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    15 July 2018, Volume 38 Issue 4
    Morphological Features of Leaf Epidermis of Fifteen Aspleniaceae Species
    GAO Xiao-Wen, WANG Meng-Ying, XU Bin, LU Dan-Ni, DAI Xi-Ling
    2018, 38(4):  481-489.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.001
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    We studied the epidermal morphology of 15 species of Aspleniaceae under light microscope. The results indicated that:(1)The shape of the upper and lower epidermal cells of 15 species of Aspleniaceae are irregular, with sinuate, sinuous or repand anticlinal walls. The length to width radio of upper epidermal cells was between 1.3-2.6, and the length and width radio of lower epidermal cells was between 1.3-4.1; (2)In these 15 kinds of plants, 7 types of stomatal apparatus were observed, Axillocytic-type, Aisocytic-type, Anomotetracytic-type, Anomocytic-type, Polocytic-type, Copolocytic-type and Coaxillocytic-type. Each plants has two to 5 types of stomatal apparatus, all the stomatal apparatuses occur in the lower epidermis, and most of them are elliptical. Stomatal length to width ratio was between 1.12-2.81; the stomatal density was 16.4-105.1 unit·mm-2, and the stomatal index was 5.7%-21.1%; (3)The upper epidermal cells' shape, the shape of the anticlinal walls, the ratio of the length to width of the upper epidermal cells, the type of stomatal apparatus, the main types and the derived types have some stabilities in genus, which can be the basis for morphological classification of leaf epidermis of 15 species of Aspleniaceae; (4)To a certain extent, this study supports the division of Aspleniaceae, grouping Asplenium L and classified series of genus by Qin Renchang and Wu Zhaohong. Our study provided the basic data for the evolution and classification of the species of Aspleniaceae.
    Leaf Epidermal Morphology and Taxonomic Significance of 12 Ribes L. Species
    WANG Mei-Juan, ZHAO Qian-Li, LI Xin-Yan, ZHENG Bao-Jiang
    2018, 38(4):  490-496.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.002
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    We observed the leaf epidermis characters in 7 subgenera, 12 species of Ribes L. using scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The epidermis cells were irregular polygon in shape. The patterns of anticlinal wall are straight-blow, sinuolate or sinuate. The cuticular layer of the leaf epidermis is usually smooth or nearly smooth, with few apophysis of mastoids. The trichomes are nonglandular hair and glandular hair. There are peltate glandular hairs in R.nigrum, R.procumbens and R.graveolens with different densities. We supported the treatment of the Ser. Nigra Pojark. as the subg. Coreosma. The stomata type is anomocytic in all observed species, the shape was round or oval. Most species were hypostomatic.
    Phylogeny and Biogeography Studies of Brachypodieae from China Based on nrITS,psbA-trnH and DMC1 Genes
    WU Po-Po, ZHANG Xue-Jie, ZHANG Luo-Yan, FAN Shou-Jin
    2018, 38(4):  497-505.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.003
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    Brachypodieae have two model plants, Brachypodium distachyum and Brachypodium sylvaticum, with important research value. Brachypodieae also have some problems in the systematic position with Bromeae and Triticeae. We used maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to analyze the relationship of three tribes, basing on sequences of DMC1, nrITS, psbA-trnH and DMC1+psbA-trnH+nrITS. The phylogenetic trees respectively basing on sequences of DMC1, nrITS and DMC1+psbA-trnH+nrITS revealed that Brachypodieae, Bromeae and Triticeae fell into three separate clades. The phylogenetic trees basing on sequences of psbA-trnH show that Bromeae and Triticeae formed a one single clade. The results showed that Bromeae and Triticeae have experienced complex evolution. We estimate divergence times with BEAST, and reconstruct ancestral state with RASP. The result showed that Triticeae in china originated in northwest region,Species divergence time focused on 13-7 Ma which is consistent with the change of the cretaceous period in the Tibetan plateau. Brachypodieae in china originated in southwest region, species divergence time focused on 3 Ma which is consistent with the change of the Pliocene period in the Tibetan plateau and the change of East Asian summer monsoon(EASM). Brachypodium pretense differentiation also occurred at this period.
