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    15 September 2018, Volume 38 Issue 5
    Thalictrum nepalense,a New Species of Ranunculaceae from Nepal
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2018, 38(5):  641-643.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.001
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    A species of the genus Thalictrum(Ranunculaceae), T.nepalense, is described as new from eastern Nepal. It is closely related to T.saniculiforme DC., differing from the latter in its taller 3-leaved and 3-branched stem, compound monochasia with only ultimate branches divaricate, albove clavate and below filiform stamen filaments, and anthers not apiculate at apex.
    Phylogeography of Saxifraga egregia in Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains
    JIA Liu-Kun, JIAO Xiu-Jie, LIU Hai-Rui, LI Yan, GENGJI Zhuo-Ma, WANG Zhi-Hua, GAO Qing-Bo
    2018, 38(5):  644-652.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.002
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    The experiment was conducted to studygenetic structure and phylogeographic history of Saxifraga egregia, by using two chloroplast DNA sequences, rpl20-rps12 and trnL-trnF, and a sampling strategy of 151 individuals from 13 populations in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains. Nineteen haplotypes(H1-H19) were detected based on the concatenated sequences of rpl20-rps12 and trnL-trnF. Haplotype H2 was wide-spread across the distribution range of S.egregia, while 63% were private haplotypes. Genetic structure analysis detected a high level of total gene diversity(Ht=0.868), however, average within-population diversity was relatively low(Hs=0.466).By analysis of molecular variance, 57.37% of the total variation was described as within-population variation, while among-population variation was represented as 42.63%. An estimation of non-significantly larger Nst(0.463) than Gst(0.438,P>0.05) value suggested an absence of phylogeographic structure across the whole distribution range of S.egregia. Recent range expansion or demographic expansion at the level of total gene pool of S.egregia were rejected according to neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analysis. Genetic signal of a stochastic distribution of private haplotypes, as well as populations with high gene diversity and nucleotide diversity, suggesting the existence of multi-microrefugia of S.egregia during Quaternary glaciations. Repeated expansion and contraction of distribution range of S.egregia during Quaternary glaciations could have finally fragmented its distribution range into isolated "alpine islands", and have facilitated allopatric divergence, resulting in the formation of high proportion of private haplotypes across the distribution range of S.egregia. It has been reported that some trees and shrubs inhabited by S.egregia showed multi microrefugiain the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during Quaternary glaciations, which may have provided suitable micro-environment for the in situ survival of S.egregia during glacials.
    Effects of Ammonium Nitrogen on Physiological and Ecological Characteristics of Kandelia obovata under Cadmium Stress
    LI Rong-Yu, QIU Guo-Yu, SHEN Xiao-Xue, CHAI Min-Wei
    2018, 38(5):  653-660.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.003
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    The heavy metal pollution and excess input of nutrient elements become two important environmental problems in mangrove forest. The ecological risk of cadmium(Cd) is relatively high, and ammonium nitrogen(NH4+-N) is the main speciation of nitrogen in sediment of mangrove. In order to clarify the growth and physiological characteristics of Kandelia obovata under combined stresses of Cd and NH4+-N, pot experiments were conducted. Plant growth, leaf photosynthetic parameters(photosynthetic rate(Pn), stomatal conductance(Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci) and transpiration rate(E)), leaf malondialdehyde(MDA), leaf soluble sugar, and root activity were determined. The results showed that:(1)Plant growth and leaf transpiration rate(E) of K.obovata decreased under single Cd stress, with root activity to be reduced under higher single Cd stress; (2)Under Cd stress, low concentration of NH4+-N significantly improved growth of root, but did not significantly improved growth of aboveground part, and leaf photosynthesis(Pn, Gs and E); while high concentration of NH4+-N significantly reduced plant growth, and leaf photosynthesis(Pn, Gs and E); (3)Under Cd1 treatment, root activity first increased and then decreased with increasing NH4+-N concentration; while reduced root activity were shown under Cd2 and Cd3 treatments with NH4+-N supply; (4)Under Cd stress, low concentration of NH4+-N did not significantly reduce content of malondialdehyde(indicative of oxidative damage) and soluble sugar(indicating osmotic adjustment), while high concentration of NH4+-N significantly reduced the content of MDA and soluble sugar. Therefore, the lower concentration of NH4+-N can alleviate the Cd toxicity to root, with limited emission on aboveground part; while high concentration of NH4+-N and Cd combined stress would have a synergistic effect to aggravate Cd toxicity to K.obovata.
