(Populus spp.), larch forest(Larix gmelinii), pine forest(Pinus sylvestrys var. mongolica), and elm forest(Ulmus pumila), around the Xindian forest farm, we measured the soils from 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm for soil bulk density, soil moisture, soil pH, soil electrical conductance(EC), soil organic carbon(SOC), alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen(AN), total nitrogen(TN), available phosphorus(AP), total phosphorus(TP), available potassium(AK), total potassium(TK) and root density, and root water content. Despite large differences in vertical soil profile, root density, soil bulk density, soil moisture, soil pH, EC, TN, root water content, and SOC were significantly influenced by six vegetation types. Besides vegetation-dependent significant differences of root density markedly different from different soil layers(depth×vegetation interaction, P<0.05), the other seven parameters showed the same vegetation-related differences throughout whole 60 cm soil profile. Much higher fine root biomass in grass land, compared with forest(1.4-fold on average) and farmland(1.8 fold), indicated its greater advantage in fixing sandy soil. Much lower pH, EC, soil bulk density and soil moisture in different forests, compared with the peak values in grassland, manifested the afforestation effects in improving soil physics and decreasing soil alkali-degree with more water consumption. By correlation analysis, SOC accumulation and N were related with root density, bulk density and soil moisture, while P supply was related with soil pH and EC. Our results would provide the basic data to support soil remediation through revegetation in Songnen Plain.
    Effects of Stand Density on Community Structure and Species Diversity of Camptotheca acuminata Plantation in Baiyun Mountain,Mianzhu District,Sichuan Province
    HAO Jian-Feng1,2;WANG De-Yi1;LI Yan1;YAO Xiao-Lan1;ZHANG Yi-Bo1;ZHU Yun-Hang1;QI Jin-Qiu1,3
    2015, 35(5):  772-778.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.022
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    By a field experiment, we studied the effects of different densities(low density and high density) on community structure(species composition and important value, diameter class and height class) and species diversity(The richness index S, Shannon-wienner index H, Simpson index H′, and Pielou index Jsw of Camptotheca acuminata plantation in Baiyun Mountain, Mianzhu District, Sichuan Province). Diameter class and height class had the same response to different density. Partial peak attribution was demonstrated in stand with big density, and peak attribution was demonstrated in stand with small density. In the tree layer of C.acuminata plantation, each species diversity indexes were low in both high and low density. Underground plants showed different responses to stand density, and there were higher species diversity of the herb layer under shrub layer in high and low density, respectively.
    Microwave-assisted Polysaccharide Extraction of Aralia chinensis L. Root and Composition Determination of Monosaccharide
    WANG Yi-Feng;HOU Hong-Hong;JIN Jie;ZHAO Bo;CAO Jia-Hao;LI Xiao-Jiao
    2015, 35(5):  779-785.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.023
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    We extracted the Aralia chinensis polysaccharide(ACP) from A.chinensis L. root by microwave-assisted technique. With the single factor experiment, we optimized four factors affecting the yield of A.chinensis root including time, temperature, microwave power and solid-liquid ratio by using orthogonal design method. The optimum extracting conditions for polysaccharide yield of 15.189% was under the ratio of solid to liquid 1∶30 (g·mL-1), 40 min, 50℃, and microwave power of 400 W. Polysaccharides were deproteinized by Sevage method after dialysis treatment, and A.chinensis root had infrared spectral scanning polysaccharide characteristic absorption peaks. Ee measured the molecular weight of A.chinensis root polysaccharides by using SEC-HPLC and LLS: Mn=4.8×105 g·mol-1. A.chinensis root hydrolysis was derivatized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and the polysaccharide of A.chinensis were composed of D-arabinose, D-glucose and D-galactose, with the molar ratio of 4.67∶76.44∶18.18.
    Change of Ion Content and Particle Size of the Modified Severe Saline-alkali Soil
    XING Ying-Ying1,2;LI Zhan-Jun1,2;ZU Yuan-Gang1,2;YANG Feng-Jian1,2*
    2015, 35(5):  786-790.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.024
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    We studied the ion content and particle size of soil that modified by four treatments, with the severe saline-alkali soil of Zhaodong City, Heilongjiang Province. Four treatments were CK(Control), Bar treatment(Small hole improvement-Bar foraging ditch-In situ repair), Cross treatment(Small hole improvement-Cross foraging ditch-In situ repair) and Grid treatment(Small hole improvement-Grid form of foraging ditch-In situ repair). Different improvement treatments changed the severe saline-alkali soil ion content dramatically, and significantly improved the soil activated Al content, the content of exchangeable Ca, and Mg(P<0.05). The sulfate content, chlorine ion content, and carbonate content in the soil were significantly increased(P<0.05). The granulation of soil was observed under the scanning electron microscope(SEM), and the fragmentation degree, and porosity were increased significantly. Therefore, three different improvements of saline-alkali soil made the soil composition and physical structure different from the original saline-alkali substrate, and effectively improved the soil salinity.
    Enzyme Kinetics of Tara Fiber Residues Before and after Bleaching
    LU Qi1,2;BIAO Lin-Hai1,2;XU Lei1,2;MENG Yong-Bin1,2;ZU Yuan-Gang1,2*;NIE Si-Ming1,2;MENG Qing-Huan1,2
    2015, 35(5):  791-794.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.025
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    We studied the enzyme kinetics of Tara fiber residues before and after bleaching. By the Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plot method, we used the reciprocals of sample concentration and enzymatic reaction rate to plot and construct Michaelis equation. Km value of two substrates were 12.73 mg·mL-1 and 192 mg·mL-1 by calculating, respectively, and the Tara fiber residues was more suitable than the bleached Tara fiber residues. The sample of bleached Tara fiber residues had lower lignin content by FTIR.
    Preparation Optimization and Physical-chemical Properties of Lignin Diesel
    LI Wen-Gang;SUN Xiao-Li;GE Yun-Long;ZHAO Xiu-Hua;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2015, 35(5):  795-800.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2015.05.026
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    We mainly introduced the optimization preparation process and the physical and chemical properties of the lignin diesel fuel. According to the lignin's proportion, the emulsifier content and other influence factors, we used the orthogonal experiment design to optimize experiment. The choice of lignin quantity is 2%, 3% and 4% for total quality, the dosage of emulsifier is 4%, 5% and 6%, HLB is 8.3, 8.8 and 9.3, and the auxiliary emulsifier dosage is 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 g, respectively. With different level condition as the horizontal standard,we took lots of different ratio of emulsified oil, and finally confirmed the optimal preparation conditions: HLB 9.3, the dosage of emulsifier 6.0%, auxiliary emulsifier dosage 1.2%, emulsifying temperature is room temperature and emulsifying time is 2 min. Simultaneously we also carried on the national standards examination aimed at the oxidized stability, the sulphur content, the acidity, 10% to steam the excess carbon residue, the sheet copper to corrode, the mechanical impurity, the kinematic viscosity, the condensation point, the flash point(closed), the cetane number, the distillation, and the density. All indexes are higher than the GB 252-2000 light diesel oil the national standards. The lignin dieselcetane number arrived at 46.1 and 48.8, which is far beyond the national standard 45. Therefore, this kind of lignin diesel could save energy and reduce pollution obviously. It has great significance to develop the diesel oil substitution fuel, alleviate fuel supply, and cut the specific fuel consumption.