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    15 January 2016, Volume 36 Issue 1
    Two New Species of Ranunculaceae from China
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2016, 36(1):  1-3.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.001
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    Two species of the family Ranunculaceae, Delphinium yongdengense and Thalictrum panzhihuaense, are described as new from Gansu Province and Sichuan Province, and the morphological differences between them and their allies are given respectively.
    Leaf Epidermal Features of Five Species Plants of Huperzia
    WU Yan-Di1,2;Han Qian-Qi1,2;HE Mei-Na1,2;BAI Zhuang-Dong1,2;GUO Bin1,2;WEI Ya-Hui1,2*
    2016, 36(1):  4-9.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.002
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    We studied the microscopic characters of the leaves of Huperzia serrata(Thunb. ex Murray) Trev, Huperzia crispata(Ching) Ching, Huperzia sutchueniana(Herter) Ching, Huperzia nanlingensis and Huperzia javaensis. with optical microscope and electron microscope. There are no trichome in the leaves of five species. We observed two types of stomatal apparatu(anomotetracytic and anomocytic) in the leaves of the five species. Anomocytic type is a typical stomata of these five species. The stomatal apparatus have multi-type phenomena, most of the stamatal are hypostomatic types, while their distributive modes and size also varies. There are obvious differences of leaf epidermal cell size and shape in five kinds of Huperzia plant, and the anticlinal walls of the epidermal cell are corrugated(undulate and sinuate).
    Biosystematic Relationships among Taxa below Leymus(Poaceae) from China Based on the External Morphology and Micromorphological Characteristics of Leaf Epidermis
    LI Zhao-Meng;ZHOU Yong-Hui;LIU Yu-Ping;SU Xu*
    2016, 36(1):  10-25.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.003
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    We analyzed the main character differences of seventy-two reprehensive populations from twenty four Leymus species previously reported by scholars by morphological observation and anatomical analysis of leaf epidermises. There are different degrees of difference in fifteen morphological characters including length and width of flag leaves, hairs of leaf blades, straight/curve and length/width of inflorescence, spikelet No. of each inflorescence, floret No. of each spikelet, length of lemma and palea. The tested species can be divided into three sections according to them. The sect. Racemosus species of L.racemosus, L.crassiusculus, L.pluriflorus and L.pseudoracemosus, with sturdy, erect and thick spike, 3-number of spikelets per rachis node, 3-10 florets each spikelet, linear lanceolate glume, etc., is the most primitive one in genus Leymus. Due to the sect. Anisopyrum species including L.pishanica, L.golmudensis and L.ruoqiangensis, having thin, erect and loose spike, only one spikelet per rachis node, usually 2-5 florets each spikelet, linear lanceolate or cone glume, etc., so it is the most advanced of them. Meanwhile, because the external morphological characters of the sect. Leymus species usually lie in the intermediate transition state between the first two groups, naturally its systematics position should also be between the sect. Racemosus and sect. Anisopyrum species. At the same time, based on the evolutionary trends of the external morphological characters of three above sections, we deduced that the sect. Racemosus might produce immediately the sect. Leymus, whereas the sect. Anisopyrum might derive immediately form the sect. Leymus. The leaf epidermis of Leymus from China consists of long cell, stomatal cell, short cell and prickle hair. It belongs to the typical festucoid type. Except that some characters, such as the type of long-cells and thick/thin of cell walls, the volume and type of guard cells from stomatal apparatus, have obvious overlap and show similar, other characters, including the length of long-cells and curve extent of cell walls, distribution pattern of short-cells, shape of subsidiary cells, and type of prickle-hairs, have obvious differences. They can delimitate Leymus species into three sections identical with the morphology. According to the evolutionary trends of leaf epidermal characteristics of three sections and species within each section, their evolutionary positions and relationships were inferred. The results show that the sect. Racemosus is the most primitive one among three sections, the sect. Leymus is slightly more advanced than the former, and the sect. Anisopyrum is the most advanced of them. The sect. Racemosus might produce immediately the sect. Leymus, whereas the sect. Anisopyrum might derive immediately form the sect. Leymus. The biosystematic relationships of taxa below the genus are corroborated by the evolutionary trend of external morphology.
