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    15 January 2018, Volume 38 Issue 1
    Rediscovery of Ulota germana(Mont.) Mitt.(Orthotrichaceae) In New Zealand
    WANG Qing-Hua, JIA Yu
    2018, 38(1):  1-6.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.001
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    Ulota germana(Mont.) Mitt., formly as U.rufula(Mitt.) A.Jaeger, was recorded from only Marlborough District of South Island in New Zealand and it has not been refound for more than 60 years. A new locality is added here: Nelson, Denniston, near parking area at top of Denniston Incline. The plants from New Zealand agree well with those from South America except some variation in the size of leaves, perichaetial leaves and spores. This new specimen is well described, especially the opercula and calyptra not seen in previous works, the distribution is mapped and its distinction from other close species is discussed here. Ulota luteola(Hook.f. & Wilson) Wijk & Margad., formly as U.pygmaeothecia(Müll. Hal.) Kindb. is excluded from the moss flora of New Zealand.
    Study on The Seed Biological Characteristics of Chimonanthus praecox of Zhejiang Province
    DU Hui-Cong, ZHANG Ying, TIAN Min, WANG Cai-Xia
    2018, 38(1):  7-13.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.002
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    To investigate the seed biological characteristics of wild Chimonanthus praecox of Zhejiang Province and improve germination rate,which provided the reference for conservation and utilization.The result showed that the 1000-seed weight was about 396.98 g, water content of the seed was about 15.66%, the viability was about 91%.The germination inhibitor of Ch.praecox mainly exist in kernel,the inhibitory methanol crude extracts was stronger than aqueous crude extracts. The exist of dense and hard seed coat and germination inhibitor make the highest seed germination rate is less than the seed lots viability and also influence the germination uniformity.Seed of soaking after pricked can improve the seed structure and in favor of germination.
    Response Analysis of Larix sibirica to Climate Warming at Different Elevations in the Eastern Tianshan Mountains
    ZHANG Qing, YU Rui-De, ZHENG Hong-Wei, YANG Mei-Lin, GAN Miao
    2018, 38(1):  14-25.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.003
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    Under the background of climate warming, we discussed the response relationship between the radial growth of Larix sibirica and the climatic factors at different elevation of the eastern Tianshan Mountains, and validated this relationship by using the redundant analysis method. Compared with the standard chronology, the residual chronology of different elevation has larger characteristic parameters, higher SNR and mean sensitivity, and more environmental information, which is better to represent the overall change of trees. At 2 160 m(L1), after the rapid warming of the chronology(after 1985), the correlation between the tree-ring width and the temperature was reducing significantly. At 2 430 m(L2), the chronology is less associated with precipitation and temperature in two periods. At 2 700 m(L3), the positive response of the chronology to precipitation and temperature from 1985-2013 was enhanced. The response of radial growth to monthly climatic factors is higher in November and December of the last year, and the correlation between temperature and tree-ring width index is higher in June and July of the current year. Climate warming reduces the radial growth of trees, which is more obvious in low elevation areas. At all elevation, the sensitivity of L.sibirica to climate warming is decreasing. The radial growth of the L.sibirica at high elevation is mainly affected by the temperature, while that at middle and low elevation area is mainly affected by precipitation and temperature.