    Growth Characteristics and Endogenous IAA Content of BpCUCt Transgenic Lines in Betula platyphylla
    CHEN Chen, XING Bao-Yue, BIAN Xiu-Yan, XU Si-Jia, LIU Gui-Feng, JIANG Jing
    2018, 38(4):  506-517.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.004
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    To identify the function of BpCUCt in birch, we constructed two vectors that could be expressed in plants, namely ProCUC2::BpCUCt and 35S::BpCUCt. Meanwhile, we regarded zygotic embryo from elite birch trees as transgenic receptor, observed the changed phenotypes of transgenic lines and measured the endogenous IAA content. Compared to the wild type, the BpCUCt transgenic lines were with smaller height, lower growth characters and longer knot distances. However, the leaf margin of ProCUC2::BpCUCt lines were smoother than the wild type, transgenic lines of 35S::BpCUCt did not distinguish from the wild type. In view of the endogenous IAA content from the transgenic lines and wild type, the 83.33% of transgenic lines that was with more endogenous IAA content than wild type in the left leaf, the right leaf and the main vein. In conclusion, to some degree, the function of BpCUCt played similar roles in the function of BpCUC2, meanwhile, this gene was also related to endogenous IAA content in birch trees.
    Sequencing and Alignment Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of Littledalea tibetica,an Endemic Species from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    LIU Yu-Ping, LÜ Ting, ZHU Di, ZHOU Yong-Hui, LIU Tao, SU Xu
    2018, 38(4):  518-525.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.005
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    Littledalea tibetica is an alpine perennial species in the grass tribe Bromeae(Poaceae) that is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and adjacent regions. In the present study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast(cp) genome of L.racemosa on the Illumina MiSeq platform, which was obtained based on the reference cp genome of its related species, Lolium perenne. This study the first complete cp sequence for the Bromeae. The total genome size was 136 852 bp in length with 38.5% GC content. It contains a pair of inverted repeat regions(21 503 bp) separated by a large single copy region(80 970 bp) and a small single copy region(12 876 bp). Within the newly sequenced cp genome, we annotated a total of 141 genes, which included 95 protein-coding genes, 38 tRNAs genes, and 8 rRNAs genes. The most of genes occur within the single copy regions. We used the cp genome of L.tibetica and 30 other chloroplast genomes to perform a phylogenetic analysis, indicating that L.tibetica is closely related species in tribe Triticeae of subfamily Pooideae.
    Relationship Between Phospholipase Dδ and Nitric Oxide Responding to the Seed Germination in Arabidopsis thaliana under Drought Stress
    ZHANG Xu-Qiang, ZHAO Min, CHEN Lu, AN Yan-Huang, YANG Peng-Jun, Wang Xin-Xia, YANG Ning
    2018, 38(4):  526-534.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.006
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    With Arabidopsis wild-type(WT), nitric oxide synthase(NOS) deletion mutant(noa1), nitrate reductase(NR) deletion mutant(nia1 and nia2) and PLDδ deletion mutant(pldδ) of seedlings, we studied the relationship between Arabidopsis thaliana PLDδ and nitric oxide(NO) in response to the seed germination under drought stress. NO content, PLD and NR activity and gene relative expression were significantly increased under drought stress, while pldδ and nia2 are more sensitive than other mutants to drought stress. Sodium nitroprusside(SNP), as an exogenous NO donor, can improve the seed germination of WT, nia2 and pldδ. The exogenous phosphatidic acid(PA) can promote seed germination of WT and pldδ under drought stress except nia2. Besides, in compensation experiment, PA can promote the production of NO in WT and pldδ under drought stress, but not nia2 do. Therefore, it is speculated that PLDδ/PA located at the upstream of NO signal under drought stress, and the NO produced by NR2 is the main way for PLDδ/PA to promote Arabidopsis seed germination under drought stress.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of APETALA2 Gene Promoter from Betula platyphylla
    ZHAO Tong, HU Xiao-Qing, ZHU De-Cai, TIAN Jing, XIN Qi-Qi, LIU Xue-Mei
    2018, 38(4):  535-542.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.007
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    The APETALA2(AP2) transcription factor subfamily is ubiquitous in plants, and involved in the plant growth and development, stress response and signal transduction of various physiological and biochemical reactions. The full-length promoter sequence of AP2 gene was cloned from the genome of Betula platyphylla Suk. By bioinformatics analysis, this sequence has a large number of conserved components such as TATA-box and CAAT box, but also light responsive elements and hormone responsive elements, such as elements that respond to gibberellins, abscisic acid, and methyl jasmonate. The promoter of AP2 gene of B.platyphylla was cloned into pBI121-35S::GUS plant expression vector, named pBI121-proAP2::GUS, Agrobacterium-mediated infection of B.platyphylla and A.thaliana, and by GUS staining analysis, the GUS reporter gene driven by the promoter of AP2 gene is expressed throughout A.thaliana and is expressed in vegetative organs and female flower wings and in flower stalk of B.platyphylla, indicating that it has a priming activity that may participate in the development of this organ.