    Biosystematic Relationships and Generalized Morphological Characteristics of Two Representative Species from Littledalea(Poaceae)
    ZHOU Yong-Hui1,2;LIU Yu-Ping1,2;LA Ben1,2;LI Zhao-Meng1,2;SU Xu1,2*;MA Yong-Gui3
    2016, 36(1):  26-33.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.004
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    We comprehensively studied the main character differences of 40 reprehensive populations between the nearest related Littledalea racemosa and Littledalea przevalskyi by the morphological observation and anatomical analysis of leaf epidermises. L.racemosa has short rhizomes, panicle and 6-8 florets per spikelet, while L.przevalskyi has no rhizomes, raceme and 3-6 florets per spikelet. They belong to two different species. The former is with more primitive external morphological characteristics, while the latter has more advanced ones. The leaf epidermis consists of long cells, short cells and stomatal cells. There are also differences on the anatomical characteristics of leaf epidermises including length and width of long cells, magnitude and distribution of stomatal apparatus, shape of subsidiary cells, abundance and growing form of short cells. According to the characteristics and evolutionary of trends of leaf epidermises of two species, we inferred their evolutionary positions and relationships. There is obvious discontinuity between them. Especially, L.przevalskyi is more advanced than L.racemosa, so it might derive immediately from the latter. The biosystematic relationships of these two species are corroborated by the evolutionary trend of external morphology.
    Interspecific Association among Understory Species of the Low-efficiency Plantation in the Jiufeng National Forest Park
    XUE Ou;WEI Tian-Xing*
    2016, 36(1):  34-42.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.005
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    Interspecific relationship can reflect the structure and function of plant community, the type and stage of succession and the degree of community stability. It is of great significance for biodiversity conservation and vegetation restoration. In order to clarify the interspecific relationship of understory species in Jiufeng National Forest Park during restoration period, the experiment was conducted based on the 2×2 table to analyze the interspecific associations among the main species with high frequency by χ2-test, association coefficient(AC) and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient test. In shrub layer, 11 species pairs showed significant(P<0.05) or highly significant(P<0.01) association in χ2-test, while 23 species pairs in Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient test. In herb layer, 15 species pairs showed significant(P<0.05) or highly significant(P<0.01) association in χ2-test, while 27 species pairs in Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient test. For majority of the species pairs in two layers, their interspecific association did not reach significant level. In shrub layer, there was roughly an equal amount of the species pairs with positive association and those with negative association. In herb layer, the ratio of species pairs having positive association to those having negative association approximately was 1∶2. The species compositions of the two layers were fluctuating. The understory species interactions resulted from many factors including the effects of upper tree, the community succession process, species ecological characteristics and environmental conditions. By principal components analysis, the main species in herb layer and shrub layer were divided into four ecological species groups separately.
    Taxonomy Significance Based on Pollen Morphology Observation of 19 Species of Manglietia
    SANG Zi-Yang1;ZHANG De-Chun1,2;WANG Yu-Bing2;MA Lü-Yi1*
    2016, 36(1):  43-51.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.006
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    We studied the pollen morphology of 19 species of Manglietia with scanning electron microscope(SEM), and measured the pollen size and densities of cavity and protuberance. The hierachical cluster analysis(HCA) was done based on the metrical data. Under SEM, all the pollens appear as boats, each pollen has a sprout channel whose length almost equal to the longer axis of pollen, the characters of pollen surfaces such as cavity and protuberance are steadily in same species, but there are some visible differences among pollen of different species. The result of HCA shows that the pollen morphology characteristics of the different species distributed in the same geographical region or similar areas have more similarities department, and there is a strong correlation between genetic branches and geographical distribution.
