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    15 March 2018, Volume 38 Issue 2
    Lectotypifications of Names in Sympetalae from China-Ⅳ.
    BI Hai-Yan, SHAO Qing, SUN Qian, YANG Zhi-Rong, LIN Yun, YUN Ying-Xia
    2018, 38(2):  161-167.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.001
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    In type specimens deposited at Herbarium (PE), Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the types of some taxon names in Sympetalae from China are found to be syntypes under Article 9.5 of International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), including Lonicera chrysantha Turcz. var. longipes Maxim., L.syringantha Maxim., L.tangutica Maxim. and Viburnum erubescens Wall. var. carnosulum W.W. Smith in Caprifoliaceae, Valeriana minutiflora Hand.-Mazz. and V.tangutica Batal. in Valerianaceae, Scabiosa bretschneideri Batal. in Dipsacaceae, and Ainsliaea scabrida Dunn, Anaphalis hancockii Maxim., A.lactea Maxim., Artemisia smithii Mattf., Blumea henryi Dunn, Cacalia matsudae Kitam., Cremanthodium discoideum Maxim., C.humile Maxim., Leontopodium haplophylloides Hand.-Mazz., L.roseum Hand.-Mazz., Nannoglottis carpesioides Maxim., Saussurea quercifolia W.W.Smith var. major Anth., Senecio begoniaefolius Franch., S.koualapensis Franch., S.sagitta Maxim., S.tanguticus Maxim. and Tanacetum potaninii Krash. var. suffruticosum Krash. in Asteraceae. According to Article 8.1, 9.11 and 9.12, and Recommendation 9A.3, lectotypes for twenty-four names are here designated.
    The taxonomic study of Haplodontium Hampe(Bryaceae,Bryophyta) in China
    WANG Xiao-Rui, LI Min, NIU Yu-Lu, ZHAO Jian-Cheng
    2018, 38(2):  168-181.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.002
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    Haplodontium Hampe, a new genus to China is described. Currently, there are three species of Haplodontium in China. Haplodontium zangii X.R.Wang & J.C.Zhao is a new species from Xizang, China. Haplodontium himalayanum(Mitt.) X.R.Wang & J.C.Zhao and H. sinensis(Dix.) X.R.Wang & J.C.Zhao are transferred to the genus Haplodontium from Mielichhoferia. The illustration and micrograph under light microscope(LM) and scanning electron microscope(SEM) of each species of Haplodontium in China are provided. Main morphological characters, habitat and geographical distribution, and morphological comparison with related species of them are discussed.
    Sporogenesis and Gametogenesis of Lagerstroemia speciosa
    ZHU Li-Qiong, YUAN Juan, WEI Li-Di, WEI Yan-Chun, ZHAO Li-Jun
    2018, 38(2):  182-188.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.003
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    The flower anatomical structures of Lagerstroemia speciosa in different development stages were studied by using method of paraffin section. The formation of the sporophyte and the development process of male and female gametophytes were also surveyed. The results showed that anther has four chambers. The anther wall shows a dicotyledonous type, which be comprised of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and glandular tapetum. Cytokinesis occurs simultaneously with meiosis in a microspore mother cell, and the formed tetrads are mostly tetrahedral while some are decussate type. The mature pollen grains are of a 3-cell type with three grooves, occasionally aborted. The gynoecium was composed of 6 7 carpels. The ovary has 6 7 locules and there are several anatropous ovules in each locule. The ovules are crassinucellate and bitegmic. The megaspore mother cell divides to a linear megaspore tetrad. The chalazal megaspore develops into a polygonum type embryo sac. The mature embryo sac contains seven cells and eight cell nucleus. The most pollen and embryo sac development are normal, and L.speciosa can be used as a fine female parent in the hybridization breeding. According to the flower morphological characteristics in different blooming phenophase, the process of megaspore and microspore formation and development of male and female gametophytes can be determined initially.