    Effects of Light Intensity on the Fruit Coloration and Anthocyanian Biosynthesis in Fragaria×ananassa Duch. ‘Benihoppe’ and the Possible Molecular Mechanism
    SHAO Wan-Lu, LI Yue-Ling, GAO Song, LI Jun-Min, LIANG Zong-Suo
    2018, 38(5):  661-668.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.004
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    In order to investigate the effect of different light intensities on the fruit coloration, the content of anthocyanin, and the relative xpression of anthocyanin biosynthesis related genes in Fragaria×ananassa Duch. ‘Benihoppe’, we determined the content of anthocyanin using HPLC and analyzed the relative expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis related genes using quantitative real-time PCR under the light transmittance of 100%, 75% and 25%. The results showed that the content of strawberry under light transmittance 75% and 25% decreased 41.58% and 92.54%, respectively, compared with the control. The relative expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis related genes and transcription factors, FaMYB10 and FaMYB1, were also decreased. The expression of FaDFR, FaF3'H and FaUFGT were significantly correlated with the anthocyanin content. These results indicated that light was the key environmental factor affecting fruit coloring, and shading could inhibited the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis related genes and transcription factors, blocked the anthocyanin synthesis in fruits, which finally contributed to the fruits coloring differences.
    Effects of Exogenous NO on Seed Germination and Physiological Metabolism in Catharanthus roseus Seedling under NaCl Stress
    ZHAO Xiao-Ju, ZHANG Li-Xia, MAN Xiu-Ling
    2018, 38(5):  669-674.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.005
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    Under 50 mmol·L-1 NaCl stress condition, we studied the relaxation effects of sodium nitroprusside(SNP, an exogenous nitric oxide donor) at the contents of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mmol·L-1 on germination and physiological metabolism in Catharanthus roseus seedlings. The results showed that NaCl stress inhibited the germination of C.roseus and SNP could alleviate its stress effect. At the 0.1 mmol·L-1 of SNP the seed germination, germination and vitality index, and contents of proline in leaves were increased significantly, while malondialdehyde(MDA) content in leaves were decreased dramatically. Nitrate reductase(NR) activities in 0.1-0.5 mmol·L-1 SNP groups reached to higher levels compared to that of control group. However, more than 0.5 mmol·L-1 SNP enhanced the stress effect of NaCl. Therefore, the 0.1 mmol·L-1 was the most appropriate content for SNP to alleviate NaCl stress. In conclusion, appropriate contents of exogenous NO could alleviate NaCl stress on C.roseus seeds and seedlings effectively.
    Influence of Rare Earth Elements on Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Didymodon tectorum
    GAO Ye-Qing, REN Dong-Mei
    2018, 38(5):  675-681.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.006
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    Based on the successful application of tissue cultured seedlings of Didymodon tectorum, three physiological indexes, including POD vitality, MDA and chlorophyll content were determined to check out the influences of the rare earth elements stress under gradient concentrations treatment. We choosed the light rare earth La3+, Ce4+ and heavy rare earth Y3+ three elements and setted respectively six concentrations under the single elemnet stress, in order to explore the physiological response and changes of D.tectorum to the rare earth stress. The results were the following:(1)The peroxidase(POD) activity and malondialdehyde(MDA) content in D.tectorum were lower in each treatment group than those in the control group; Ce4+ element significantly promoted the POD activity at 3.55×10-2 mmol·L-1, at 7.1×10-2 mmol·L-1, the content of MDA increased. It showed that the D.tectorum had a stronger response to Ce4+ stress, while La3+ showed a more gradual change in POD activity, and the stress response was weaker; Y3+ treatment was intermediate; (2)At lower concentrations of La3+(1.8×10-2 mmol·L-1) and Ce4+(3.55×10-2 mmol·L-1) the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll increased significantly, but at higher concentrations of all three rare earth elements, the contents of chlorophyll decreased obviousily. This study laid the foundation for further exploration of the effects of rare earth elements on the growth and the development of bryophytes in the Baiyun obo rare earth mineral area.