    The Different Altitude Gradient Change Rules of the Main Shrub Community in Arid Valleys of the Bailongjiang River with Different Slope
    WANG Fei, TU Cai-Yun, CAO Xiu-Wen, LIU Jin-Qian, YANG Yong-Hong, ZHANG Tao, QI Hao
    2018, 38(1):  26-36.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.004
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    The change rules of different slope on the structure characteristics and species diversity of the Main shrub community in arid valleys of the Bailongjiang River were studied with Quadrat survey method. Aim to understand the vegetation characteristic and Species diversity changes from different elevation gradient of arid valleys in bailongjiang river, It will provides the theory basis for vegetation restoration in this region.Results show that: (1)species are different in the same slope of different altitude gradient, as well as in the different slope of same altitude gradient. with the increase of altitude,the species of different slope show that increased after decreased first, The main vegetation types are also different in the same slope of different altitude gradient; (2)With the increase of altitude gradient, α-diversity of shrub community and α-diversity of herb community in different slope all showed that a trend from rise to decline . Correlation analysis was carried out on the α-diversity index, contribution rate of species diversity for the species diversity is the largest,it is showed that the richness index(D1, D2)> ecological dominance index(SN)> interspecific opportunity index(H)> evenness index of community(R); (3)With the change of altitude gradient, β-diversity Whittaker index of the main shrub community have less change in different slope, the maximum appeared at an altitude of 1 250-1 650 m,Routledge and Cody β-diversity index between an altitude of 1 450-1 650 m reache maximum, but generally presents the waveform changes. β-diversity of herb community have larger change, At an altitude of 1 050-1 250 m, β-diversity of herb community in the sunny slope reaches maximum. At an altitude of 1 250-1 450 m,β-diversity index of herb community in the semi-shady slope and semi-sunny slope reaches maximum, β-diversity index of herb community in the semi-shady slope and semi-sunny slope were higher than sunny slope. Species diversity α and diversity β are different that in Different slope directions and different altitudinal gradients in dry valleys of Bai Long River and different slope directions have a certain correlation with the change of altitudinal gradient, species diversity α and diversity β indicating that elevation and slope directions are one of the main factors affecting biodiversity.
    Analysis of Geographical Distribution of Abies in China under Climate Change
    LIU Ran, WANG Chun-Jing, HE Jian, ZHANG Zhi-Xiang
    2018, 38(1):  37-46.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.005
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    China is the country which has the most abundant and the widest geographical distribution of Abies Mill. species in the world. It is also the key area for studying the causes and law of Abies distribution. We collected the data of geographical distribution of Abies in China in three ways: Chinese Virtual Herbarium, Global Biodiversity Information Facility and relevant literatures. Based on the current and future climate scenarios, the maximum entropy model(MaxEnt) was used to simulate the potential distribution of Abies. Also, we analysed of habitat suitability and evaluated the protective capability of various regions in China, using GIS spatial analysis functions. The results showed that: (1)Southwestern Sichuan, northern Yunnan, as well as southeastern Tibet are the hot spots for Abies in China; (2)The area of suitable habitat of Abies in China will significantly reduce under the future climate change scenario; (3)The suitable habitat has the tendency of moving northwards in the future; (4)Yunnan province has the highest protective capability under the current climate scenario. Under the future climate change scenario, the protective capability of the western regions in China will increase, while that of the central and eastern regions will decline. This study can provide a theoretical basis and reference value for the protection of Abies.
    Seasonal Changes of the Input of Root Exudates and Its Driving Characteristics of Rhizosphere Microbe in a Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb. Plantation
    WANG Xiao-Ping, XIAO Xiao, TANG Tian-Wen, LI Yun-Xiang, XIAO Juan
    2018, 38(1):  47-55.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.006
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    The rhizosphere processes involved in exudate have important ecological effects, but there is very little seasonal changes in situ of plants root exudatuions and their mediated soil biogeochemical cycles, especially endangered rare plant. With 30-year Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb.. plantation which is national secondary endangered plants in Dagou in west Sichuan, we used the in situ improved collecting device to study C.japonicum Sieb. root exudates in April, July, September and December 2014, collect rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil, and synchronously analyze the changes of rhizosphere microbiological properties. The results showed that:(1)the root secretion of dissolve organic carbon(DOC), total nitrogen(TN) rate appeared remarkable seasonal changes, the highest in summer and lowest in winter. (2)Rhizosphere of microbial biomass carbon(MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen(MBN) was significantly higher non-rhizosphere soil that showed the positive rhizosphere effect. The rhizosphere effect also showed a similar pattern of seasonal dynamics with the input of the root exudates, summer(July) is the highest, while winter(December) is the lowest. (3)By correlation analysis, there was a positive linear correlation between the DOC and TN rates in root exudates, and the rhizosphere effect of MBC, MBN rhizosphere effect and soil enzyme activity implied that the root secretion input was an important factor that could drive the activity of the rhizosphere microorganisms, and reveal the seasonal response of the input of the tree roots to the process and function of the rhizosphere microbial process. Future research should be strengthened in the coupling effect and mechanism about the root secretion input and the process of soil biogeochemical cycle.