    Bioinformatic Analysis of Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase(SHMT) Gene in Bletilla striata
    SHEN Fang, LI Lin, PAN Yin-Chi, ZHANG She-Bo, MA Ji, XU De-Lin
    2018, 38(4):  543-550.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.008
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    Serine hydroxymethyl transferase(SHMT) is a key enzyme in the processes of one-carbon metabolism and photosynthesis. Exploring its sequence information through bioinformatics analyzing could comprehensively peep at the protein structure and functions. We picked out the SHMT sequence(NCBI accession ID:MG544187) from the transcriptome of Bletilla striata(Thunb.) Rchb. f., and then applied a series of tools to explore the biological information of this gene. We detected that this gene has 1 953 bp in length and coding 471 amino acid residues, which sharing the highest similarity with the SHMT gene of Dendrobium catenatum as 93%. The protein had a predicted molecular weight of 51.861 06 kD and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.17. According to the protein's secondary structure, we revealed it shared several highly conserved domains with other species' SHMT genes. And its tertiary was a homo-tetramer structure without transmembrane components and signal peptide but contained several phosphorylation sites. Through the subcellular localization analysis, this protein was mainly located in cytoplasm and Chloroplast. This analysis lays a solid foundation for future studies on SHMT's function confirming, mechanism revelation and application for genetically improving in B.striata. This study also provides some basic data for studies on SHMT genes of other species.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Promoter of CESA7 Gene in Betula platyphylla
    ZHU De-Cai, HU Xiao-Qing, ZHAO Tong, TIAN Jing, ZHANG Yong, LIU Xue-Mei
    2018, 38(4):  551-558.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.009
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    A cellulosic synthase gene Betula platyphylla(CESA7) GenBank ID(EU591531) promoter was cloned and analyzed. By sequence analysis, the promoter was found to contain multiple cis-acting elements with different functions, including response elements, hormone-responsive elements, leaf morphology development elements, etc. It was speculated that this promoter plays a key role in the growth and development of birch. We cloned the promoter of BpCESA7 into a plant expression vector with a GUS reporter gene, named proBpCESA7-121-GUS, and invaded B.platyphylla and Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated method, and then observed that BpCESA7 gene was activated by GUS histochemical staining. Sub-organizational expression characteristics. Results GUS activity was detected in the roots, stems and leaves of B.platyphylla and Arabidopsis roots, leaves, sepals, and stamens, indicating that the promoter of BpCESA7 gene had promoter activity and was stained the most in the roots and leaves of birch, indicating BpCESA7 genes are highly expressed in the birch roots and leaves, and their tissue-specific expression is present.
    Effects of Melatonin on Flavonoids Content and Related Gene Expression Levels of Gardenia under Dark Conditions
    WANG Rong, CHENG Meng-Lin, LIU Hui-Na, ZHAO Da-Qiu, TAO Jun
    2018, 38(4):  559-567.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.010
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    Gardenia leaves were used as materials to study the effect of melatonin on flavonoid content and related gene expression in Gardenia leaves under dark conditions by transcriptome sequencing and liquid chromatography. The melatonin not only delayed the senescence of Gardenia, but also delayed the yellowing of leaves by reducing the accumulation of flavonoids through inhibiting the expression of related genes such as flavonoids biosynthetic pathways. Our experiment provided practical guidance for retarding the yellowing of Gardenia leaves under dark stress, and the reference to the use of melatonin to control and delay the yellowing of leaves.
