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    20 September 2007, Volume 27 Issue 5
    Rare and Endangered Plant,a New Variety of Camellia L. (Theaceae) from Sichuan Province,China
    LIU Jian-Lin;MENG Xiu-Xiang;LUO Qiang;LI Xiao-Jiang;YUAN Ying;YANG Hong
    2007, 27(5):  513-514.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.002
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    A new variety of Camellia L. (Theaceae) from Sichuan Province, China is reported and named it as Camellia pitardii Cohen Stuart var. panxiensis J. L. Liu.
    Alpine New Bamboos from Sichuan,Tibet and Chongqing China
    YI Tong-Pei;SHI Jun-Yi;YANG Lin
    2007, 27(5):  515-520.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.002
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    Two new species of Bambusoidiae, F. damuniu Yi et J. Y. Shi, Fargesia yajiangensis Yi et J. Y. Shi, is described and illustrated from N. Sichuan & S. Tibet, China. This paper gives the supplementary descriptions about the character of the flower and fruit of Fargesia brevissima Yi, it is also first recorded for Fargesia Franchet emend. Yi Sect. Ampullares Yi.
    Two New Varieties of Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. from Shandong Province
    QIAN Guan-Ze;SHAO Wen-Hao;LIU Lian-Fen;TANG Geng-Guo
    2007, 27(5):  521-524.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.003
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    Two varieties of (Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd.) from Shandong Province were reported. They are Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. var. taiensis G. Z. Qian and var. mengshanensis G. Z. Qian et W. H. Shao. The former differed to the type by the obtuse and smaller sawteeth, small flowers less than 2 cm in dia., and very small fresh red fruits which is ca. 6 mm in dia., the latter differed to the type by the larger, bright and flat leaves, and larger obtuse sawteeth, the more and straight veins.
    Two New Varieties of Yulania Spach from Henan
    FU Da-Li;ZHAO Tian-Bang;ZHAO Jie;ZHAO Dong-Wu
    2007, 27(5):  525-526.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.004
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    Two new varieties of Yulania Spach from Henan have been described: ①Y. biondii (Pamp.) D. L. Fu var. angustitepala D. L. Fu,T. B. Zhao et D. W. Zhao, var. nov.; ②Y. pilocarpa (Z. Z. Zhao et Z. W. Xie) D. L. Fu var. ellipticifolia D. L. Fu, T. B. Zhao et J. Zhao, var. nov..
    New Records of Urticaceae from Some Provinces in China
    DUAN Lin-Dong;LIN Qi
    2007, 27(5):  527-528.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.005
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    Six species, one subspecies and one variety from Urticaceae are reported as new records to six provinces in China, viz, Boehmeria formosana Hayata for Shandong, Droguetia iners (Frossk.) Schweinf. subsp. urticoides (Wight) Friis & Wilmot-Dear for Xizang, Elatostema longistipulum Hand. -Mazz. and E. nasutum Hook. f. var. puberulum (W. T. Wang) W. T. Wang for. Guizhou, E. sinense H. Schrǒter for Shaanxi, E. tenuicaudatum W. T. Wang for Xizang, Gonostegia parvifolia (Wight) Miq. for Guangdong, and Urtica hyperborea Jacq. ex Wedd. for Yunnan.
    The Ontogeny of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle
    LIU Mei;WANG Chen*;LIU Ming-Yuan
    2007, 27(5):  529-533.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.006
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    The embryogeny from zygote to seed embryo and the seedling development from seed to seedling of Hydrilla verticillata were studied in this paper. They were discovered that the 1-2 celled suspensor, the developed shoot end and undifferentiated root end of embryo, the root end differentiated after seed germinating, the root collar and hypocotylar hair arised from the top of the meristematic zone of the primary root in seedling of Hydrilla verticiliata are same as Alisma orientale, and these characters were discussed finally.
    Anatomical Structure of Stems and Leaves of Grimmiaceae (Continue)
    JIANG Yan-Cheng;WANG Hong;WANG Yong-Bo;ZHANG Fu-Chun*
    2007, 27(5):  534-537.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.007
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    Four species of Grimmiaceae growing in Tian shan glacier one were observed their micro structure and appearance character by paraffin wax section and scanning electron microscopy. It showed that no obvious protrusion of costa dorsum was in leaves of Grimmia elatior Bruth ex Bals et Dt Not . The ornamentation of surface stratum had longitudinal strips and the squamalike appurtenance was on the back leaves. The epidermal cells in stems of Grimmia donniana Sm.sink deeply.to form wavilness and the costa were thin dorsum with prominence.The costa of back andventral leave epidermal calls of Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw) Sm without microstereid are umbonate and plenty of starch grains were in stem and leave cells. The epidermal cells of back and ventral leaves of Grimmia tergestina Tomm.ex B.S.G were deepiy concave thick cuticular and rougae,larvating the concarve epidermal cells,abd costa protrude obviousy.These features will be a basis of taxonomy for Moss.