    Taxonomic Position of Viola tuberifera Based on Morphological Variation of the Populations and Digital Specimen
    SU Xue, HOU Yun-Yun, GAO Ting, WANG Ya-Li, SUN Kun
    2018, 38(2):  189-194.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.004
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    Viola tuberifera, which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and its adjacent region, is a typical dimorphic cleistogamous plant, and the taxonomical position of V.tuberifera is still controversial. We analyzed the morphological variation of leaves from the digital specimen and three sympatric natural populations of V.bulbosa and V.tuberifera. The PCA analysis of digital specimen indicated that all the samples were divided into two clusters, represented for V.tuberifera and V.bulbosa, respectively. The PCA analysis of sympatric natural populations showed the same results. The parameters reflected the characters of leaf apex and base, such as ΔW, AL, BL and LWR, are relatively lower variation within and among populations of V.tuberifera and V.bulbosa, but the variation of these parameters between V.bulbosa and V.tuberifera is significant(P<0.01). V.tuberifera and V.bulbosa should be treated as different taxon, and indicating the leaf morphological characters can be used in the classificatiopn of V.tuberifera and V.bulbosa.
    Species Diversity of Carpinus cordata Communities in Lishan Nature Reserve,Shanxi Province
    WU Ping-Ping
    2018, 38(2):  195-200.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.005
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    With the dataset in the investigated field, we studied the species diversity of Carpinus cordata communities in Lishan Nature Reserve, Shanxi Province by using Patric index(R0), Simpson index(λ), Shannon-Wiener index(H'), Pielou index(E1) and Alatalo index(E5). The change trends of R0, H', E1 and E2 was almost similarity, and the change trends of λ with H' was positive. Overall, the rank of species diversity indices of C.cordata communities was Ass. Ⅰ Carpinus cordata-Lindera glauca-Phlomis umbrosa > Ass. Ⅲ Carpinus cordata-Forsythia suspense-Phlomis umbrosa > Ass. Ⅳ Carpinus cordata-Spiraea pubescens+Forsythia suspense-Smilacina japonica > Ass. Ⅶ Carpinus cordata-Sambucus williamsii-Thalictrum baicalense+Epimedium brevicornu > Ass. Ⅱ Carpinus cordata-Deutzia parviflora-Phlomis umbrosa > Ass. Ⅵ Carpinus cordata-Deutzia parviflora-Osmorhiza aristata > Ass. Ⅴ Carpinus cordata-Deutzia parviflora-Smilacina japonica. The diversity indices between the tree layer and shrub layer was negative correlation(P<0.05),and the diversity indices between the tree layer and herb layer was negative correlation(P<0.05) also, moreover, the diversity indices between the tree layer and herb layer was negative correlation(P>0.05). The differences among those associations of the C.cordata communities was not significant(P>0.05).
    Effects of Growth Environment and Tree Age on Biomass Allocation within Fruit Twigs of Fengdan(Paeonia ostii)
    MA Han-Ze, WANG Cheng-Zhong, LI Ding, FAN Guo-Zhen, HU Yong-Hong, SONG Zhi-Ping
    2018, 38(2):  201-211.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.006
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    Biomass allocation is critical for understanding the yield formation of crops. Fengdan is the cultivated type originated from Paeonia ostii and the predominant variety of oil tree Paeonia that is newly cultivated as one of the oil tree crops in China. In order to examine the effects of growth environment and tree age on twig vegetative and reproductive growth, we compared the biomass characteristics of fruit twigs among eight 6-year-old Fengdan populations from different sites and that between 4, 6 and 8-year populations cultivated at Shanghai, and Tongling of Anhui Province. The number of fruit twigs increased with age increase, while there was no significant difference of twig growth and reproduction between different aged populations, indicating age effects existed at individual level but not twig level. There were significant correlations between the trait measurements, whereas, such correlations varied among populations. The body sizes and biomass allocations of fruit twigs were different among different populations, and the variations of biomass allocation associated with environmental variables. By allometric relationship modeling analysis, the fruit twigs from most of populations displayed constant biomass allocation between growth and reproduction functions(slope=1) with varied intercepts among populations. Therefore, the cultivation environment has significant effects on the growth and reproduction of Fengdan.
