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    20 July 2007, Volume 27 Issue 4
    Rhododendron Zhangjiajieense,a New Species of the Rhododendron from Hunan, China
    PENG Chun-Liang;YAN Li-Hong;LIAO Ju-Yang;HUANG Wen-Tao
    2007, 27(4):  385-387.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.001
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    Rhododendron zhangjiajieense C. L. Peng et L. H. Yan, The new species is related to Rhododendron wiltonii Hemsl. et Wils., but it differs in the shorter and smaller leaves, 6.8~8 cm long and 2~2.5 cm broad, adaxial surface flat, not being coarsely bullate-rugose, abaxial surface indumentums yellow to rust-red, 1-layered, felted hairs, 5~6(9) flowers, smaller, corolla 2.5 cm long.
    A New Variety of Magnolia officinalis Rehd. & Wils.
    FU Da-Li;ZHAO Tian-Bang;DAI Hui-Tang;SUN Jin-Hua;ZHOU Dao-Shun
    2007, 27(4):  388-389.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.002
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    A new variety from China, Magnolia officinalis Rehd. & Wils. var. glabra D. L. Fu, T. B. Zhao et H. T. Dai, var. nov., has been described. The variety is glabrous on branches, stipules, top leaf buds, mixed buds, flower buds and pedicels.

    Lectotypification of Five Rudolf Görz’s Names in Salix Linn.(Salicaceae)
    SUN Qian;LIN Qi*
    2007, 27(4):  390-392.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.003
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    Lectotypes for two species, two varieties and one form of the genus Salix Linn.(Salicaceae) are here designated under Article 8.1, 9.4, 9.9 and 9.10, and Recommendation 9A.1, 9A.2, 9A.3 and 9A.4 of the St. Louis Code (Greuter & al., 2000), because two or more collections were cited, but indicated no holotype in the protologue written by Rudolf Görz in the thesis,“Additamenta ad Salicologiam Sinicam” from Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology(Botany), 1935, 6(1): 1-26.
    Taxonomy Significance Based on Pollen Morphology Observation of Five Species of Magnolia L. Including Magnolia wufengensis L. Y. Ma et L. R. Wang
    RUI Fei-Yan;MA Lü-Yi*;PENG Zuo-Deng;HE Sui-Chao;WANG Xi-Qun
    2007, 27(4):  393-397.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.004
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    Pollens of 5 species of Magnolia were observed and screened with light microscope(LM) and scanning electron microscope(SEM) respectively; pollen size were measured under LM; and the metrical results were analyzed. The results show that under the LM all pollen appear as oval or close to rotundity, but these species are different in size and shape, and also the distinctions exist in different trees of same species; while under SEM, all the pollens appear as boats, every pollen has a closed sprout channel whose length almost equal to the longer axis of pollen, the characters of pollen surfaces are steadily in same species, but there are some visible differences among pollen of different species and these differences can provide important morphologic basis for classification of species of Magnolia L..
    Newly Observed on the Gametophyte of Neottoperis
    DI Na;WANG Xiao-Nan;LIU Bao-Dong*
    2007, 27(4):  398-401.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.005
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    Without any extra hormone, by separating the air to the spores, the spores of Neottopteris antrophyoides in liquid culture, the first successful induction of N. antrophyoides (Christ) Ching has been realized and the male gametophyte of simplification is almost the same as pollen grain that is in composition of one nutritional cell, one rhizoide and one antheridium. This article discussed the possible role in the evolution of environmental factor in the history of the system of high class plant life.