    Embryonic Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration of Lilium fargesii
    GAO Jie1;WANG Yuan-Zhong2;HUANG Heng-Yu1*
    2016, 36(1):  52-57.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.007
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    In order to rationally protect and utilize the important wild traditional Chinese medicine resources, we built an efficient and instability regeneration system of Lilium fargesii Franch. by embryonic callus induction. With the scales as explants, by an orthogonal experiment, we studied the effect of different kinds and contents of plant hormone on embryonic callus induction and plantlet regeneration, and established a propagation system by tissue culture. The optimal medium for inducing embryonic callus was MS+6-BA 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1+2,4-D 0.1 mg·L-1, the callus induction rate was 89.29%, and the generation coefficient of bulblet was 4.7. The optimal medium for regeneration of embryonic callus and inducing the bulblets was MS+6-BA 1.0 mg·L-1+2,4-D 0.1 mg·L-1, and its regeneration rate was 5.0/35d. The optimal rooting medium was 1/2MS+NAA 0.2 mg·L-1, and the rooting rate was 100%. There were 90% of plantlet surviving after transplanting rooted plantlets into sand when cultured in constant temperature and humidity condition for 35 d. Our study could provide a basis on protecting the improved trait of wild resources of L.fargesii, and lay the foundation for expanding the artificial cultivation and embryoid asexual breeding.
    Rooting Anatomy of Hardwood Cutting for Albizia julibrissin Duraxx. and Activity Change of Related Enzymes During Rooting Process
    ZHOU Xiang-Ming;LIU Yu-Tang;ZHAO Xian-Zheng;SONG Zhao-Wei;WANG Shu
    2016, 36(1):  58-61.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.008
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    With one-year hardwood cutting from Albizia julibrissin Duraxx. trees, we studied the anatomical structure during the formation of adventitious roots by paraffin section, and detected the activities of peroxidase(POD), polyphenol oxidase(PPO) and indoleaceticacid oxidase by colorimetry. The adventitious root of A.julibrissin cuttings was derived from a type of induced root primordium, and the primordium of adventitious root originated from the cambium. The enzyme activities of POD, PPO and IAAO showed the same trends in treatment and control during rooting process, but the activities of three enzymes in treatment were higher than those in control.
    Variations of Growth and Leaf Traits of Intraspecific Hybridization Clones of Populus tomentosa
    LI Chun-Ming1,2;YAN Dong1;XIA Hui1;LIANG De-Yang1;SI Dong-Jing1;YIN Shao-Peng1;LIU Dian-Kun1;ZHAO Guo-Hui3;ZHAO Xi-Yang1,3*
    2016, 36(1):  62-67.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.009
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    50 intraspecific hybridization Populus tomentosa clones including 49 offspring clones and one male parent clone in one year-old as materials, tree height(H), basal diameter(BD) and 10 leaf traits(leaf length(LL), leaf width(LW), leaf petiole(LP) et al.) were investigated. There were exist highly significant difference(P<0.01) for all the traits among different clone. The average of H, BD, LL, LF and leaf area(LA) were 64.47 cm, 7.53 mm, 9.43 cm, 8.78 cm and 60.05 cm2, respectively. Coefficients of phenotypic variation(PCV) of all the traits ranged from 2.88%(leaf basal angle, LBA) to 100.36%(leaf sharp angle, LSA), coefficients of genetic variation(GCV) were close to PCV and repeatabilities(R) ranged from 0. 851 to 0. 973. High PCV and R were beneficial for excellent clone selected. There was significant positive correlation among LL, LW, LA, H and BD(P<0.01). Regression analysis results showed that LW, LL and leaf sawtooth number(LSN) were the most important factors for influencing H and BD growth. By the comprehensive evaluation, with a selection rate of 10%, Ph 111, Ph 153, Ph 90, Ph14 and Ph 12 were selected as the excellent clones.Genetic gains from these five clones were 32.20% for tree height and 13.01% for basal diameter, respectively.
    Life Table and Dynamic Analysis of Fagus hayatae Population in Micangshan Nature Reserve,Sichuan Province,China
    LI Jin-Xin1;WU Ding-Jun2;ZHANG Shi-Peng2;HE Xian-Xiang2;CHEN Jian2;SHI Qing-Mao2;XU Xiao1*
    2016, 36(1):  68-74.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.010
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    Fagus hayatae, a rare and endangered plant in China(category II), is distributed in China. Understanding the age structure and number of F.hayatae population is useful to reveal population dynamics and life-history traits. We investigated F.hayatae population distributes on the north slope of Laolin Valley in Micangshan Nature Reserve, and obtained a static life table on the basis of age class structure by using the smoothing out technique. Then, we analyzed the population quantitative dynamics of F.hayatae according to the results of survival and spectral analysis. The population was composed of 52% young individuals(including seedlings), 45.5% of mature individuals, and 2.5% of old individuals. Two peaks of higher mortality rate were in 1st and 17th age class periods of the lifespan. In addition to two big drops, the population survival rate decreased gradually from 1st to 24th age class. However, the opposite trend was found in cumulative mortality rate curve. By spectral analysis, the regeneration process of the population showed the marked periodic variations. The amplitude Ak had the largest values at fundamental wave A1 and harmonic wave A2 reflecting the lifespan of F.hayatae individuals. The quantitative fluctuation of population exhibited obvious small cycles, such as A3 and A7, which closely related with height growth and intense competitions during radial growth phase, respectively. Our results showed that the survival curve of F.hayatae population in Micangshan Nature Reserve was agree with Deevey type Ⅲ, and the population dynamics exhibited a trend that population size decreased sharply at young stage, kept stably at mature stage, and declined at old stage.