    Mega-and Microsporogenesis and Development of Female and Male Gametophytes in Michelia maudiae Dunn
    XIONG Hai-Yan, LIU Zhi-Xiong
    2018, 38(2):  212-217.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.007
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    The mega-and microsporogenesis and development of female and male gametophytes in Michelia maudiae Dunn were investigated by using the paraffin section method. Anthers are tetradymous and the anther wall is composed of 5-7 layer of cells, Glandular tapetum, Cytokinesis in meiosis is modified simultaneous type, the tetrads are tetrahedral, isobilateral and decusate. Mature pollen grains are 2-cell type. The ovule of M.maudiae is anatropous bitegmic and nucellus thickly. The megaspore mother cells undergo meiosis divides into linear type tetrads, and the one in the chalazal end is functional, Polygonum type. The female and male gametophytes in spring-flowering M.maudiae were developed normally, heterogamy. The megaspore mothercells formed after the petals and stamen were withered. The development of microspore in autumn is in the period of sporozoic cell or primary spore, abortionthen. Megaspore in autumn-flowering M.maudiae undeveloped when flowering, withers away after flowering, were mostly developed unnormally. The study had accumulated information on the reproduction and hybridization in M.maudiae Dunn.
    Effects of Phosphorus Supply on Growth and Foliar Nutrition of Dalbergia odorifera Seedlings
    ZHAO Xia, XU Da-Ping, LIU Xiao-Jin, ZHANG Ning-Nan, YANG Zeng-Jiang
    2018, 38(2):  218-224.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.008
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    A pot trial was conducted for Dalbergia odorifera seedlings with fertilization at levels of 0, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 150 mg P per seedling in a completely randomized block design, and seedling growth performance, biomass and foliar nutrient contents were measured and analyzed. Suitable phosphorus application was finally determined for growing seedlings of this species by critical level approach. Growth and foliar nutrient of D.odorifera seedlings were studied under different levels phosphorus addition to reveal the phosphorus demand and determine the optimal phosphorus supply for its seedlings. The results showed that addition of phosphorus fertilizer could enhance growth and biomass accumulation of D.odorifera seedlings. With the increase of phosphorus supply, seedling height, root collar diameter, lead area and biomass increased first and then declined, and their peaking values occurred at the fertilizer level of 60 mg P per seedling, which were 3.07, 3.35, 49.21 and 24.25 times of those of control. P fertilization decreased foliar nitrogen and potassium contents, while increased foliar phosphorus and magnesium contents, and foliar P contents showed no significant difference among fertilization treatments of 30, 60 and 100 mg P per seedling, which were about 1.65 times of that of control. Taking parabolic relationship between seedling biomass and foliar phosphorus content, content ratios of nitrogen to potassium and phosphorus to potassium, the optimal foliar phosphorus content ranged from 1.35-2.32 g·kg-1, and 60-100 mg P per seedling was determined as the optimal phosphorus supply for D.odorifera seedlings by critical level approach.
    Effects of Fertilization on the Vegetative and Reproductive Growth of Dalbergia odorifera T.Chen.
    WANG Li-Yun, LIU Xiao-Jin, CUI Zhi-Yi, XU Da-Ping, YANG Zeng-Jiang, ZHANG Ning-Nan, HONG Zhou, CHEN Jia-Tang, HUANG Wei-Rong
    2018, 38(2):  225-231.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.009
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    The experiment was conducted to study the fertilization on vegetative and reproductive growth of Dalbergia odorifera, and then provide useful suggestions for plantation management. The effects of Nitrogen(N, 185.6 g N per tree), Phosphorus(P, 120 g P2O5 per tree), Potassium(K, 120 g K2O per tree) as well as their mixtures(PK, 120 g P2O5 mixed with 120 g K2O per tree; NPK, 185.6 g N mixed with 120 g P2O5 and 120 g K2O per tree) on leaf growth, branch development, inflorescences set and biomass accumulation of a 8-year-old D.odorifera plantation were studied. There were significant differences on vegetative and reproductive growth of D.odorifera among these treatments(P<0.05). Nitrogen(N) treatment was helpful for vegetative growth of D.odorifera, and suitable for large-timber forest cultivation, because the ratio of vegetative branch, leaf number and leaflet width of vegetative branches were increased by 40.25%, 21.75% and 9.52%, and the inflorescence diameter and biomass were decreased by 12.75% and 48.63%, respectively. While P and P mixed with K were more appropriated for breeding purpose, because the ratio of vegetative branch was decreased by 47.96% and 46.84%, respectively. When N, P and K were mixed together(NPK), the vegetative and reproductive growth were both enhanced significantly(P<0.05), because the ratio of vegetative branch, length of vegetative branch, leaf number, leaflet length, leaflet width, branch biomass, inflorescence number and inflorescence biomass were increased by 26.04%, 68.16%, 32.98%, 15.20%, 11.40%, 83.60%, 54.20% and 49.84%, respectively. Thus, the vegetative and reproductive growth of D.odorifera can be regulated though formula fertilization(biased to N or P and K).