    Megasporogenesis, Microsporogenesis and the Development of the Female and Male Gametophyte of Limonium gmelinii
    ZHOU Ling-Ling;LI Wei;LIU Ping
    2007, 27(4):  402-407.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.006
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    The megasporogenesis, microsporogenesis and formation of female gametophyte and male gametophyte of Limonium gmelinii were reported in this paper. The main results can be concluded as follows: (1)The microspore mother cell underwent meiosis before it turned into microspore tetrad. Its cytokinesis was simultaneous type, tetrads were mostly tetrahedral, less frequently isobilateral. (2)The mature pollen grains was of the 3-celled type and each had three germ pores. (3)The anther wall were composed of five layers cell, They were epidermis, endothecium, middle layer (two layers) and tapetum respectively, It belonged to basic type, and the tapetum was amoeboid type. (4)The pistil was composed of five carpels, the ovary was coadnate, basal placenta, having only one circinotropous ovule, the ovule was crassinucellate and had two layers of integument; (5)The archesporial cell came from the nucellar cells under the nucellar epidermis and formed the sporogenous cell after a periclinal division, then the sporogenous cell developed into the megaspore mother cell directly, then the megaspore mother cell underwent meiosis and gave rise to a linear tetrad of megaspore, the chalazal megaspore was functional and developed into mature embryo sac. The development pattern of female gametophyte was of the Polygonum type.
    Morphological Anatomical Studies on Aceraceae Vessel Element from Heilongjiang Province,China
    ZHANG Da-Wei;XING Yi;DANG An-Zhi
    2007, 27(4):  408-411.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.007
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    By means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and resin casting method, the morphological structure of the vessel element in plants of Aceraceae in Heilongjiang province which includes 8 species in Acer Linn. is studied, The result shows that the length of vessel element is between 187.5 μm and 133.00 μm, except for Acer mandshurica Maxim. which has large longer length than other species. The width of vessel element is between 17.06 μm and 28.00 μm. In the types of pits of vessel element, there are alternate pitting only, opposite pitting only and both. The pits between vessels are distributed in groups, most of them show some forms. The relationship between the main characters of vessel element and their habitat is studied.
    A Study on the Embryo and Its Nutritive Tissues, Endosperm and Perisperm of Nymphaeaceae in China
    SUN Yan;ZHANG Xin-Xin;WANG Chen*;LIU Mei;LIU Ming-Yuan
    2007, 27(4):  412-415.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.008
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    The embryo,endosperm and perisperm in 3 species, Euryale ferox Salisb.Nymphaea tetragona Geargi and Nuphar pumilum DC. of Nymphaeaceae were Studied in this paper.The common characters of embryo are the well developed shoot apex,especial the plumule with 2~4 plumular leaves,and the diapausing root apex. All of the 3 species have both endosperm and perisparm ,but the former only remains and the latter is very rich in the mature seeds.Finally,the meaning of these characters in phylogeny were discussed.
    Effects of High Temperature Stress on Photosynthesis Rate, Contents of Chlorophyll, Ca2+-ATPase,Mg2+-ATPase in Chloroplast and Ca2+ Distribution in Peanut Seedlings
    ZAI Xue-Ming;QIN Pei;WU Guo-Rong;WANG Guang;YAN Dao-Liang
    2007, 27(4):  416-420.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.009
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    Peanut seedlings potted after tank farming were cultured at 42℃ in incubator, and the photosynthesis rate, contents of chlorophyll, activities of Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase in chloroplast were measured regularly and the Ca2+ distribution in young leafage was observed accordingly. The results show that under high temperature stress, the photosynthesis rate and contents of chlorophyll decreased, and were positively correlated. Moreover, activities of Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase in chloroplast increased early and then decreased later, and the sensitivity to heat of Ca2+-ATPase was higher than Mg2+-ATPase. In addition, most of Ca2+ was transferred to cytosol and chloroplast across the plasmalemma, and Ca2+ could stabilize the structures of membrane and chloroplast under high temperature stress.