    Histocytology Observation on the Somatic Embryogenesis in Herbaceous Peony Callus
    WEI Dong-Xia, ZHANG Teng, ZHENG Yan-Yi, YU Xiao-Nan
    2018, 38(1):  56-63.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.007
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    The stem segments, leaves and petioles of three herbaceous peony was used as explants for somatic embryogenesis. Paraffin method was used for morphological and histological observation of somatic embryogeneris. The main conclusions were as follows: callus induction rate from stems of ‘Going Bananas’ was 100%. Proliferation rate of the callus was over 4.0. The best induction and proliferation medium of inducting callus was WPM+IAA 1.0 mg·L-1+6-BA 1.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1+TDZ 0.5 mg·L-1+CH 0.625 g·L-1. Embryogenic callus generated after transferred the callus to 1/2 MS(Ca2+ doubled)+2,4-D 2.0 mg·L-1+ABA 0.5 mg·L-1 or ZT 1.0 mg·L-1 medium of a constantly dark cultivation of 90 d. Globular embryos and heart embryos were generated after transferred the embryogenic callus to 1/2MS(Ca2+ doubled)+6-BA1.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.2 mg·L-1 medium for a constantly illumination cultivation of 60 d. There are exogenous and endogenous origins of somatic system. Exogenous includes origins from individual surface cells and origins from multiple subcritical cells. The difference of three ways lies mainly in starting position and starting cells number, they will all generated proembryo later. The splitting of embryogenic cells was symmetrical and the presence of asymmetric splitting cells was not found.
    Effects of Trichoderma asperellum Combined Application on Growth and Photosynthesis Characteristics of Populus davidiana×P.alba var. pyramidlis
    LIU Zhao-Ying, JIANG Chuan-Ying, ZHAI Tong-Tong, CHANG Yuan, YAO Zhi-Hong, LIU Zhi-Hua, ZHANG Rong-Shu
    2018, 38(1):  64-74.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.008
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    In order to prepare compound fungi fertilizer of Trichoderma asperellum, we studied the effects of T.asperellum combined application on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Populus davidiana×P.alba var. pyramidlis(Shanxin poplar) by applying the concentration(5×103 cfu·cm-3 soil) with different combinations of T.asperellum conidia T1(Ta536+Ta4), T2(Ta536+Ta4+Ta492) and T3(Ta536+Ta4+Ta492+Ta650) to roots of the tissue-cultured Shanxin poplar seedlings under field conditions. Analysis of variance showed that the induction time and different treatments had significant effects on height, basal stem, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b value, Pn, Cond, Ci and Tr(P<0.05): the seedling heights, basal stems and dry weights of the treatment groups were higher than those of control group(CK) in different degree, and the effect was T3> T2> T1> CK; the biomass of poplar seedlings of T3, T2 and T1 separately increased 17.99%、14.28% and 10.54% compared with CK at 60 d; at 15 d, chlorophyll contents separately increased 7.79%, 6.91% and 4.17% and chlorophyll a/b values separately increased 7.79%, 5.84% and 4.73% compared with CK. In addition, the net photosynthetic rate(Pn), intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci), stomatal conductance(Cond) and transpiration rate(Tr) of the treatment were higher than those of CK, and the maximum net photosynthetic rate, apparent quantum efficiency and light saturation point of the treatment groups were higher than those of CK(P<0.05). At the same time, the interaction between the inducing durations and the different treatments levels of T.asperellum also significantly influenced the above indexes(except for Pn and Ci)(P<0.05). In brief, combination of 4 strains had synergistic effects that can enhance the adaptability of these strains to environment, promote growth and improve photosynthesis characteristics, and the T3 group has the biggest influence and the fastest action on the poplar seedlings.