    Allelopathic Effects of Leaves Extracts on Growth of Three Fast-growing Tree Species on Ardisia gigantifolia Staf Seedlings
    ZHOU Ze-Jian, LIU Ni-Ni, WU Bing-Qian, ZHANG Hong, ZHAO Heng
    2018, 38(4):  568-574.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.011
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    It is the key to understand scientifically the compound planting of forest medicine that whether there is gain effect between afforestation tree species and medicinal materials, among which, avoiding of allelopathic inhibition is one important aspect. Allelopathic effects of three fast-growing tree species on Ardisia gigantifolia Stapf were evaluated to discuss if A.gigantifolia was mixed with Eucalyptus urophylla S.T.Blakely, Pinus elliottii or Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.) Hook. Comparing with CK, the plant height of A.giantifolia was significantly lower under the treatments of 40, 60 and 80 g·L-1(P<0.05), and the root length, dry weight underground and biomass were also strongly inhibited under all the treatments(P<0.01); With the increase of the extract concentration, the inhibition of E.urophylla was enhanced. The aqueous extraction of P.elliottii had a positive stimulatory effect on height, root length and dry aboveground weight of A.gigantifolia under treatment of the 20 and 40 g·L-1, while the higher concentration had weak or negative effect. Besides, P.elliottii had a stimulatory effect on basal diameter, biomass and dry underground weight of A.gigantifolia under treatment of the lowest content, while the highest content had an inhibitory effect. For C.lanceolata the lowest content had a stimulatory effect, while the highest concentration showed significant inhibition. Taking all parameters into account, Eucalyptus could not be mixed with A.giantifolia, while P.elliottii or C.lanceolata may be an alternative intercropping plant species for A.giantifolia, because the growth of A.giantifolia was inhibited significantly by the allelochemicals released from the decomposing leaf litter of Eucalyptus, and the growth of A.giantifolia was stimulated under the lowest content of aqueous extraction from P.elliottii and C.lanceolata.
    Preliminary Study on the Influence of environmental Conditions on Distribution characteristics and Morphogenesis of Purple Idioblasts in Datura stramonium L. var.tatula Torrey
    LI Na, MU Xiao-Qian, LEI Qiong
    2018, 38(4):  575-582.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.012
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    Seedings of Datura stramonium L. var.tatula Torrey were grown under different light intensity(high light intensity, low light intensity)and different tempreture(high temperature, low temperature), and hand-sections were made to determin the influence that the two environmental conditions would have on the distribution characteristics and morphogenesis of purple idioblasts. The results showed that compare with the control group(normal condition), the color of purple idioblasts were observed deepened,and the transparency dropped and the gap between the idioblasts were smaller under high light intensity and high temperature, while the observations under other two low intensity conditions were on the contrary. In addition, the cross-section area, slitting length and quantity of the idioblast were significant increase under extreme high environmental conditions, however, under low light intensity, the results of the area and length were significant decrease, while the quantity was significant increase. But under low temperature,only the quantity of the idioblasts was significant increase, while other two indicators decreased but were not significant.
    Root Biomass in Different Secondary Succession Forests inthe Broad-leaved Korean Pine Forest Areaof Xiaoxing'an Mountain
    LIU Yan, MAO Zi-Jun
    2018, 38(4):  583-589.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.013
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    We employed the six forest types of broad-leaved Korean pine in Xiaoxing'an Mountain, inlcuding the Mongolian oak forest and Korean pine of xerophytic sere, the Mongolian oak maple birch forest and maple birch Korean pine of mesosere and the wetland succession series birch forest and spruce fir forest, to study different successional series space variations, vertical distribution of root biomass and its influence factors by using soil drilling and sampling method. There was the significant difference for total root biomass in the three series of succession(P<0.05). The biomass was the highest in the mesosere, with an average of 8.56 t·hm-2, followed by the xerophytes of 8.18 t·hm-2, and the lowest was 5.79 t·hm-2 in the wetland succession series. For the vertical changes in the forward succession process in the forest, the biomass of fine roots gradually was increased and decreased with the increase of soil layer, and the fitting effect reflected marked difference. Vertical distribution of root and middle root showed difference. In Xiaoxing'an mountain, the distribution of thin root biomass in six woodlands had a significantly negative correlation with soil organic C and total N, soil bulk density and soil moisture content, whereas, showed a notable positive correlation with pH value.