    Comparative Study on Physiological Characteristics Between an Invasive Plant Spartina alterniflora and Indigenous Plant Phragmites communis
    BAO Fang;SHI Fu-Chen*
    2007, 27(4):  421-427.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.010
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    Spartina alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial, native to the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of North America, occurring from Quebec and Newfoundland to Florida and Texas. In China, S. alterniflora was introduced to stabilize shorelines and increase vegetative cover in 1979, and now flourished in many inter-tidal zones of gulfs and estuaries with its spread. As a consequence of rapid globalization, greatly increased emphasis is placed on research of the ecology of invasive plants. S. alterniflora was introduced into Haihe estuary in 1998, it has gradually occupied a large area of the indigenous plant Phragmites communis zone, and P. communis was squeezed out into a higher plot. In this study, the POD, CAT, SOD activities, the contents of free proline and soluble sugar, and the relative permeability of plasma membrane in different organs between the two species were measured and compared. The experiments were performed during the growing season in 2005 at Haihe delta wetland, in E 117°45′, N 39°03′. The main experimental results were as follows:The SOD, POD, CAT activities, free proline and soluble sugar contents of S. alterniflora were lower than those of P. communis; Free proline and soluble sugar were two compatible substances and played important roles in keeping osmotic balance in both S. alterniflora and P. communis; Relative plasma membrane permeability tended to remain stable in both species, and maintain at a higher value in S. alterniflora than that in P. communis as a whole. These results could be helpful in explaining the physiological and ecological mechanisms of S. alterniflora with respect to its strong competitive ability.
    Studies on Anatomical Structures of Leaves and Their Drought Tolerance Features of Sedum aizoon L. and Sedum spectabilis Boreau
    SU Dan;ZHANG Jin-Zheng*;SUN Guo-Feng;XING Quan;GU De-Feng;DONG Ran
    2007, 27(4):  428-433.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.011
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    Epidermal characters and anatomical structure of leaves of Sedum aizoon L. and S. spectabilis Boreau have been observed by the light microscope and the influence of the leaf anatomical structure of two species in different soil water stress were studied. The results showed that there was a strongly relationship between the morphological, anatomical structures with their drought adaptability. There have the thin cuticle and well-developed aquiferous tissues in the mature leaves of two species. And there was ambiguous differentiation between spongy and palisade tissue in mesophyll. The vascular bundle of S. spectabilis Boreau and S. aizoon L.were more developed and they have well-developed stomatic chamber which below the epidermic cell. We also discovered many idioblasts which can drank and reserved much water around the vascular bundle. These characters were the key factors for the drought tolerance of both two species.
    The Photosynthetic Characteristics of Camellia euphlebia
    WEI Xiao;WANG Man-Liang;JIANG Yun-Sheng;TANG Hui;CHEN Zhong-You;CAO Hong-Lin*
    2007, 27(4):  434-438.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.012
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    The photosynthetic characteristics of leaves in Camellia euphlebia were studied with LI-6400 (Li-Cor Inc., USA) portable photosynthesis system. The results showed that the diurnal changes of photosynthetic rate (Pn) in C. euphlebia exhibited a mono-peak style, and the maximum value of Pn appeared at 11:00 am in summer. The maximum photosynthetic rate(Pmax), light saturation point(LSP), light compensation point(LCP)for the leaves of C. euphlebia were 3.81 μmol·m-2·s-1, 459.9 μmol·m-2·s-1 and 6.9 μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively. The light saturation and compensation point were very low, which indicated that C. euphlebia was a shade plant. Under the condition of optimum light intensity and temperature, the net photosynthetic rate of C. euphlebia increased linearly when the concentration of CO2 enhanced from 50 μmol·mol-1 to 800 μmol·mol-1. Elevation of CO2 concentration increased the Pn and the efficiency of ligh utilizing in C. euphlebia. The CO2 saturation (CSP), compensation point(Г*), the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax)and maximum rate of electron transport(Jmax) were about 1 200 μmol•mol-1, 70.1 μmol·mol-1, 17.5 μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively.