    Protective Effects of Alternative Respiratory Pathway on Photosystem Ⅱ in Phaseolus vulgaris under CuCl2 Stress
    XIE Jia-Jia, LU Li-Na, SHI Dai-Long, WANG Qing-Wen, JIA Ling-Yun, FENG Han-Qing
    2018, 38(1):  75-80.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.009
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    With “Nongpu” No.12 bean seedling leaves(Phaseolus vulgaris L.), we used the AOX inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid(1 mmol·L-1; SHAM) to inhibit AOX activity in vivo, and studied the protective effects of alternative respiratory pathway on the photosystem Ⅱ under the CuCl2 stress. The treatment with CuCl2 caused a significant decrease in the ratio of Fv/Fm(the potential maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ), Fv'/Fm'(the maximum quantum efficiency of PSⅡ photochemistry at illumination), Y(Ⅱ)(effective photochemical quantum yield of PSⅡ photosynthetic), qP(photochemical quenching coefficient), and the chlorophyll content, but the levels of NPQ(non-photochemical quenching) and the capacity of the alternative respiratory pathway were significantly increased. Compared with the bean seedling under CuCl2 stress, the CuCl2-stressed bean seedling pretreated with inhibitor of alternative respiratory(salicylhydroxamic acid) had lower levels of Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', Y(Ⅱ), qP and chlorophyll content, and higher levels of NPQ. These observations suggest that under the CuCl2 stress, the alternative respiratory pathway can protect the photosystem Ⅱ of the bean leaves from CuCl2 stress by alleviating the decrease of the photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ, maintaining the proportion of open PSⅡ centres, reducing the heat dissipation of the antenna pigment and chlorophyll content disruption.
    Effects of Drought Stress on the Growth and Biomass of Phoebe zhennan'seedling in Different Substrates Net Container
    YAO Xiao-Lan, ZHOU Lin, FENG Mao-Song, HAO Jian-Feng, RAO Yuan-Lin, YAO Jun-Yu, QI Jin-Qiu
    2018, 38(1):  81-90.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.010
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    Adaptability and survival strategy of Phoebe zhennan in different substrates under periodic drought stress were studied to provide a reference for substrate selection of seedling cultivation to combat drought stress. According to the volume ratio, the seedlings of P.zhennan were cultured on five different substrates: T1: cultivated soil=10, T2: forest humus=10, T3: cultivated soil:forest humus:peat soil:pearlite=4:3:2:1, T4: cultivated soil:forest humus:peat soil:pearlite=3:2:4:1, T5: cultivated soil:forest humus:peat soil:pearlite=2:1:6:1. The drought stress gradients were designed randomly to study the effects of drought stress on the growth of P.zhennan seedling. The results were: (1)The physical and chemical properties of different substrates composition were closely related to the seedling growth and the seedling exhibited better growth performance in the substrates than traditional seedlings, but only T3 and T4 had better growth under heavy stress. (2)Along with the increase of the drought stress, the seedling height, basal diameter, leaf area, leaf area index, above ground biomass and underground biomass were aggravated, but the degree of influence was different. (3)The membership function value of the seedling quality was T3 >T4=T1 >T2 >T5, and T3 had the best quality and a strong tolerance of seedling to adapt to drought stress, improving the effectiveness of afforestation significantly. The suitable ratio of light substrates could coordinate the water, fertilizer, gas and heat, being propitious to the growth of the seedling in adversity.
    Transcriptomic Analysis of the Halostachys caspica in Response to Short-term Salt Stress
    ZHANG Li-Li, ZHANG Fu-Chun
    2018, 38(1):  91-99.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.011
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    As a halophyte with strong salt tolerance, Halostachys caspica widely distributes in desert saline-alkali land. In order to reveal the genomic changes of gene expression under salt stress, transcriptome sequencing of H.caspica assimilating branches with treatments of 300 and 500 mmol·L-1 NaCl for 3 h was performed. A total of 153 298 unigenes with an average length of 643 bp were obtained with clean reads assembled. The 47 subclasses and 118 KEGG pathways were enriched in the GO terms and KEGG pathways, respectively. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that there were 4 432 and 2 580 unigenes in response to low salt (300 mmol·L-1) and high salt (500 mmol·L-1) in short-term stress, respectively. The 1 245 unigenes were the common differentially expressed genes in the two salt stresses. They were mainly enriched in cellular process, metabolic process and response to stimulus. The osmotic regulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging genes were screened out, and most of them were up-regulated. Therefore, H.caspica could improve short-term salt stress adaptation by enhancing the osmotic adjustment and ROS scavenging.