    A Preliminary Study on the Application of Self Pollination in Primula merrilliana Flower Color Selection
    LIU Jin, XIA Qi-Ping, WANG Jian, LI Zhen, SHAO Jian-Wen
    2018, 38(2):  232-237.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.010
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    Primula merrilliana is a rare ornamental flowers species and endemic to China. We preliminarily studied the application of self pollination in the selection and breeding of its flower color. The compatibility of self pollination in P.merrilliana was relatively higher, the average number of seeds was up to 36.03 per fruit, which reached 71.11% of the seeds of legitimate pollination(50.69 seed per fruit), and the germination rate of self pollination seeds was up to 41.13%, which was 57.98% of seeds germination rate of legitimate pollination. The analysis of flower color showed that the mean value of R of self pollination progeny population(0.382) was significantly higher than that of the parental population and the progeny population of legitimate pollination(both was about 0.375).Therefore, we should pay attention to the application of self pollination in the breeding of P.merrilliana because it is beneficial for flower color selection and obtaining of homozygous lines, although there is a certain level of inbreeding depression.
    GC/MS Metabonomics Analysis of Dioscorea bulbifera L. Microtubers Conserved in vitro at Low Temperature
    YIN Ming-Hua, DENG Hong-Gen, JIANG Yan, WAN Lin, WU Li-Xia, LING Fei, WANG Jin-Hua
    2018, 38(2):  238-246.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.011
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    We applied GC/MS detection method to different metabolites of Dioscorea bulbifera L. microtubers conserved in vitro at low temperature. Compared with D.bulbifera L. microtubers conserved in vitro at 25℃, different metabolites of D.bulbifera L. microtubers conserved in vitro at 4℃ had alanine, catechin, N,N-Di-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-methanamine, salicylic acid, citric acid and sorbose. In the conservation in vitro of microtuber at 4℃, alanine mainly involved in cyanoamino acid metabolism; Catechin mainly involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, flavonoid biosynthesis and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids; Salicylic acid mainly involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, microbial metabolism in diverse environments, plant hormone signal transduction, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, dioxin degradation, phenylalanine metabolism, degradation of aromatic compounds, biosynthesis of plant hormones, biosynthesis of siderophore group non-ribosomal peptides and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids; Citric acid mainly involved in biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from ornithine, lysine and nicotinic acid, biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from histidine and purine, microbial metabolism in diverse environments, biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites, 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism, biosynthesis of terpenoids and steroids, carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from shikimate pathway, biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from terpenoid and polyketide, citrate cycle(TCA cycle), biosynthesis of plant hormones, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, two-component system, biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids and biosynthesis of alkaloids derived from ornithine, lysine and nicotinic acid. The preliminary findings of different metabolites of D.bulbifera L. microtubers conserved in vitro at low temperature would lay the foundation for further understanding the molecular mechanism of conservation in vitro at low temperature and provide a theoretical basis for low temperature conservation breaking dormancy and its subsequent germination D.bulbifera L. microtubers.