    Effects of Shading Treatment on Photosynthetic Response and Life Cycle form of Taxus chinensis var. mairei
    SUN Jia-Yin;YANG Feng-Jian;PANG Hai-He;ZHANG Xue-Ke;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2007, 27(4):  439-444.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.013
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    The differences of photosynthetic response,photopigment and life cycle form of 5 years old Taxus chinensis var. mairei which live in the environment of 89% Shading treatment and change the light condition into 46.4% Shading treatment and full light for 50 days was studied.The result showed that the light compensation point of 89% Shading treatment,46.4% Shading treatment and full light was 18.88,30.52,65.34 μmol·m-2·s-1, and the light saturation point was 287.01,258.25,358.92 μmol·m-2·s-1,we can see that the shading treatment can reduce the light compensation point and light saturation point,so the plants can make the best of faint light,height the Photosynthesis rate,enhance the photosynthetic capacity,these changes of 89% is the biggest.Along with the degree increasing of shading treatment,the content of photopigment in the leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei which include chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b and carotenoids increased too,and that the ratio of the content of chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b decreased,the result showd that shading treatment can make the best of the light energy,especially blue-violet light,enhance the photosynthetic capacity.We also studied the effects of shading treatment on life cycle form of Taxus chinensis var. mairei,the life cycle form of 89% Shading treatment,46.4% Shading treatment and full light is V0.836C0.164,V0.625C0.375 and V0.772C0.228,the vegetative growth of 89% is the most exuberant.So we can conclude that 89% shading treatment can provide the most suitable condition for Taxus chinensis var. mairei in these three kinds of conditions.
    Effects of Water Stress on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Spruce
    AO Hong;ZHANG Yu
    2007, 27(4):  445-448.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.014
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    Photosynthetic characteristics of 3-years-old Korean spruce and Nenjiang spruce seedlings were studied under different water conditions in order to explore their adaptation mechanism to water stress. The results showed that maximum photosynthetic rate(Pmax)under different light reduced with the reducing of soil moisture content, and the reduction of Nenjiang spruce is smaller; apparent quantum yield (AQY),transpiration rate(Tr), stomatal conductance (Gs) also decreased. Dark respiration rate(Rd)and water use efficiency(WUE) rised firstly and then descended as drought become intensified, however, intercellular (Ci)descended firstly then rised. These results showed that photosynthesis was limited by non-stomatal factor under serious drought. It is indicated that the ability to water stress of Nenjiang spruce is stronger than that of Korean spruce by comparing above indexes.
    Genetic Relationships of the Sand Geographical Substitute Species of Genus Artemisia in China by RAPD Marker
    WANG Tie-Juan;HAN Guo-Dong
    2007, 27(4):  449-454.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.015
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    23 populations of the six species were collected from respective distribution range and were analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 303 loci were obtained from 15 random primers. The cluster analysis basing on genetic distances demonstrated that the populations of every species were clustered together respectively. Then the populations of A. intramongolica were clustered together with the populations of A. ordosica, following with the populations of A. halodendron. It indicated that genetic relationships of this three species were the nearest, and it was more near between A. intramongolica and A. ordosica. The populations of A. sphaerocephala were clustered together with the population of A. songarica indicated that genetic relationship of the two species were near. A. wudanica was an independent branch, so the kinships between A. wudanica and others were far. The cluster analysis on the species demonstrated the same results. A. intramongolica was regarded as geographic subspecies of A. ordosica because of their populations being the nearest according to the cluster analysis, their genetic identity amounting to 0.964 1, their small calathide and similar morphological characteristic.
    Cloning of a Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Promoter from Jatropha curcas and Construction of Expression Vector
    ZHANG Shu-Wen;GAO Fan;QIN Xiao-Bo;XU Ying*;CHEN Fang
    2007, 27(4):  455-459.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.016
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    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) plays a crucial role in phenylpropanoid metabolism and provides precursors of various phenylpropanoid compounds. The 1 334 bp 5′upstream region of the gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was isolated from Jatrapha curcas L. by the DNA walking technology. Sequence analysis revealed that the PAL promoter sequence contains not only CAAT and TATA basic modifs that are conserved in the eukaryotic gene promoter, but also various stress related cis-acting elements. Especially, many cis-elements observed in other phenylalanine ammonia lyase promoters are also found in the JcPAL promoter. For further study on the relationship of organization and function of JcPAL promoter, four JcPALP fragments with different deletion regions were inserted into vector pBI121(with GUS report gene) to replace CaMV35S promoter and might be used to investigate their corresponding expression pattern.