    Transcriptome Analysis of Dioscorea bulbifera L. Microtubers Conserved in vitro at Low Temperature
    HONG Sen-Rong, WU Hui, ZHONG Lu, XIONG Si-Min, LUO Xia, LIU Xing
    2018, 38(1):  100-109.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.012
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    With Dioscorea bulbifera L. microtubers, we studied the conservation in vitro at 4℃ low temperature and its transcriptome analysis. After the original data were pretreated, the effective ratio of reads in the control group(Con25) and the treatment group(Con4) was 98.67% and 98.69%, respectively. The 219792 transcripts of 200 bp(177Mb) and 161066 Unigenes(99Mb) were obtained after the removal of the splicing sequence; 10 species of the most NR annotations in the Unigene was Aureobasidium pullulans EXF-150, Vitis vinifera, Theobroma cacao, Oryza sativa Japonica Group, Amborella trichopoda, Setaria italica, Aureobasidium pullulans var. namibiae CBS 147.97, Jatropha curcas, Aureobasidium melanogenum CBS 110374 and Pestalotiopsis fici W106-1, respectively. The 5 KOG of the annotated most unigenes were general function prediction only, signal transduction mechanisms, posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones, translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis and energy production and conversion. The 5 pathway of the KEGG annotated most unigenes were carbon metabolism, biosynthesis of amino acids, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism and pyruvate metabolism. The number of annotated unigenes was 26 006, the number of different annotated enzymes was 1 177, and the number of different pathway was mapped to 327. Gene function of samples in Biological Process classification mainly gathered at cellular process and metabolic process, in Cellular Component classification it gathered at cell and cell part, in Molecular Function classification mainly concentrated in binding and catalytic activity. In conservation in vitro at low temperature of D.bulbifera L. microtubers, a total of 164 145 differentially expressed genes was obtained, of which 63305 genes were up-regulated and 100 840 genes were down regulated. Extremely significant GO terms of the differentially expressed genes were vacuole inheritance, single strand break repair, mitotic spindle elongation, maltose catabolic process, mannosyltransferase activity, mannosylphosphate transferase activity, cell wall mannoprotein biosynthetic process, G1 phase of mitotic cell cycle, incipient cellular bud site and establishment of mitotic spindle orientation. Extremely significant pathways of the differentially expressed genes were primary bile acid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, chlorocyclohexane and chlorobenzene degradation, bisphenol degradation, fluorobenzoate degradation, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-chondroitin sulfate, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-heparan sulfate, toluene degradation, naphthalene degradation and riboflavin metabolism. The experimental results provides a theoretical basis for germplasm conservation of D.bulbifera L. microtuber and its subsequent germination.
    Changes of Several Cations in Associated Plant Salicornia europaea and Suaeda stellatiflora in Different Growth Stages
    ZHU Chuan-Ying, WU Wen-Bo, JIANG Zhen-Bo, WANG Yan-Qin
    2018, 38(1):  110-116.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.013
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    In order to analyze the change of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in root, stem and leave at different growth stages of associated plants Salicornia europaea and Suaeda stellatiflora, these cations were determined by flame spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that the trends of Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were different in root and steam from leaf organs. The contents of Na+ and K+ were decreased in the root and stem, increased in leaf tissues with the development of plants. The accumulation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ were from low to high to reduce in roots and stem with two species growth and development, as same as in leaves of S.europaea. But accumulation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ were from high to low to up trend in leaves of S.stellatiflora with its growth and development. These two halophyte could absorb the Na+ about 3% of roots, 5% of stems, and 10% of leaves of dry weight. The associated plants S.europaea and S.stellatiflora could become functional plants in improving saline-alkali soil, because these two plants have excellent potential to remove plenty of salt.