    Variance Analysis of Growth Traits of 51 Pinus koraiensis Seedling Families
    ZHAO Guang-Hao, LENG Wei-Wei, ZHANG Teng, XU Lian-Shun, JIN Xing, FENG Liang, LI Hong-Bin, ZHAO Xi-Yang
    2018, 38(4):  590-596.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.014
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    In order to obtain faster growth and high survival rate Pinus koraensis offspring families, with 51 P.koraensis families in Kaishantun Forest Farm in Longjing City, Jilin Province as materials, and studied their growth traits(seedling height and ground diameter), rate of survival and preserving rate. By analysis of variance, the traits were significantly different(P<0.05) among different families except rate of survival at block-family interaction. The coefficients of phenotypic variation of all the traits ranged from 6.85%-29.89%. The heritabilities of different traits ranged from 0.51 to 0.80 except for the ground diameter in 4 a seedlings and rate of survival, and other traits showed their higher heritability. High variation and heritability values were beneficial to evaluation and selection of excellent families. Correlation analysis results showed that there were significantly positive correlations among all the traits. Using the method of multiple-traits evaluation, with a selection rate of 10%, family PK29, PK38, PK21, PK37 and PK48 were selected as elite families, and the genetic gains of seedling height and ground diameter were 10.08%-2.33%, respectively. The study can provide theoretical basis for evaluating Pinus koraiensis.
    Effect of Calcium treat on the Development and Fruit Setting of Hazwlnut Tree
    CHEN Long-Tao, YANG Bo-Wen, WANG Ying-Nan, FAN Ming-Shou
    2018, 38(4):  597-603.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.015
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    We studied the effect on the hazelnut growth and fruit setting ratio by dealing with calcium reagent in an early stage to provide a theoretical evidence for the hazelnut growth. CaCl2 and EGTA were sprayed to two marked hazelnut samples until the two solutions drip while flowering. T1:CaCl2 was 20 mmol·L-1, T2:EGTA was 20 mmol·L-1. CK:clear water was as a contrast. Diameters and calcium content were measured at the 30th and 35th days after flowering. All the marked clusters were collected to calculate the number of fruits and abortion rate when they were mature. The diameters of the two young hazelnut samples were, respectively, increased by 12.63% and 14.13% by spraying 20mmol·L-1 CaCl2 at the 30th day after flowering compared with CK, while calcium contents(Wt) were, respectively, increased by 27.2% and 44.63%. The diameters of samples were, respectively, decreased by 11.58% and 13.04% by spraying EGTA, while calcium content(Wt) both reaching significant differences with a decrease of 9.74% and 13.76%, respectively. Compared with CK, the diameters of two samples were, respectively, increased by 10.94% and 15.18% by spraying 20 mmol·L-1 CaCl2 at the 35th day after flowering, while calcium(Wt), respectively, were increased by 25.13% and 40.61%. The diameters of the two samples were, respectively, decreased by 15.63% and 13.39% by spraying 20 mmol·L-1 EGTA, while calcium(Wt) both reaching significant differences with a decrease of 26.8% and 20.06%, respectively. Calcium content showed a significant positive correlation with the average number of fruit per mature cluster, while showing a significant negative correlation with the average percentage of abortive fruit per mature cluster.
    Ultrasound-Assisted Enhancement of Hair Induction Efficiency and Transgenic Hairy Root Construction of Catharanthus roseus
    JIA Shan-Shan, WANG Yan-Yan, YU Fang
    2018, 38(4):  604-610.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.016
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    Based on the induction of hairy roots of Catharanthus roseus by different strains, different inducing sites, different media and different induction methods, we tried to change the infective reagents and the new ultrasound-assisted method. By comparing the hairy root induction efficiency and hair Morphological differences in root shape, we screened the optimal method and conditions for the induction of hairy roots of C.roseus, and established transgenic hairy roots. Finally, we used C58C1 as the inoculative strain. The leaves of the aseptic seedlings were used as explant materials, 1/2 MS medium was used as the induction medium for 2-day preculture time. The co-culture buffer was used to infect for 5 s. Ultrasound-assisted induction of optimal induction method succeeded in obtaining milky white, dense, non-directional and multi-branched hairy roots, and successfully constructing the hairy roots of GUS gene, which are related to metabolic regulation pathways later. This study laid the foundation on gene function and the synthesis of secondary metabolites of the C.roseus.