    Transcriptome Analysis for Pinus yunnanensis Based on High Throughput Sequencing
    CAI Nian-Hui1,2,3;DENG Li-Li1,2,3;XU Yu-Lan1,2,3;XU Yang1,2,3;ZHOU Li1,2,3;WANG Da-Wei1,2,3;TIAN Bin1,2,3;HE Cheng-Zhong1,2,3;DUAN An-An1,2,3
    2016, 36(1):  75-83.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.011
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    The transcriptome of Pinus yunnanensis was sequenced by using Illumina Hiseq 2 000. In total 80 000 Unigene with an average length of 890 nt and N50 of 1 881 nt were obtained by de novo assembly. Of the Unigene, 43 434, 46 415 and 29 418 Unigenes had significant similarity with known data bank in NR, NT and Swiss-Prot, respectively. 14 792 Unigenes were annotated in clusters of orthologous groups of proteins(COG) and assigned to 25 clusters. 26 743 Unigenes were annotated in gene ontology(GO) and grouped into biological processes, cellular components and molecular function three functional categories, 55 sub-categories. The biological processes were most commonly existed. A total of 25 873 Unigenes were divided into 128 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathways whose functions focused on metabolism. We found some Unigenes related to lignin biosynthesis. The sequence data for P.yunnanensis wiill be helpful for the gene discovery and utilization, molecular marker development and genetic improvement in the further research.
    Relationships between the Mortality and Morphoallaxis of Haloxylon ammodendron Seedling
    TIAN Yuan1;TANG Li-Song2,4;QIAO Rui-Ping1,3
    2016, 36(1):  84-89.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.012
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    We studied the growth of Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings to reveal their growth traits and adaptabilities in the southern edge of Gurbantunggut Desert. The the seedlings grew well from early spring when the soil water content was high. With the consumption of soil moisture, the above- and below-ground part of the plant began to fall off, and then both parts recovered growing in August. Seedling mortality showed a downward trend in the whole growth period. H.ammodendron seedling could occupy more resource through rapid growth because of the high mortality rate. The falling of the assimilating branches during the drought period could maintain balance between water supply deficit and water consume of the assimilating organs. This morphological adjustment reduced seedling mortality effectively. Also, the fact that more photosynthate was assigned toward root could ensure seedling survival and recover growth quickly at proper water conditions.
    Decreasing the Hyperhydricity and Rooting of Scutellariae baicalensis Georgi
    HAN Shu-Lan;WANG Hui-Mei*;ZHANG Dan
    2016, 36(1):  90-96.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.013
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    For reducing hyperhydric rate and improving rooting percentage of in vitro regenerated shoots from Scutellariae baicalensis Georgi, with the regenerated shoots induced from aseptic seedling stems, we studied the effect of N6-Benzyladenine(6-BA), sucrose, agar and paclobotrazol(PP333) on hyperhydricity of regenerated shoots in S.baicalensis and the effects of IBA on rooting of regenerated shoots. The hyperhydric rate significantly decreased with lower 6-BA concentration on the medium. The lowest hyperhydric rate and the highest multiplication rate were on the medium containing 0.2 mg·L-1 6-BA. With the sucrose concentration increasing, the hyperhydric rate of S.baicalensis adventitious shoots was reduced, while their multiplication coefficient was also reduced. The best multiplication coefficient in vitro shoots without hyperhydricity were found on the medium containing 25 g·L-1 sucrose. On the medium containing 7.5 g·L-1 agar, the hyperhydric rate of S.baicalensis adventitious shoots was the lowest with higher proliferation coefficient. The medium containing PP333 positively affected the hyperhydric occurrence of regenerated shoots. With the increase of PP333 concentration on the medium, the hyperhydric rate was decreased gradually and in vitro shoots were stronger and healthier. The optimal rooting was got from the medium containing 0.1 mg·L-1 IBA, with the rooting rate of 100% and seven roots per shoot. The survival rate of rooting plantlets was over 95% after transferred to soil.