    Comparative Analysis of Cold Resistance Ability of Larix olgensis Clones
    ZHENG Mi, ZHAO Guo-Hui, SUN Xiao-Yang, ZHANG Qin-Hui, ZHAO Xin, DONG Li-Hu, LI Feng-Ri, ZHAO Xi-Yang
    2018, 38(5):  682-687.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.007
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    One-year-old twigs of 58 Larix olgensis clones were taken as materials and low temperature stress experiment were conducted to discuss the cold resistance ability of different L.olgensis clones. Different relative conductivity were found in four L.olgensis clones under different time and temperature treatment, the trance were increased with the temperature decreased and stress time extend. With the same stress(-40℃, 12 h) condition, the relative conductivity showed significant different among 58 L.olgensis clones(P<0.01). With the difference of relative conductivity between treatment(-40℃, 12 h) and control as analysis trait, 9 strong cold resistance clones were selected(L5, L16, L21, L23, L27, L40, L73, L78 and L90) by hierarchical clustering. These clones could be considered as excellent cold resistance clones and the research can supply basis for improved variety breeding of cold stress in L.olgensis.
    Effects of Different Cultivation Strategies on Endogenous Hormones Accumulation of Dalbergia odorifera
    WANG Yue-Lin, XU Da-Ping, YANG Zeng-Jiang, LIU Xiao-Jin, HONG Zhou, ZHANG Ning-Nan
    2018, 38(5):  688-696.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.008
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    In order to study the effects of major cultivation strategies on the endogenous hormones of Dalbergia odorifera, the characteristics of leaf hormone accumulation of each treatment were analyzed by laying field tests. The contents of IAA, GA3, ZR and ABA in high-pruning treatment were the highest among three treatments of the pruning experiment. The contents of IAA(73.195 ng·g-1) and ZR(9.472 ng·g-1) in de-crown transplantation treatment were the highest and ABA content(52.001 ng·g-1) was the lowest among five treatments of the tree transplantation experiment, and GA3 content(8.418 ng·g-1) in root-pruning treatment was the highest among five treatments of the tree transplantation experiment. IAA, ZR and GA3 contents in K1 treatment were the highest among three treatments in K fertilizer application experiment. The maximum content of ABA was 71.082 ng·g-1 in CK treatment of K application experiment. In the ethylene application experiment, IAA and GA3 contents in CK treatment were highest among four treatments which were 47.762 and 4.967 ng·g-1. ABA content in E2.5% treatment was 96.94 ng·g-1. The ZR content of E0.1% was 9.378 ng·g-1, highest among the four treatments. The effect of pruning on GA3/ABA and ZR/GA3 was significant, and the low values were decreased by 29.7% and 19.0% compared with the high values, respectively. The effects of transplantation on IAA/ABA, GA3/ABA were also significant, and the low values were decreased by 52.47% and 51.47% compared with the high values, respectively. The effects of ethylene and K application fertilizer on IAA/ABA and GA3/ABA were significant. The low values of IAA/ABA and GA3/ABA were reduced by 55.4% and 55.4% compared with the high value, respectively in the ethylene application experiment. In the K fertilizer application test, the low values were 48.8% and 37.1% lower than the high values, respectively.