    Factors Affecting Induction of embryogenic callus of Larix gmelinii
    ZHAO Xiao-Min;SHEN Hai-Long*;YANG Ling;LIU Chun-Ping
    2007, 27(5):  538-543.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.008
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    Immature and mature zygotic embryos of Larix gmelinii were as explants to induce embryogenic callus. Several factors influencing the induction were assayed. The induction rate(IR) of embryogenic callus(EC) from zygotic embryo(ZE) explant with its endosperms was higher than that from ZE explant without its endosperms. The IR of EC from mature ZE explant from Inner Mongolia seed source was significantly higher than that which from Daxing’an Mountains seed source(p<0.05). The IR of EC from mature ZE explant derived from seeds stored at 4℃ for two months could be improved evidently. The IR of EC from immature ZE explants derived from seeds collected in different developmental stages was significant different, highest IR of EC could be obtained from immature ZE explant collected on July 5. 2,4-D had greater effects on EC induction than BA and KT, and these three hormones had certain co-efficient effects. S medium was more effective than MS and DCR media. Higher IR could be obtained on medium with 4 g·L-1 agar.
    The Niche Characteristics of Castanopsis fargesii and Elaeocarpus japonicus at Different Age Groups in Sub-tropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest
    YANG Yuan-Bing;FU Zhi-Ping;
    2007, 27(5):  544-549.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.009
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    The niche of age group of plant population is one important aspect of the resource utilization which changed with the time. According to the height of plant’s individuals, the population was divided into three age gradients-tree group, sapling group and seedling group. The niche characteristics of different age groups of Castanopsis fargesii and Elaeocarpus japonicus were studied, which are the dominant plants in evergreen broad-leaved forest in Jinyunshan Nature Reserve, Chongqing. The results indicate: (1)The realized niche breadths of C. fargesii and E. japonicus at three age groups are rather wide while their resource utilization capacities are not strong. It is obviously that the niche breadths and resource capacities of the two species became wider or stronger when they grew up to the canopy. (2)The degree of niche speciation of C. fargesii and E. japonicus at seedling group are very high, while niche generation of the two species at tree group and sapling group are not high. (3)The niche breadths and resource utilization capacities of E. japonicus are larger than C. fargesii at tree group and sapling group except that of at seedling group. (4)The niche overlaps of C. fargesii and E. japonicus are large, which indicated that the resource competition of the two species was violent. The trend of niche overlap of the two species with age group likes V character. It means that the overlap is lowest at sapling group which would be involved in the deficiency of the middle age group of C. fargesii, which was resulted from the violent competition at seedling group.
    Spectral and Dynamics Analysis of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Population in the South of Shanxi Province
    LIU Ren-Tao;BI Run-Cheng;YAN Gui-Qin
    2007, 27(5):  550-555.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.010
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    It is very valuable to discuss the endangered mechanism of Elaeagnus mollis Diels, endemic to China, which is seriously in danger presently. Based on the theory of survival analysis, the size-class structure was studied, the time-specific life table, curve of survival, and curve of mortality were drawn, and at the same time, survival functions of survival rate, cumulative mortality rate and mortality density were analyzed. With the theory of spectral analysis, the fluctuation of population was also analyzed. The main results are as follows: (1) the size-class structure of the whole population is of increasing type. (2) the time-specific life table shows that the change of mortality rate fluctuates, which is similar to that of killing power. The curve of survival generally trends to be DeeveyⅡtype according to statistical test, and the peak of expected life appears at 17 to 21 size-class. (3) the 4 survival functions show that the change of population in early stage is bigger than that in the late stage. The change of mortality numbers shows a considerable similarity to that of mortality density, and the change of endangered rate is similar to that of mortality rate. (4) the spectral analysis indicates that, in the natural regeneration, the small period overlaps within the big one, and the period is greatly affected by fundamental wave.
    Effect of Light Stress on the Content of Chloroplast Pigment and Taxol in the Leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei
    YANG Feng-Jian;PANG Hai-He;ZHANG Xue-Ke;SUN Jia-Yin;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2007, 27(5):  556-558.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.011
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    The changes of the content of chloroplast pigment and taxol in the leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei were studied with light stress.The results comparing with the comparison showed that the contents of chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and chlorophyll and the ratio of chlorophyll-a to chlorophyll-b were lower. However, the contents of chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and chlorophyll tended to gradually rise as the stress prolonged, but the ratio of chlorophyll-a to chlorophyll-b first rose and then decreased. The content of carotenoid was lower than the comparison in the first two weeks and then surpassed the comparison. The ratio of carotenoid to chlorophyll was higher than the comparison and tended to first decreased and then rose as the stress prolonged. The contents of taxol was slightly lower than the comparison in the first week and then begun to gradually accumulate in the leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei at the second week, the content of taxol had increased to 1.5 times of the comparison at the third week, which is very significant to improve the content of taxol in the growed Taxus chinensis var. mairei.