    Cloning and Characterization of Beclin1-like Gene in Eupatorium adenophorum Buds
    WANG Min;LIU Ying;LI Si-Bin;JIANG Yang;QI Chang-Qing;WANG Li;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2007, 27(4):  460-464.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.017
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    It was found in the present study that programmed cell death (PCD) took place during the tapetum degenerating and pollen developing by microscopical observation and DNA ladder detection in Eupatorium adenophorum buds. Simultaneously, Beclin1-like gene was cloned from E. adenophorum buds at four different growth stages by RT-PCR method. The partial Beclin1-like gene (679 bp) was 98% similar to that of tobacco leaves (AY701316). Northern blotting showed that the expression of Beclin1-like gene in the stage Ⅱ was the strongest. The Beclin1-like gene was cloned in E. adenophorum buds for the first time and some relationships between the Beclin1-like Gene and PCD during the procreation of E. adenophorum were demonstrated. In addition, the results provided a new idea to further explore the invading mechanism of E. adenophorum.
    Extraction cDNA Fragments Specially Expressed in Lines M14 in Sugar Beet by mRNA Differential Display
    LI Hai-Ying;MA Chun-Quan;YU Bing;GAO Chuan-Jun;ZHANG Shao-Jun;ZHANG Ying;GUO De-Dong
    2007, 27(4):  465-468.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.018
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    A monosomic addition line in sugar beet, which was designated as M14 was obtained by the wide cross between cultivated sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and Beta corolliflora Zoss. M14 contained the 18 normal chromosomes of sugar beet plus the B. corolliflora chromosome 9. This alien chromosome in M14 had an average transmission frequency of 96.5% through eggs, the reason it had so high transmission frequency was that it had apomixis genes. By mRNA differential display method, the study compared gene expression at the stage of meiosis in florescence between M14 and cultivated sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) A2Y which can carry out normal sexual reproduction. The anchored primer were GT15A, GT15G, GT15C,and twenty arbitrary primers were used. By RT-PCR, six positive specific cDNA fragments were obtained. Analysis was performed on NCBI, and comparison the similarity with published sequences was carried out using the BLASTx program. These cDNA fragments were the candidate fragments to clone the apomixis genes.
    Effects of Bacillus pumilus on Biomass and β-carotene Accumulation in Dunaliella salina SZ-05
    DU Cai-Hua;ZHENG Wei-Fa*;ZHAO Yan-Xia;WEI Jiang-Chun;CHU Cheng-Cai
    2007, 27(4):  469-472.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.019
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    Bacillus pumilus was investigated for its effects on the accumulation of biomass and β-carotene in the culture of Dunaliella salina SZ-05. The results showed that the presence of B. pumilus significantly increased the growth rate and the accumulation of biomass and β-carotene in the culture of D. salina SZ-05, and reduced the dissolved oxygen and exopolysaccharides. The reduction of dissolved oxygen resulted in a decreased photorespiration in alga cells and hence an increased photosynthesis, and consequently an enhanced growth rate and biomass accumulation. Exopolysaccharides were found to be the active agents to quench free radicals. In stress conditions, the reduction of exopolysaccharides might triggered an enhanced biosynthesis of β-carotene, leading to an increased accumulation of β-carotene.
    cpSSR Analysis of Variation of Genetic Diversity in Temporal Dimension of Natural Population of Pinus koraiensis in Liangshui National Nature Reserve
    SHAO Dan;PEI Ying;ZHANG Heng-Qing*
    2007, 27(4):  473-477.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.020
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    With cpSSR method, the variation of genetic diversity in temporal dimension of natural population of Pinus koraiensis in Liangshui national nature reserve was studied in this paper. Total 121 P. koraiensis samples aged from 101 to 420 years were grouped into 6 age classes. 5 polymorphic loci were obtained from 2 pairs of SSR primers and the percentage of SSR polymorphic loci was 71.43%.With the POPGENE analysis software, the genetic diversity index was calculated and the variation of genetic diversity was analyzed in every age class level. The results showed that the genetic diversity of P. koraiensis in Liangshui National Nature Reserve didn’t fluctuate very much during 320 years. The differentiation of genetic diversity is not obvious in age class level, and genetic diversity of P. koraiensis primarily existed within age class.