    Relationship between H2S Signal and WRKY in ABA Regulating Root Growth and Stomatal Movement
    SUN Li-Min;PEI Yan-Xi;LIU Zhi-Qiang*
    2016, 36(1):  97-104.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.014
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    Gaseous signal molecule hydrogen sulfide(H2S) and plant hormone abscisic acid(ABA) modulate plant seed germination, root growth, stomatal movement, stress responses and other physiological processes, but the understanding of the relation between H2S and ABA signaling is very limited. The transcription factors of WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 involve in ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. We used the Arabidopsis thaliana wild type(WT), lcd(L-cysteine desulfhydrase enzyme encoding gene konckdown mutant) and wrky18wrky40wrky60 mutant(WRKY18, WRKY40 and WRKY60 encoding gene knockout triple mutants) to study the interactions of H2S, ABA and WRKY transcription factors in regulating seedling root growth and stomatal movement. The expression level of LCD and the content of endogenous H2S in WT were increased by ABA treatment. The expression level of WRKY40 was decreased and WRKY60 was increased in WT by exogenous H2S treatment. The expression level of WRKY18 and WRKY40 were increased, and WRKY60 was decreased in the lcd mutant. Compared with WT, the effect of ABA on seedling root growth and stomatal movement in lcd was weaker, the promoting effect of H2S on root growth was more stronger in wrky18wrky40wrky60, but there were no obvious difference between WT and wrky18wrky40wrky60 on H2S promoting the stomatal closure.
    AtJ3 is Involved in ABA Response through Interaction with the PKS5 Kinase in Arabidopsis
    ZHAO Fei-Yi;JIAO Cheng-Jin;CHEN Quan;JIA Zhen;WANG Tai-Shu;ZHOU Hui
    2016, 36(1):  105-115.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.015
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    The phytohormone abscisic acid(ABA) has a wide range of important roles in plant growth and development as well as abiotic stress response. Previous studies identified the enormous components involved in ABA responses in plants. We identified a chaperon AtJ3(Arabidopsis thaliana DnaJ homolog 3; heat shock protein 40-like) using yeast two-hybrid assays in which PKS5 was used as bait. The AtJ3 T-DNA mutants atj3-1 and atj3-2 displayed ABA phenotypes. Seed germinations of atj3-1 and atj3-2 decreased, and the seedlings of them showed stunted growth and leaf chlorotic symptoms under ABA. Double mutants of atj3-1pks5-1, atj3-1pks5-3 and atj3-1pks5-4 had similar ABA phenotypes as mutants of AtJ3 or PKS5. Moreover, the assays of subcellular location and transgenic plants showed that AtJ3 has overlapping expression pattern with PKS5. By co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro phosphorylation, AtJ3 physically interacts with PKS5 and represses the PKS5 kinase activity. Therefore, AtJ3 interacts with PKS5 in response to ABA by repressing the PKS5 kinase activity.
    Distribution and Molecular Marker of SSR in EST Resource of Casuarinaceae
    HU Pan1;ZHONG Chong-Lu1;ZHANG Yong1;JIANG Qing-Bin1;CHEN Yu1;CHEN Zhen1;HAN Qiang1;Khongsak Pinyopusarerk2;Didier Bogusz3
    2016, 36(1):  116-122.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.016
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    There are 34 752 ESTs of Casuarinaceae in the database of NCBI, resulting in 12 062 non-redundant sequences(Unigene) with total length of 7 278.578 kb. 367 SSR were discovered to distribution on 353 Unigenes, the frequency and repeat motif types number of these EST-SSRs was 2.93% and 39, and the mean distance was 19.83 kb. Dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats were the dominant types among the EST-SSRs, accounting for 57.77% and 34.06%, respectively. AG/CT(93.87%) and AAG/CTT(44.09%) were the most abundant motifs for dinucleotide and trinucleotide. There were 97 pairs of primers designed for the obtained EST-SSR, and 32 of all could be effectively amplified. By Blast analysis, 77.3% ESTs sequences containing SSR locus were homologous with functional sequences in non-redundant protein sequences databases. The homology with functions from Vitis vinifera had the greatest proportion(10.4%). By GO functional classification, 47.3% EST sequences containing SSR locus had at least one GO ontology, the sequences relevant to cellular components were most, and the functional items relevant to cytoplasm and nucleus were highest.