    Effect of Different LEDs Light Qualities on Vaccinium bracteatum Stem Multiplication and Rooting
    ZHOU Peng, ZHANG Min, WU Shuang-Zhu, HUANG Jing
    2018, 38(5):  697-703.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.009
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    We discussed the effect of light-emitting diodes(LEDs) light qualities on the multiplication and rooting of Vaccinium bracteatum. The application of light quality control will offer scientific references to improve the efficiency and quality of V.bracteatum tissue culture. The light quality change was controlled by the LEDs, and the fluorescent was set as control. Different rations of red and blue lights set were listed below:100% red, 70% red+30% blue, 50% red+50% blue, 30% red+70% blue and 100% blue. The study released that the red light was benefit for new shoot multiplication and leaf area increase, and limited for chlorophyll synthesis significantly; and blue light was benefit for adventitious roots form and limited for shoot formation. The complex of red and blue lights was best for stem growth, biomass accumulation, and root development in V.bracteatum tissue culture. In addition, with the light quality of 70% red+30% blue, the shoot induction rate, number of shoots, number of leaves, fresh and dry weights of the shoots with buds reached the maximum values. During the rooting stage, the light quality of 50% red+50% blue was best for rooting rate, root number and root length in culture tissues. The ratio of chlorophyll a/b got the highest value at pure blue light condition, and the number is 1.46 times than that at red light condition. The complex lights could increase carotenoid concentrations in V.bracteatum tissues. Therefore, LEDs could improve V.bracteatum shoot multiplication and rooting, and LEDs could be an optimization than the fluorescent.
    Multiple Roles of Berberine Bridge Enzyme Gene HbBBE1 in Response to Stress in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.
    WANG Meng, ZHNG Dong, LU Yan-Xi, XIAO Hua-Xing, ZHENG Fu-Cong, ZHANG Yu
    2018, 38(5):  704-713.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.010
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    Berberine bridge enzyme(BBE,EC1.5.3.9) is a key enzyme in berberine biosynthesis. In this study, HbBBE1 gene was cloned in rubber tree by RT-PCR. The HbBBE1 promoter contained light, gibberellin, salicylic acid, wounding, fungal elicitor, defense, and stress responsive elements. The predicted protein of HbBBE1 contains a signal peptide, a trans membrane region, an FAD binding domain, and a BBE domain which is found specifically in the berberine bridge enzymes and berberine bridge-like enzymes. It shared the highest similarity with BBE protein from Manihot esculenta with 80.1% identical residues. Comparing expression among different tissues of rubber tree demonstrated that HbBBE1 has a particularly high expression level in the latex. HbBBE1 expression was significantly upregulated by biotic and abiotic stress, i.e. powdery mildew infection, drought stress, high intensity light irradiation, H2O2, and both tapping treatment in virgin trees and mechanical wounding in seedlings. Furthermore, HbBBE1 transcript was remarkably induced by application of exogenous hormones, including gibberellic acid(GA3), salicylic acid(SA), ethephon(ET), methyl jasmonate(MeJA), and abscisic acid(ABA). Among these treatments, HbBBE1 transcript was quickly induced by GA3 stimulation, and reached a maximum(6.3-fold) at 0.5 h. The increased expression of HbBBE1 was highly induced by ABA, ET, and H2O2 stimuli, and it accumulated dozens of times comparing that at the untreated control.To summarize, our study suggested that HbBBE1 played multiple roles in response to biotic and abiotic stress in rubber tree.