    Characteristic of Molecular Evolution for Lilium pumilum Redouté on Southeast of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau using nrDNA ITS and cpDNA petB/petD Sequence Analysis
    JIANG Fu-Juan, TANG Nan, TANG Dao-Cheng, JU Xiu-Ting, SUN Jing-Qing
    2018, 38(1):  117-124.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.014
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    In this study, total DNA was extracted from Lilium pumilum on southeast of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau using modified CTAB method. Using genome DNA as template, nrDNA ITS and cpDNA petB/petD regions were amplified, purified and sequenced. By sequence alignment, it was known that length of nrDNA ITS sequence was 696 bp, of which 4 variable sites with a percentage of 0.72% were found., The G+C content of the ITS sequence was 60.4% and 7 haplotypes were produced. The length of cpDNA petB/petD sequence was 616 bp, of which 1 was variable sites with a percentage of 0.16% was found. The G+C content of the sequence was 34.6% and 2 haplotypes were found. The petB/petD region of L.pumilum was more conserved than ITS sequences and evolved more slowly. The present distribution range of L.pumilum has probably experienced range expansion by the haplotype analysis of mismatch distribution and neutral test, and AMOVA analysis showed that the genetic variation of L.pumilum mainly existed within populations. The NST >GST(P>0.01)further showed that there was no significant phylogeographic structure of genetic variation in L.pumilum. Therefore, the nrDNA ITS sequence of L.pumilum was more suitable for phylogeographic study of this species.
    Expression and Function Analysis of Walnut JrGRAS2 Gene under Heat Stress
    SU Li-Yuan, LI Xiao-Zhe, CHEN Shu-Wen, ZHANG Fang-Fang, ZHAO Ting-Ting, YANG Gui-Yan
    2018, 38(1):  125-131.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.015
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    The GRAS transcription factor is important for plant response to abiotic stress. To well understand the adaptive mechanism to adverse environment of walnut tree, a GRAS gene was cloned from the transcriptome of Juglans regia(Named as JrGRAS2). The expression of JrGRAS2 was analyzed under heat stress, and JrGRAS2 was inserted into the yeast expression vector pYES2 for constructing recombinant plasmid pYES2-JrGRAS2, which was transformed into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain(INVSCI). The yeast transformed with empty pYES2 was used as a negative control. The yeast expression system was used for analysis the heat stress tolerance. The full length open reading frame(ORF) of JrGRAS2 was 1 296 bp, the deduced protein was 47 405.83 Da with 431 amino acids, and the theoretical isoelectric point(pI) was 5.66. Under heat stress, JrGRAS2 was highly induced, especially exposed to 36℃ for 0.5 h in the stems, it was induced to 335.5-fold of control. When both recombinant yeasts were treated with 53℃, the JrGRAS2 expressed yeast displayed higher vitality and survival rate than the control yeast. Therefore, JrGRAS2 gene could effectively response to heat stress and improve heat tolerance of transgenic yeasts, JrGRAS2 may be an important candidate gene for walnut response to adverse stimulus.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of S-Adenosine Methionine Decarboxylase(ThSAMDC) Gene from Tamarix ramosissima
    ZHANG Yu, ZHANG Yue, ZHANG Chun-Rui, WANG Yan-Min, WANG Yu-Cheng, WANG Chao
    2018, 38(1):  132-140.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.016
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    S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase(SAMDC) is a rate-limiting enzyme that regulates the physiological and biochemical processes of plants by participating in the metabolic pathway of polyamines. The cDNA of S-Adenosine Methionine Decarboxylase gene(named ThSAMDC) was isolated and cloned by analyzing the transcriptome data of Tamarix hispida. The full-length of ThSAMDC is 2 085 bp, with three open reading frames, tiny ORF(tORF), upstream ORF(uORF) and main ORF(mORF). The mORF was 1 107 bp encoding 369 amino acids. The relative molecular weight and isoelectric points(PI) of the putative protein were 40.34 kD and 4.72. ThSAMDC-encoded protein has a number of strong hydrophilic regions, no obvious transmembrane region. Compared to the amino acid multiple sequence alignment of several other species, ThSAMDC includes two highly conserved domains: the proenzyme cleavage site(LSESSLF) and the PEST domain(TIHVTPEDGFSYAS) associated with the rapid degradation of the protein. Phylogenetic tree analysis shows that ThSAMDC has higher sequence similarity of 77% identities to the Spinach(SoSAMDC). Quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the mRNA level of ThSAMDC was significantly up-regulated under NaCl, PEG, ABA and CdCl2 treatments in T.hispida, suggesting that ThSAMDC may play an important role in drought resistance, salt tolerance and other stresses.