    Analysis of BpBEE1 Gene Promoter in Betula platyphylla
    XU Si-Jia, YAN Bin, DONG Jing-Xiang, WU Dan-Yang, LI Hui-Yu
    2018, 38(2):  247-253.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.012
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    Brassinolide Enhanced Expression(BEE) genes belong to bHLH transcription factors family, and were involved in Brassinolide signal pathway. In this study, the promoter of BpBEE1 gene was cloned, and regulatory elements in the promoter regions were analyzed using the online program PLACE. The results showed that the BEE1 promoter sequence contained various hormone responses elements. The results showed that the GUS activity was increased in the veins and roots, and the activity of promoter was enhanced after MeJA, SA, BL and ABA treatment, especially MeJA, SA and BL treatment. We propose that BpBEE1 is involved in hormone response, and play a role in the process of plant growth and development.
    Arabidopsis thaliana Transcription Coactivator ANGUSTIFOLIA3(AN3) in Regulating the Stamen Formation
    LI Dan, XU Meng-Ke, JIANG Ji-Hong, MENG Lai-Sheng
    2018, 38(2):  254-259.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.013
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    Stamens are important reproductive organs which produce pollen in seed plants, and their normal development is related to the reproductive status of plants and affects the yield of crops. Two knockout mutants an3-1 and an3-4 of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription coactivator ANGUSTIFOLIA3(AN3) were identified by RT-PCR. By morphological examination, the stamens of the an3-1 and an3-4 mutants were shorter than those of wild-type, whereas, the pistils were not changed significantly. By constructing AN3 promoter with GUS expression vector, the flower tissues of obtained Pro-AN3-GUS plants were stained and observed. The AN3 promoter in Arabidopsis seed embryos, mature pollen, stigma, petals was expressed. AN3 could be expressed in important tissues such as floral organs during Arabidopsis reproductive growth. These above results are consistent with the short stamens of an3-1 and an3-4 mutants. Thus, AN3 positively regulates the stamen development of A.thaliana.
    Construction and Functional Verification of Plant Expression Vector of Tamarix ThDUF106 Gene
    GE Xiao-Lan, LIU Cai-Xia, ZHANG Xin-Xin, LI Ying, QU Guan-Zheng
    2018, 38(2):  260-267.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.014
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    ThDUF106 gene were involved in the stress tolerance of Tamarix hispida, and the expression of ThDUF106 was up-regulated in T.hispida under salt-alkali stress. In order to study the function of ThDUF106 gene in T.hispida, the temporal and spatial expression of these gene was detected by qRT-PCR in the leaves and roots of three-month T.hispida under abiotic stress such as salinity, drought and heavy metals. The gene encoding this gene was also analyzed, and the gene was constructed and transformed into tobacco by the plant expression vector. Transgenic tobacco lines and wild-type one-month seedlings were treated, and physiological and biochemical indexes were compared and analyzed. The antioxidant status of transgenic and wild type tobacco was basically the same under various duress, indicating that the gene was not expressed in tobacco and could not improve the antioxidation of tobacco.
    Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of Two bZIP Genes of Bambusa emeiensis and Their Induced Expression under Abiotic Stresses
    GONG Dao-Yong, HU Shang-Lian, CAO Ying, LU Xue-Qin, ZHANG Qing-Bo
    2018, 38(2):  268-277.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.015
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    According to the transcriptome data of Bambusa emeiensis shoot, two bZIP genes designated as BebZIP2 and BebZIP6 were cloned and their bioinformatics were analyzed. The bioinformatics analysis results showed that the full-length cDNA sequence of BebZIP2 and BebZIP6 were 504 and 720 bp, and encoded 167 and 239 amino acids, respectively. BebZIPs and rice OsbZIP52/RISB5 proteins were clustered into the same branch, which were bZIP-related proteins. The tissue expression patterns of two BebZIP genes were analyzed by real-time PCR. Two BebZIP gene sequences were expressed in all shoots, stalks, unfolding leaves and rolled leaves of B.emeiensis. There were the expression differences of the same gene in the different tissues and expression quantity in the descending order was unfolding leaves, rolled leaves, stalks and shoots. The seedlings of B.emeiensis were treated with ABA, NaCl and PEG 6000 for abiotic stress analysis. The expression level of BebZIP2 and BebZIP6 genes treated by salt, drought and ABA stresses have different degree of sensitivity.