    Culture System on Loose, Homogeneous, Embryogenic Callus of Populus×canadensis Moench ‘Tower’
    LIU Yan-Jun1;ZHANG Chao2;YANG Jing-Hui1*;LI Bing2;LIU Ting1;QIN Yang-Jun1
    2016, 36(1):  123-128.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.017
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    To get loose, homogeneous, embryonic callus(LHEC) from Populus×canadensis Moench ‘Tower’, an efficient system was set up from the loose callus induction(LC) to successive transfer culture and embryonic callus induction with leaves of seedlings in tube and different kinds and concentration of hormones(BA,KT,2,4-D), sucrose and inorganic salt. The loose, homogeneous callus(LC) was induced completely(induction rate of 100%) with leaves and on the culture medium of low sugar and low inorganic salt(1/4MS+2 mg·L-1 2,4-D+1 mg·L-1 BA+10 g·L-1 sugar). The globule embryonic callus(formerly embryoid) was induced after LC was transferred for 2-3 times on successive culture medium(MS+2.0 mg·L-1 2,4-D+2.0 mg·L-1 BA+Vc 100 mg·L-1+30 g·L-1), then transferred onto the medium of LHEC(MS+0.5 mg·L-1 2,4-D+3 mg·L-1 BA+Vc 100 mg·L-1+40 g·L-1 sucrose), and cultivated for 4-5 weeks(one time transfer every seven days). The cells of LC was kept in the characteristics of loose without roots, browning and with fast growth under the appropriate concentration of 2,4-D and BA. LC grew better and LHEC was produced more in medium containing 30 g·L-1 sucrose. Vitamin C suppressed browning of LC in subculture. BA was conducive to the formation of LC, but KT was beneficial to the formation of compact callus, while the callus growth was faster by treatment of BA than by KT. When the concentration of 2,4-D was 0.5-1 mg·L-1, the number of LHEC was increased with the increase of BA concentration. The number of LHEC reached to the maximum of 100%, when BA was 3 mg·L-1. The main factors were discussed in callus embryogenic.
    Reactive Oxygen Metabolism of the TheIF1A Transgenic Tobacco under Methyl Viologen Stress
    ZHAO Yu-Lin1;YANG Gui-Yan1,2;YU Li-Li1;GUO Yu-Cong1;ZHAO Zhen1;GAO Cai-Qiu1*
    2016, 36(1):  129-133.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.018
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    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF1 involved abiotic stress regulation in plant. Previous studies showed that overexpressed TheIF1A gene from Tamarix hispida improved drought and salt resistance of genetically modified plants. We further studied the function of TheIF1A response to methyl viologen(MV). The results of histochemical stainning showed that ROS were less accumulated in leaves, guard cells and root tips of the TheIF1A transgenic lines than WT tobacco under MV stress. The H2O2 content in transgenic lines were also less than WT under MV stress. Accordingly, the CAT and POD activity in transgenic lines were obviously higher than WT under MV stress. Therefore, TheIF1A could improve plant oxidative stress resistance by regulating the protecting enzymes activity to increase the ROS scavenging ability.