    SNP Sites Developed by Specific Length Amplification Fragment Sequencing(SLAF-seq) and Genetic Analysis in Ammopitanthus mongolicus
    DUAN Yi-Zhong, WANG Jian-Wu, DU Zhong-Yu, KANG Fu-Ren
    2018, 38(1):  141-147.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.017
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    Ten site of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus distributed in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Gansu Province were used as experiment materials for sequencing by specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing(SLAF-seq). The scheme of the experiment was designed based on bio-informatics technology. Taking Glycine max as the reference genome, specific size of DNA were chosen to construct the SLAF-seq library. After high-throughput sequencing, a great amount of sequences were obtained and used to obtain the polymorphism SLAF tags by software alignment, then found the distribution of specific SNP sites. In total, we obtained 374 265 SLAF tags, including 56 295 polymorphic SLAF tags. According to these conditions that integrity >0.5 and MAF>0.05 screening from all SNP, obtained 102 025 group SNP which have high consistency. Phylogenetic relationship population structure and PCA analysis of ten individuals of A.mongolicus were analyzed using mathematical statistic method based on screening SNP, from the level of the genome to reveal the genetic differentiation between different groups. The results show that these A.mongolicus in ten different sites all originate from the same ancestor, but due to these factor that geographical location make the A.mongolicus produced genetic differentiation. Therefore, A.mongolicus growing in Inner Mongolia have close relationship, and that distributed in Ningxia and Gansu Province have close relationship.
    Arabidopsis thaliana Transcription Factor Ethylene-insensitive3(EIN3) Inhibits the Synthesis of Anthocyanins
    XU Meng-Ke, LI Dan, MENG Lai-Sheng, JIANG Ji-Hong
    2018, 38(1):  148-154.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.018
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    Ethylene-insensitive3(EIN3) and EIN3-like1(EIL1) proteins are important nuclear transcription factors in ethylene signal transduction pathways in higher plants. In plants, anthocyanins are one of the water-soluble natural pigments, and they play an important role in the growth and development of plants. We used the Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant ein3-1eil1-3 as the research material. Firstly, we identified the mutants of ein3-1eil1-3 and ein3-1 by RT-PCR. The direct observation indicated that the seeds and leaves of the ein3-1eil1-3 were purple. By ultraviolet spectrophotometer analysis, the anthocyanin accumulation in ein3-1eil1-3 mutant was significantly higher than that in the ein3-1 mutant and wild-type. GUS staining showed that EIN3 was mainly expressed in flowers, stigma, mature pollen, seed embryo and siliques, which was consistent with that anthocyanin accumulation of seeds and leaves was high in mutant ein3-1eil1-3. Thus, A.thaliana transcription factor EIN3 as well as EIL1 is involved in the suppression of the anthocyanin synthesis.
    Study on Orthogonal Optimization and Antioxidation of Polysaccharide from Tara Seeds
    YUAN De-Cheng, ZHAO Han-Mei, YANG Feng-Jian
    2018, 38(1):  155-160.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.01.019
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    Tara seed as raw material, process and antioxidant properties of protein and polysaccharide of Tara seed polysaccharide of Tara.Using the loss rate of polysaccharide and protein removal rate as the evaluation index to compare Sevage method, three trichloroacetic acid method and papain method of Tara polysaccharide deproteinization effect. Removing protein were optimized by using orthogonal optimization experimental design principle and the method of orthogonal analysis of four factors and three levels of papain method. The results showed that: Tara polysaccharide best protein removal technology for enzyme dosage 0.15 mL, hydrolysis time 90 min, enzymolysis temperature of 60℃, enzymolysis pH=6, protein removal rate was 95.19%, rate of polysaccharide is 75.02%. Through the study of Tara polysaccharide antioxidation of polysaccharide retention at Tara, it is showed thatthe total antioxidant activity of sugar was better, which had a strong scavenging effect on DPPH free radical.