    Gnentic Diversity and Phylogeographic Structure of Triosteum pinnatifidum based Chloroplast DNA Sequence rbcL-accD
    LIU Hai-Rui, GAO Qing-Bo, ZHANG Fa-Qi, XING Rui, CHI Xiao-Feng, CHEN Shi-Long
    2018, 38(2):  278-283.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.016
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    Triosteum pinnatifidum is perennial herb belonging to Triosteum (Caprifoliaceae) with the distribution in northwest Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent mountain regions and Japan. It's endemic species of East Asia. We studied the sequence features, genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of T.pinnatifidum based on chloroplast DNA intergenic region rbcL-accD. Analysis of molecular variance for the whole populations revealed that 72.28% of total genetic variation occurred among populations, and 27.72% within populations. Dominant haplotype H2 had wide distribution while the private haplotypes could be found in different populations. There was no phylogeographic structure(NST<GST) and low gene flow(Nm=0.096), indicating the geographic isolation and variable habitat created by the special topography or ecological environment on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent mountain regions may form current distribution of haplotypes. T.pinnatifidum experienced nonsignificant species selection or expansion. Indeed, we speculate there were different refugias for T.pinnatifidum during glaciations, it spread to current locations during interglaciation or postglaciation. To know the details of refuges and the migration routes, more work are needed in future survey.
    Effects of Exogenous Ethylene on Physiology and Alkaloid Accumulations in Catharanthus roseus
    CHANG Bo-Wen, LIU Jie, ZHONG Peng, GUO Xiao-Rui
    2018, 38(2):  284-291.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.017
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    Catharanthus roseus, as a medicinal plant, contains more than 100 terpenoid indole alkaloids(TIAs), including vinblastine and vincristine which focus on anti-cancer effects. In order to study the comprehensive influence of exogenous ethylene on growth, physiology, and terpenoid indole alkaloid accumulations, C.roseus seedlings were cultured as experimental material and contrasted the data of biomass, growth rate of root and stem, photosynthetic parameter and alkaloid contents with or without ethephon treatment, and the correlations between these indexes were analyzed. The ethylene release amount and the expression of erf(ethylene-response factor) gene were increased under exogenous ethylene treatment. Ethephon inhibited biomass, longitudinal growth but promoted lateral thickening growth of stem; in addition, net photosynthetic rate(Pn) and stomatal conductance(Gs) were decreased leading from non-stomatal factor. The biosynthesis of four alkaloids including strictosidine(STR), catharanthine(CAT), vindoline(VIN) and vinblastine(VINB) were accelerated in ethephon-treatment group, and the expression of key enzyme genes(str and CrPRX) were up-regulated by ethephon. By correlation analysis, we found that relationships among alkaloid contents, growth indexes and photosynthetic parameters were significant and photosynthetic parameters were significant. It were positive relation between three alkaloids including CAT, VIN, VINB and stem diameter(SD)(P < 0.05). On the contrary, there was a significantly negative relations between these three alkaloids and biomass(B), height(H), root length(RL), net photosynthetic rate(Pn)(P < 0.05). Our study will provide useful information for mechanism research of exogenous ethylene regulating TIAs biosynthesis in C.roseus.
    Simplified Genome SSR Information and Development of SSR Primers of Halenia ellipitica(Gentianaceae)
    WANG Jiu-Li, CHEN Shi-Long, XING Rui, SONG Xiang-Jie, ZHU Ming-Xing, ZHANG Fa-Qi
    2018, 38(2):  292-297.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.018
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    The restriction-site associated DNA sequencing(RAD-seq) technology was used to analyze simple sequence repeats(SSR) information of Halenia ellipitica D. Don; SSR markers for this species were developed based on RAD-seq data. We identified 6 201 SSR loci with at least 100 bp at two ends, including five types(di-nucleotide, tri-nucleotide, tetra-nucleotide, penta-nucleotide, and hexa-nucleotide). Primers of 3 865 loci were designed successfully. Among which, amount of tri-nucleotide SSR loci is the most. Repeat motif type number is 316, and type number of penta-nucleotide motif is the most(91). Afterward, 65 designed primers were randomly selected to represent the five SSR types, and tested using annealing temperature gradient PCR. Subsequently, 32 individuals from four natural populations of H. elliptica were employed to estimate the SSR primers that can be amplified. One monomorphic and 13 polymorphic SSR loci were developed according to the result of PCR and Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The number of alleles of the 13 polymorphic SSR loci is high(mean 5.462), and no linkage relation was found(P<0.01); ten loci deviate from HWE(P<0.01) and have many homozygotes(observed heterozygosity mean of 0.226); the range of inbreeding coefficient is in -0.443-1(mean of 0.656); the gene flow Nm is 0.474.