    Bioinformatics of S6K Genes in Fraxinus mandshurica and Their Expression Analysis under Stress and Hormone
    SUN Hong, ZHAO Xing-Tang, LIU Zhang, YANG Kai, WANG Ying, ZHAN Ya-Guang
    2018, 38(5):  714-724.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.011
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    The nucleotide sequences of FmS6K(FmS6K1 and FmS6K2) gene and the basic information of protein encoded by FmS6K gene were analyzed, and the characteristic of gene expression under abiotic stresses and plant hormones were studied. The length of FmS6K1 and FmS6K2 genes were 1 583 and 1 796 bp, encoding 480 and 483 amino acids, respectively, both of which contained a complete open reading frame. FmS6K1 is an unstable amphipathic protein, meanwhile FmS6K2 is a labile hydrophilic protein, neither of which has a signal peptide. The expression levels of FmS6K1 and FmS6K2 genes were affected by both low temperature(4℃) and salt(NaCl) stress. Compared to low temperature, FmS6K1 and FmS6K2 genes in roots, stems and leaves were more sensitive to salt stress. In FmS6K1 and FmS6K2 genes, the later was more sensitive to low temperature and salt stress. Exogenous ABA, GA and IAA could affect the expression of FmS6K1 and FmS6K2 genes. The expression level of FmS6K1 gene in roots, stems and leaves was higher in IAA treatment comparing to ABA and GA treatment. The response of FmS6K2 to exogenous GA and ABA was more obvious in root, while that to exogenous IAA and ABA was more significant in stem and leaf. The above results indicated that the FmS6K gene played an important role in regulating plant growth and development and adapting to adversity stresses.
    Genetic Diversity of Gymnocarpos przewalskii Based on SCoT Markers
    DI Lin-Nan, LI Xin-Rong, SONG Nan
    2018, 38(5):  725-732.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.012
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    The experiment was conducted to study the genetic diversity and genetic structure of Gymnocarpos przewalskii with 201 individuals sampled from 7 G.przewalskii populations in Xinjiang by using tart codon targeted(SCoT) markers. The 12 random primers were amplified to 145 loci. The percentage of polymorphic bands, Nei's genetic diversity index and Shannon's information index of species and population leve were 97.24% and 76.45%, 0.2638 and 0.2137, 0.4081 and 0.3316, respectively. These results indicated that the genetic diversity of G.przewalskii was higher, and the genetic diversity of the species level was slightly higher than the population level. The genetic differentiation coefficient was 0.1839, indicating that the genetic variation of G.przewalskii mainly existed in populations, differentiation among populations exists partly. The results of Mantel test showed that there were no significant correlation between geographical distance and genetic distance. The results of principal coordinate analysis(PCoA) and genetic structure analysis were some differences, but basically consistent with each other. Therefore, the present status of genetic diversity and genetic structure of G.przewalskii might be related to its evolutionary history, breeding system, geographical isolation and human disturbance.
    Cloning,Construction of Expression Vector and Expression Analysis of the Ethylene-responsive Factor ERF Gene NtTOE3 in Nicotiana tabacum
    ZHUO Wei, CHEN Qian, LUO Yin, YANG Shang-Yu, LU Li-Ming, LI Li-Qin
    2018, 38(5):  733-740.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.013
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    ERF(Ethylene-responsive factor) is a class of ethylene-responsive transcription factor with AP2 signature domain, which plays a pivotal role in response to stress response in plants.To identify the biological functions and regulation mechanism of ERF familymember TOE3 in tobacco k326, one NtTOE3 gene swerecloned from Nicotiana tabacum with homologous cloning strategy, gene expression patterns were analyzed byreal-time quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR), and their functions and regulation mechanisms were predicted bybioinformatic analysis.Theresultsshowed that NtTOE3 contained 1 356 bp and encoded 451 amino acid. The predicted molecular weight was 49.84 ku. By bioinformatics analysis,NtTOE3 was a hydrophilic protein which might be localized in the nucleus,andthe protein had 96% homology with N.sylvestris NsTOE3, thusit was namedas NtTOE3. From expression patterns, the gene was expressed in roots, stems, leaves and flowers in mature stage, which had the highest expression in stems. Expression patterns under abiotic stress indicated the gene responded rapidly to the adverse conditions of low potassium, high salt, drought, H2O2, ABA and 4℃. Therefore, the NtTOE3 transcription factor plays an important regulatory role in tobacco abiotic stress.