    Clone and Characterization of A Glutathione-s-transferase Gene in Muscari armeniacum
    YANG Hui-Ping;LIU Ya-Li*;LOU Qian;LIU Ni-Ni
    2016, 36(1):  134-140.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.019
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    Based on the latex the transcriptome database, the full length cDNA of glutathione-S-transferase(GST) from Muscari armeniacum was cloned by reverse-PCR and PCR, designated as MaGST. The full length cDNA of MaGST was 711 bp, and the ORF(Open Reading Frame) length was 666 bp, encoding a protein polypeptide of 221 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 54.1 kD and pI of 5.13. By phylogenetic tree analysis, the putative MaGST protein displayed identities to the GSTs of Allium cepa and Triticum aestivum of 76.72% and 62.50%, respectively, and contained the Tau GST-specific N-terminal domain(G site) and the C-terminal domain(H site), belonging to the family of GST Tau. By realtime PCR, the expression pattern of MaGST in different organs were similar, belonging to constitutive expression. The expression of MaGST was regulated by salicylic acid, but not by the NaCl.
    Optimization of Microwave-assisted Extraction of Syringin and Oleuropein from Syringa reticulata
    WANG Hua1,2;ZHOU Li-Ping1,2;LI Meng-Sha1;ZHU Liang-Yu1,2;MU Li-Qiang2;NI Hong-Wei1*
    2016, 36(1):  141-145.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.020
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    We used microwave-assisted extraction to extract syringin and oleuropein from Syringa reticulate, and optimized the extraction process by the Box-Behnken response surface method. The order of the effect of factors on the yield of syringin and oleuropein was the concentration of ethanol>the microwave time>microwave power. The optimum conditions for the extraction were as follows: soaking time of 1 h, ethanol concentration of 45%, ratio of solid to liquid of 1∶20 g·mL-1, microwave output power of 600 W, and extraction time of 5 min. With the optimum extraction conditions, the yield of syringin and oleuropein from Syringa reticulate was 5.28%±0.102%. The microwave-assisted extraction was efficient and rapid for extraction syringin and oleuropein from Syringa reticulate, and was benefit for the comprehensive utilization of Syringa reticulate.
    Economic Dynamics Performance Evaluation of Lignin Diesel
    LI Wen-Gang;SUN Xiao-Li;GE Yun-Long;ZHAO Xiu-Hua;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2016, 36(1):  146-150.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.021
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    We studied the economic dynamics performance of the lignin diesel conforming to the national standard<GB 252-2000 light diesel oil>. From the engine full load speed characteristics contrast experiment, the measured power and torque of lignin diesel and No.0 diesel oil were equivalent, in accordance with the amount of pure diesel in lignin diesel, and the oil-saving rate of lignin diesel was 10%-15% less than that of No.0 diesel fuel on average. From the engine load characteristics contrast experiment, under the same torque and in accordance with the amount of pure diesel in lignin diesel, oil-saving rate of lignin diesel was 10%-15% less than that of No.0 diesel fuel on average. By the engine free acceleration condition emissions test, there was no statistical differences about exhaust emission by lignin diesel and No.0 diesel.
    Hydroxymethylation of Lignin from Ethanol Pulping
    LU Qi1,2;MENG Yong-Bin1,2;XU Lei1,2;ZHANG Zi-Dong1,2;LIU Ying1,2;MENG Qing-Huan1,2;ZU Yuan-Gang1,2*
    2016, 36(1):  151-155.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.022
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    We extracted the lignin by ethanol method, with the residues of Acanthopanax root and stem as raw materials. By single factor and orthogonal experiments, the optimum of ethanol lignin hydroxymethylation alkali dose of 2.0%, reaction temperature of 80℃, reaction time of 3.5 h, and mass ratio of kraft lignin to formaldehyde of 3∶1. The modified lignin reached 11.56% hydroxymethyl groups and 0.257% free formaldehyde.
    Ethanol Production Technology by Fermentation form Fiber Residues
    MENG Yong-Bin1,2;XU Lei1,2;ZHANG Zhi-Dong1,2;LU Qi1,2;LIU Ying1,2;NIE Si-Ming1,2;ZU Yuan-Gang1,2*
    2016, 36(1):  156-160.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.01.023
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    We studied the effects of various factors on the yield of ethanol from enzymatic hydrolysate of Tara fiber residues by the single factor experiment, and then optimized ethanol production technology by orthogonal experiments. The optimum conditions were the ratio of sodium alginate-yeast of 1∶2 g·g-1, substrate sugar concentration of 30%, the amount of yeast of 1.5 g, and fermentation time of 120 h, with the yield of ethanol of 83.68%.