    Variation in Flavonoids Biosynthesis during Seed Germination and Post-germination Growth in Astragalus membranaceus
    YANG Nan, WANG Xi, GUO Xiao-Rui, LIU Yang, TANG Zhong-Hua, WANG Hong-Zheng
    2018, 38(2):  298-305.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.019
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    Based on the stage definitions of seed germination and post-germination growth, we investigated the variations of contents of three major flavonoids during the two stages in Astragalus membranaceus and its variety of mongholicus. Besides, in order to understand how the variations were induced, the transcriptions of pathway enzyme involving in flavonoid biosynthesis were profiled. The contents of flavonoids increased during the two stages in both A.membranaceus and the variety. With the detection of gene transcriptions of the pathway enzymes, only the enzymes in upstream of the pathway contributed to the increase of flavonoids in the variety of mongholicus during the germination, whereas it was that almost all the pathway enzymes were involved in A.membranaceus. The transcriptions of pathway enzymes regulated the accumulations of flavonoids during post-germination growth, selectively with a pattern of time delay.
    Meta-analysis Identify Candidate Genes for Cold Stress Response in Arabidopsis
    DUAN Ben-Yao, ZHANG Xue-Jie, FAN Shou-Jin, ZHANG Luo-Yan
    2018, 38(2):  306-315.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.020
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    Cold stress is one of the major environmental limitations to agricultural productivity throughout the world. Overcoming the defects of microarray sequencing analyses caused by heterogeneity in individual studies and prediction of cold stress response candidate genes and pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana are requisite for cold tolerant crop-plant design and mining potential salt responses mechanisms. A literature searching strategy was used to identify salt stress response expression profiling studies in Arabidopsis from the PubMed database, the Gene Expression Omnibus(GEO) database, and the ArrayExpress database. Eight studies were filtered from the 1 166, 298 and 695 identified studies. The batch effect correction and the effect size analysis based on the NetworkAnalyst web tool were combined to integrate 8 microarray datasets, and 1 553 up-regulated and 4 327 down-regulated were identified with in low temperature treated samples. From the functional enrichment analyses results and the differently spatio-temporal expression patterns of transcriptional factors(TFs), protein kinases(PKs) and several plant hormone-related genes, plant hormone related stress signal construction pathways, ion and protein kinases related signaling pathways and transcriptional regulation were predicted to participate in regulating cold stress response in Arabidopsis.
    The in vitro Culture for Vaccinium vitis-idaea Stem Apex
    LI Yan-Xia, DENG Ji-Feng, LI Gui-Jun
    2018, 38(2):  316-320.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.02.021
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    In order to improve the breeding rate and qualities of Vaccinium vitis-idaea seedlings, in our study, V.vitis-idaea stem apexes were used as research materials, then rapid propagation systems of plants induced by stem apex in vitro culture was established. The results indicated that the optimal induced stem apex in vitro culture is WPM(improved) +ZT 0.05 mg·L-1 +IBA 0.5 mg·L-1 +GA3 0.1 mg·L-1. The success rate of plants induced by 0.1-0.3 mm long stem apex was only 28%, while such a rate of plants induced by 0.3-0.5 mm long stem apex was up to 68%; then stem apex reached to 0.5-0.7 mm, the success rate was 79%, and the success rate of plants induced by 0.7-1.0 mm long stem apex reached up to 94%.