    Cas9/gRNA-mediated Targeted PtrFLA31/34 Gene Mutation in Populus
    WEI Zhen, CHENG Yu-Xiang, XIA De-An
    2018, 38(5):  741-747.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.014
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    Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins(FLAs) play important roles in growth and development of plants. Based on bioinformatic analysis, we identified 46 FLAs in Populus trichocarpa. By phylogenetic analysis, Populus FLA family was classified into four Sub-groups(A-D) and PtrFLA31 and PtrFLA34 were in same small branch of the tree. By semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, PtrFLA31 and PtrFLA34 were specifically expressed in xylem on the high transcriptional level. In order to study their functions in wood formation, we knocked out PtrFLA31/34 double genes via Cas9/gRNA, and obtained three fla31/34 double mutants.
    Principal Component and Subordinate Function of the Alleviating Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide(H2O2) on Low-temperature Stress in Naked Oat(Avena nuda) Seedlings
    LIU Jian-Xin, OU Xiao-Bin, LIU Xiu-Li, WANG Jin-Cheng
    2018, 38(5):  748-756.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.015
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    In order to explore whether H2O2 could improve the chilling tolerance in naked oat seedlings, three-leaf period ‘Dingyou No.6’ seedlings of sand culture were sprayed with 10 μmol·L-1 H2O2 for 12 h before 8℃/5℃(day/night) low temperature stress, spraying distilled water as the control, and 13 physiological indexes related to cold resistance including superoxide anion(O2), H2O2, malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), peroxidase(POD), ascorbic acid peroxidase(APX), ascorbic acid(AsA), glutathione(GSH), soluble sugar(SS), proline(Pro), soluble protein(SP) and heat stable protein(HSP) in the seedling leaves under low temperature stress for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 d as well as the plant height and biomass increments of the seedlings processed for 5 d were determined, respectively. By principal component and subordinate function analyses, the effect of H2O2 on the cold resistance was evaluated in naked oat seedlings. Compared with the control, H2O2 treatment could significantly enhance the plant height increment and biomass increment of naked oat seedlings under low temperature stress, decrease O2 and MDA contents in leaves during low temperature stress and H2O2 content of low temperature stress for 2-5 d, and increase the activities of SOD, CAT, POD, APX and contents of AsA, GSH, SS, Pro, SP and HSP of naked oat seedling leaves. From 13 physiological indexes converted data matrix and principal component analysis, the cumulative variance contribution of four principal factors extracted was 85.6%. By subordinate function analysis, spraying H2O2 significantly improved the comprehensive evaluation value of the naked oat seedling leaves under low temperature stress for 0-5 d. Therefore, spraying H2O2 can improve the cold resistance of naked oat seedlings by regulating the physiological and biochemical metabolism.
    Structure and Variation Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes in Fagacea
    ZHANG Yan-Tong, HUANG Jian, SONG Ju, LIN Li-Mei, FENG Ruo-Xuan, XING Zhao-Bin
    2018, 38(5):  757-765.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.016
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    We compared the differences in chloroplast genomes between 14 species of 6 genera in Fagaceae using bioinformatics methods, and constructed a phylogenetic tree based on the taxonomic group Corylus heterophylla to reveal the structural characteristics and variation patterns of chloroplast genomes in Fagaceae.The chloroplast genomes of 14 Fagaceae plants were double-stranded circular structure with a size of about 160 kB with a small difference, with a maximum difference of only 1 366 bp. The order of the genes was basically the same, but the number of genes was different. infA, petG, rpl22, ycf1, ycf15 and many other genes were lost in some species. There are mainly 32 protein gene length variation, the reason is the loss of introns, introns or length of coding region change, Castanopsis concinna gene length was quite variable. The 4 IR borders were relatively conservative. However, part of the rps19 gene sequence was inserted into the IR region due to the boundary expansion in 3 species of Castanea henryi, Castanea pumila and C.concinna. The phylogenetic tree constructed with C.heterophyllaas a taxon has higher support rate and better resolution.The chloroplast genome can be used to analyze the phylogenetic problems of the closely related and rapidly evolving species, and would provide the basis for phylogenetic and evolutional studies.