    The Predicting Models of Crown Surface Area and Crown Volume for Mongolian Pine Plantation
    LIAO Cai-Xia;lLI Feng-Ri
    2007, 27(4):  478-483.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.021
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    Based on the branch analysis data of 30 sample trees from 6 permanent plots in Mongolian pine (Pinus Sylvestris var. mongolica) plantation, the predicting models of crown surface area and crown volume were developed according to power function as base model by analyzing the relationship between crown surface area and crown volume with stand and tree variables. Also, the correlation between volume increment with crown surface area and crown volume were analyzed. The result showed that crown surface area and crown volume are increasing with DBH, total height, and crown length and the volume increment of tree is significantly linear correlated with crown surface area and crown volume for Mongolian pine plantation. For different stand conditions, crown surface area and crown volume were increased with stand age and DBH. The crown surface area was decreased with stand density and the relationship between crown volume and stand density was not significant. The predicting models of crown surface area and crown volume developed in this paper were evaluated. The test results indicated that relative mean errors in predicted stand attributes were less than ±8% and the estimated precisions of the stand variables were all greater than 91% for each model. Therefore, the models developed in this paper are suitable for estimating the crown surface area and crown volume under different stand conditions for Mongolian pine plantation.
    论文
    The Diversity of Seed Plants in Liugujian Nature Reserve and Its Conservation Strategy
    CHEN Ming-Lin;LIU Deng-Yi*;CUI Shu-Qing;LIU Xue-Yun
    2007, 27(4):  484-493.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.022
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    Liugujian Nature Reserve (LNR hereafter) is a vital part of middle subtropical vegetational zone in the mountainous region in South Anhui. It is an inartificial species gene store, with 994 species of seed plants in 529 genera of 134 families and 35 rare conserved plants. The floristic elements, whose origin is ancient, are complex, with many ancient families and genera as well as many relic species. Many southern and northern floristic components are found in LNR, which shows that it is a transitional region, and the vertical and horizontal vicarism is obvious. According to the geographic distribution of 529 genera, they can be categorized into 14 distribution types, which shows the flora is correlated widely with that of the world. The ratio of R/T is 0.70, with 56.9% temperate elements and 40.0% tropical elements, so it is slightly higher than that in Huangshan Mountain (0.57), Qingliangfeng (0.53) as well as Tiantangzhai (0.51), and is similar to that in Qiyun Mountains (0.77), which shows there exists higher tropical character than that in Huangshan Mountain, Qingliangfeng, Tiantangzhai, and has similar character to Qiyun Mountains. The vertical zonation of vegetations is conspicuous, and the vegetations from base belt to top belt are arranged in turn as follows: agriculture-cultivated belt (below the elevation of 700 m), mixed evergreen-deciduous broadleaved forest belt (700~1 100 m), deciduous broadleaved forest belt (1 100~ 1 300 m), mountain shrubbery belt (1 300~1 500 m) and alpine meadow belt (above 1 500 m), among which the typical vegetation is mixed evergreen-deciduous broadleaved forest belt, whose diversity indices are as follows: Simpson index is 8.82±2.70,Shannon-Wiener index is 2.62±0.27,PIE index is 0.88±0.05 and evenness index is 0.78±0.07, which shows that the species diversity of the community is rich, with uniform species distribution and stable structure. Based on the ordination of PCA, 21 floras are grouped into South China, East China and North China flora, respectively. In order to protect and restore the evergreen broadleaved forest, middle subtropical evergreen-deciduous broadleaved forest and some rare, endangered plants such as Pseudotsuga gaussenii, et al. more efficiently here, some protection measures are proposed in present paper.
    Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Seed Germination of Three Solanaceous Vegetables
    SHANG Sang;TIAN Li-Bo;HUANG Mian-Jia;CAI Jie
    2007, 27(4):  494-499.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.023
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    Tomato, brinjaul and capsicum seeds were treated with simulated acid rain at pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.5 (as ck)levels in order to research the effects of acid rain on their germination. According to the four germination indexes of germination percentage, germination energy, germination index and average germination percentage per day, the results showed the germination of tomato seeds was slightly inhibited at pH 2.0~3.0; however, brinjaul seeds was greatly inhibited, especially at pH 2.0 and they almost can’t germinate; capsicum seeds were not affected by the variational pH values, and germinated well. All four germination indexes reduced with pH decreased. Under the acid rain stress from pH 2.0 to pH 5.0, the amplitude difference of water absorbance value was capsicum (13.75) < tomato (19.91) < brinjaul (20.58), under the same acid rain stress condition, the inhibition index of shoot length, decreasing amplitude difference of protein content and amplitude difference of MDA content was capsicum < tomato < brinjaul. The results indicated that the resistance ability to acid rain was capsicum > tomato > brinjaul.
    The Influence of UV Radiation on the Contents of Paclitaxel and Cephalomannine in the Fresh Leaves of Taxus cuspidata
    LI Shuang-Ming;SUN Rui;LUO Hao;SUN Su;WANG Ying;FU Yu-Jie*
    2007, 27(4):  500-503.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.024
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    The influence of UV wavelength, time of radiation and the processing method of sample on the content of paclitaxel and cephalomannine in the fresh leaves of Taxus cuspidata was studied in the article, in which two wavelength of 254 nm and 365 nm were used. The results showed that two kinds of UV radiation could enhance the content of two compounds in the fresh leaves of Taxus cuspidata by radiating the water homogenate of the fresh leaves. But, the increase trend of two compounds was different under diverse UV radiation. The wavelength of 365 nm made the content of two compounds achieve the maximum in 2 hours. And the rate of increase were 44.6% for paclitaxel and 53.0% for cephalomannine. While the wavelength of 254 nm needed 8 hours. The rate of increase were 39.2% for paclitaxel and 24.3% for cephalomannine. Thus,the content of paclitaxel and cephalomannine in the fresh leaves of Taxus cuspidata can be enhanced rapidly and effectively by radiating the water homogenate of the fresh leaves under UV radiation.
    Extraction of Solanesol from Tobacco Leaves by Supercritical Fluid CO2
    LI Wen-Song;YANG Yun-Quan*;LUO He-An;DUAN Zheng-Kang;LIU Wen-Ying
    2007, 27(4):  504-508.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.025
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    The process for solanesol extracting from tobacco leaves with Supercritical Fluid CO2 was studied. The factors affecting the process were researched including temperature, pressure, the flow-rate of CO2, the manner of extraction, entrainers and its adding manner. The optimum extraction conditions of solanesol were investigated by orthogonal design of four factors and three levels with the goal of solanesal extraction yield. It was found for a more accurate determination method of free solanesol in tobacco leaves and the extracted anthraquinones were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).It was the goal to study the method of improving the extraction yield of solanesol,and provide certain guidance of the industrialized production.The results show that the optimum extracting parameters were: methanol as entrainer, the flow-rate of CO2 at 15 kg·h-1, temperature at 45℃ and pressure under 25 MPa,Under optimal extraction conditions,the extraction yield of solanesol was 92.1%.
    The Inhibiting Effects of Extracts from the Ginkgo(Ginkgo biloba L.) Testas Against Pathogen Cylindrocladium colhounii
    FENG Lu;LUAN Yu-Shi*;FAN Yong-Qiang
    2007, 27(4):  509-512.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.04.026
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    Three kinds of extracts from ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) testas were examined for the inhibiting effects against plant pathogen Cylindrocladium colhounii using mycelium growth inhibition method. MIC and MBC of three kinds of extracts were also determined. The results showed that, in the same experiment days, ethanolic extracts exhibited the best inhibiting effect and its minimum efficacy is 37.4%, followed by petroleum ether extracts with a minimum efficacy of 23.7%, and the minimum efficacy of fresh extracts is 18.4%. When extracts concentration comes to an appropriate value, three kinds of extracts could achieve an efficacy of 100%. MIC and MBC of three kinds of extracts were 86.25/86.25 172.5/276 and 293.25/345 mg·mL-1, respectively. The results indicated that the inhibiting components of ginkgo testas dissolved in ethanol more easily than in other two solvents, which provides scientific reference for the application of extracts from ginkgo testas as biological fungicide in agriculture.