    Effect of Farnesyl-pyrophosphate Synthase(FPS) on the Biosynthesis of Saponins in Panax japonicus
    LIU Mei-Jia, YU Yi-Lin, JIANG Sen, ZHANG Xiang, LIU Di-Qiu, GE Feng
    2018, 38(4):  611-618.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.017
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    Panax japonicus recognized as a valuable Chinese herb has been used for thousands of years. P.japonicus saponins are the main bioactive ingredients composed by dammarane-type and oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins. So far, because of the lack of study about the biosynthesis of P.japonicus saponins, it's necessary to carry out the basic research on saponins biosynthesis. Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase(FPS) may be a key enzyme in the synthetic pathway of saponins in plants. The cDNA sequence of PjFPS was cloned and bioinformatics analysis was conducted. Overexpression vector pCAMBIA2300s-PjFPS was constructed, and then transferred into the P.japonicus cells to obtain transgenic cell lines successfully. The relative expression levels of PjFPS, the enzyme activities of PjFPS, the contents of PJS and phytosterols in transgenic cell lines were determined. All of them in PjFPS transgenic cells achieved enhancements compared with the control. Furthermore, the expressions of key enzyme genes were promoted because the metabolic flux of saponins was increased. Especially, the expression level of PjFPS, the enzyme activity and total P.japonicus saponins content of the best-performing positive cell line were 12, 4 and 3 times of those in control, respectively. Meanwhile, the content of phytosterol in transgenic cell lines was also enhanced. This study realized the biosynthetic regulation of saponins by controlling the expression of a key enzyme gene, and thus to provide theoretical reference and basis for acquiring an efficient and stable technique of regulating the P.japonicus saponins biosynthesis.
    Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Trollius ledebouri
    ZHOU Fang, XU Jian-Qiu, AN Juan-Yan, JIANG Hong-Mao, WANG Zhen-Xi, ZHANG Tian-Xing, LI Kai-Long
    2018, 38(4):  619-624.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.018
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    The seeds of Trollius ledebouri Reichb. were used by different concentration and treating time of GA3 to promote germination, and their buds were inoculated on different types of medium with different hormone. A rapid propagation system by tissue culture was established and become basis for large-scale production of T.ledebouri. The results showed that:(1)the seeds of T.ledebouri Reichb was efficiently sterilized by 0.1% HgCl2 for 20 min after soaking in 600 mg·L-1 GA3 solution for 48 h and the germination was high; (2)the suitable medium for multiplication of T.ledebouri was MS+0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA; (3)the suitable rooting medium was MS without any hormone.
    Homogenate Extraction Process in Total Flavonoids from Elaeagnus angustifolia Fruit
    ZHANG Yuan-Yuan, MENG Yong-Bin, XU Lei, JIA Nan, MENG Qing-Huan, XIANG Feng-Ying, LU Qi
    2018, 38(4):  625-631.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.019
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    Elaeagnus angustifolia is usually used in the treatment of spleen and stomach, indigestion, enteritis, diarrhea, cough and other diseases. In this study, the homogenate extraction method and the traditional method were compared by single factor experiment, and the method of homogenate extraction total flavonoids from E.angustifolia fruit was determined. The optimum technology conditions were as follows:ethanol concentration was 55%, solid-liquid ratio was 1:30 g·mL-1 and the extraction time was 5 min. Under the optimal conditions, the total flavonoids of E.angustifolia fruit yield rate was 6.57%. This study would provide a theoretical basis for the comprehensive development and utilization of E.angustifolia fruit.
    Advances in Study of Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase(DFR) Genes of Higher Plants
    YU Ting-Ting, NI Xiu-Zhen, GAO Li-Hong, HAN Guo-Jun, ZHU Chang-Fu, SHENG Yan-Min
    2018, 38(4):  632-640.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.04.020
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    Anthocyanins are important pigments for flower color of higher plants which is an important factor determining the appreciation value and economic value of floriculture plants. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase(DFR) is a key enzyme involved in the late steps of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways. Thus, DFR is an important regulatory point for the formation of anthocyanins, which plays an important role in the formation of flower color. DFRs have different substrate specificities for three dihydroflavonols(dihydrokaempferol, dihydromyricetin and dihydroquercetin); however, the mechanism of substrate specificity determination in DFRs is still unclear. This paper summarizes the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and its transcriptional regulation mechanism. Combined with the authors' work, the substrate specificity of the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase(DFR) and the application of the cloned DFR gene in plant genetic engineering were extensively reviewed.