    Long-term Decline of Carbon Sink and Its Underlying Mechanisms in Tropical Montane Rainforest of Jianfengling,Hainnan Island
    LI Xiang, ZHOU Zhang, MA Su-Hui, XU Han, LI Yi-De, CHEN De-Xiang
    2018, 38(5):  766-774.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.017
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    Tropical forest plays a key role in the estimation of global C balance and C budget by being considered as one of the most important terrestrial ecosystem.We utilized replicated and intensive ecological measurements of forest plots from 1984 to 2013 in Jianfengling, Hainan Island to quantify the long-term carbon dynamics of tropical forests over decades, and to unravel the drivers behind these changes. Our results showed that carbon sequestration in Jianfengling tropical montane rainforest is similar to other tropical regions of the world with a net sink of 0.71±0.22 mg·C·hm-2·a-1 over the three decades. However, carbon sequestration ability in Jianfengling showed a decreasing trend, this may mainly due to high biomass mortality resulting from drought and typhoon. Although a consistent result of decreasing in carbon sequestration has been found, while high fluctuation and great variation were happened among plots, which may have a great implication that the effects of extreme events on carbon sequestration in tropical forests were possibly constrained by the condition of microsite and structure of forest itself. Therefore, more studies on carbon sequestration are required in tropics in order to reduce the uncertainties in the estimation of global carbon cycle and carbon budget.
    Genetic Variance Analysis and Excellent Fruit-timber Families Selection of Half-sib Pinus koraiensis
    JIANG Guo-Yun, JIANG Lu-Ping, SONG Shuang-Lin, WANG Jing-Yuan, WANG Qi, WANG Lian-Fu, ZHANG Peng, ZHAO Xi-Yang
    2018, 38(5):  775-784.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.018
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    With 48 Pinus koraiensis half-sib families in Naozhi Forest Farm of Linjiang Forestry Bureau, we studied the growth traits of different families in different three years. By variance analysis, all traits were significantly different(P<0.01) among different families. The coefficients of phenotypic variation of different traits varied from 2.74%-51.39%, and the heritability of different trait was higher than 0.97. The general combining ability of tree height, diameter at breast height and cone number were ranged from -1.82 to 1.70, -7.91 to 9.99 and -14.85 to 15.15, respectively. There were significant positive correlations among tree height(0.993-0.999), and diameter at breast height(0.995-0.998) in different year. Growth traits and fruit traits were taken as index to evaluate families by the method of comprehensive evaluation of multiple traits under selected rate of 10%, five families were selected as elite families based on growth, the average tree height, diameter at the breast height were 8.02 m and 21.95 cm, and the genetic gain were 7.63% and 46.29%, respectively. Based on the fruit traits, under selected rate of 10%, five families were selected as elite families, the average coin number and thousand seed weight of elite families were 30.26 and 736.20 g, and the genetic gain were 86.49% and 1.46%, respectively. The elite families could supply materials for pedigree registration and the selected method cloud also provide theoretical basis for other fruit-timber tree species breeding.
    Effects of 3-methyl-1-butanol on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Maize and Wheat
    LI Chun-Ying, ZHANG Jing-Jing, ZHAO Chun-Jian, JIANG Hong-Wei, REN Xue-Ting, SU Wei-Ran, GUAN Jia-Jing, LI Yu-Zheng
    2018, 38(5):  785-789.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.019
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    Plant rhizosphere growth-promoting bacteria can promote plant growth, and the volatile components produced by the flora play an important role. 3-methyl-1-butanol, i.e. isoamyl alcohol, is a common volatile organic component of microorganisms. However, the effect of 3-methyl-1-butanol on seeds germination and the growth of higher plants is still unknown. In this paper, the effects of three concentrations(1, 10 and 100 mg·L-1) of 3-methyl-1-butanol on the germination of wheat and maize seeds were studied. Two contents of 1 and 10 mg·L-1 of 3-methyl-1-butanol increased the vigor index of maize and wheat seeds; under low contents of 3-methyl-1-butanol treatment, the content of soluble sugar and soluble protein in maize and wheat seeds decreased, while the SOD activity and chlorophyll content in germs increased significantly compared with the control group. Therefore, 3-methyl-1-butanol can promote maize and wheat growth at appropriate concentrations.
    Effect of Genetic Lesion of YFT1 on the Fruit Color and Firmness in Tomato
    LI Ling, FENG Xue-Chao, ZHAO Ling-Xia
    2018, 38(5):  790-794.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.020
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    Tomato(Solanum lycopersicum) is the biggest economic crop in the world, the quality was extensively concerned by customers and scientists, and the fruit colors and firmness are important economic traits to determine tomato quality. To dissect the mechanism of fruit color development and firmness formation regulated by YFT1(YELLOW FRUIT TOMATO1), the differences of the fruit colors, firmness and microstructure were comparatively analyzed between mutant of yellow fruit tomato 1(yft1) and wild type(WT, cv.M82). The differences derived from fruit color, firmness and size and shape of pericarps cells were not found between yft1 and cv.M82 on the 35 days post anthesis(dpa). However, fruits turned into orange/pale red(47 dpa) and full red(54 dpa) from green(35 dpa) with fruit development, and fruit gradually turned into softening, and fruit firmness at 54 dpa(13.68±1.78 N) was only equal to one third at 35 dpa(35.51±1.09 N). Meanwhile, the size of pericarp cells was increasing with fruit development from 47 dpa, and from inner to outer. We also found that shape of the inner pericarp cell changed into oval(47 dpa) and irregular shape(54 dpa) from globular shape(35 dpa), moreover observed invagination of cells and disappearance of the space between cells on the 54 dpa. In contrast with cv.M82, no obvious differences were found for fruit color, firmness, size and shape of pericarp cells in mutant yft1 during 35 dpa to 54 dpa. However, the fruit firmness in yft1 tomato was significantly higher than that in cv. M82. The results implied that genetic lesion of YFT1 delayed tomato fruit development, thus influenced both of fruit color development and firmness formation. The present research would provide important evidence at phenotypes level to reveal the molecular mechanisms of formation of fruit color and firmness.
    Study of the Extraction Technology and Antitumor Activity in vitro of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from the Wick of Helianthus annuus L.
    JIANG Shou-Gang, TAN Xiao, WU Lei, WU Bi, YUAN Ying-Jie, ZU Yuan-Gang
    2018, 38(5):  795-800.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.05.021
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    The technology for extraction of polysaccharides from the wick of Helianthus annuus L., was studied to find the optimum conditions. The water extraction and alcohol precipitation method was used to extract the wick of H.annuus L. with the polysaccharide yield as index. The optimum conditions were obtained through single factor test with 5 factors including extraction time, mesh number, solid-liquid ratio, extract time and extract temperature. The content of polysaccharides was determined by phenol sulfuric acid method. In this study, the optimal conditions were obtained. These data were as follows:extraction time was twice, mesh number was 60-80, solid-liquid ratio(g·mL-1) was 1:50, extract time was 3.0 h, and extract temperature was 90℃. The maximum extraction rate(6.56%) was achieved under the optimal extraction conditions. The maximum extraction yields of polysaccharides were up to 266.03 mg·g-1 under the optimal extraction conditions. Polysaccharides exerted proliferation inhibitory activity to three tumor cell lines in a concentration dependent manner. All of these conditions set the foundation for large-sale development and application of the wick of H.annuus L..