    Genetic Diversity of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata Populations Revealed by ISSR Markers
    JIN Ze-Xin;LI Jun-Min;DING Li-Ya
    2007, 27(5):  559-563.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.012
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    Using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) makers, genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata populations, which distribute in Zhejiang Province, were analyzed. A total of 132 bands were amplified from 7 populations with 140 individulas by 12 reliable primers, which was selected from 100 primers. Of them, 118 bands were polymorphic and the percentage of polymorphic loci of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata species was 89.39%. The percentage of polymorphic loci of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata populations averaged 58.87%. Shannon information index (I) and Nei’s gene index (h) at species level were 0.493 3 and 0.334 7, respectively, while those at population level averged 0.336 2 and 0.229 1, respectively. It suggested that the genetic diversity of YF population was the highest while that of TTS population was the lowest. Analysis of molecular various showed that 67.97% of the total variation was distributed among populations, while only 32.03% was distributed among individuals within populations. The gene differentiation coefficient (GST) among populations is 0.315 4. The gene flow among populations is 1.085 3. The average genetic distance of 7 populations was 0.173 9. Using unweighted pair group method arithmatic average (UPGMA), TTS population and XDS population were clustered into one group and the other five populations were clustered into another group.
    Cloning and Expression of cDNA Encoding Key Enzymes (DXR,SLS,G10H and STR) in Terpene Indole Alkaloids Biosynthesis Pathway from Catharanthus roseus
    HAN Mei;ZHAO Bo;AN Zhi-Gang;Thomas Rausch;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2007, 27(5):  564-568.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.013
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    cDNAs encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR),Secologanin synthase (SLS),Geraniol 10-hydroxylase(G10H) and Strictosidine synthase (STR) were obtained from the leaves of Catharanthus roseus with 2-step gateway PCR. These cDNA clones were inserted into the GATEWAY donor vector pDONR201 at the corresponding sites by BP clonase and followed by sequencing analysis,respectively. Thereafter,the entry clones were introduced into the GATEWAY destination vector pETG10A fused to 6xHIS-tag by LR clonase. Overexpression of recombinant fusion proteins DXR,SLS and STR were initiated after IPTG induction. These recombinant fusion proteins are now available for developing the antisera.
    On Effects of Maceration Extract from Solidago canadensis in Flower Period on Seed Germination and Grow of Three Crops
    FANG Fang;GUO Shui-Liang;HUANG Hua;WU Ying
    2007, 27(5):  569-573.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.014
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    The effects maceration extract from Solidago canadensis in flower period on seed germination and grow of three crops including Capsicum annuum,Lycoperiscum esculetum and Braxxica chinensis var. communis were determined.The main results are as follows:(1)Strong allelopathic effects of Solidago canadensis in flower period were observed,with facilitating effect on growth of crop seedling under treatment with 25 mg·mL-1 water extract from Solidago canadensis and the inhibiting effect with 50 mg·mL-1 or more.The inhibiting effects become stronger with the concentration increase of the water extract from Solidago canadensis,even kill the crop seed with the treatment of 100 mg·mL-1;(2)The allelopathic effects of the leaves and inflorescences of Solidago canadensis on these three crops are strong than those from the stems;(3)Among these three crop species,the seed of Brassica chinensis var. communis is more sensitive to the water extract of Solidago canadensis than those of Capsicum annuum,Lycoperiscum esculetum.
    The Effect of Low Temperature Stress on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Buxus sempervirens L. Under Different Light Conditions
    XU Na;DONG Xiao-Hong;GUAN Yang*;WANG Jing
    2007, 27(5):  574-577.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.015
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    The effect of low temperature stress on antioxidant enzyme activity under different conditions were studied. The results showed that the relative membrane permeability and content of MDA were higher than the control. The activitie of SOD under low temperature was higher than the others and the highest level under 5℃/24 h light. The activity of CAT maintained relatively high level under low temperature and different light conditions. It was higher under 5℃12 h light/12 h dark than other groups. The activity of POD was higher under low temperature with light and was lower under dark than the control. The POD、SOD、CAT activity increased under chilling. This might be one of the reason for strong resistance to chilling in Buxus sempervirens.
    Effect on Low Temperature Stress on Lipid Peroxidation and Activity of Cell Defense Enzymes of Four Evergreen Broadleaved Tree Species
    NIE Qing-Juan;MENG Zhao;LIANG Hai-Yong;MENG Qing-Rui;LI Yan-Hui*
    2007, 27(5):  578-581.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.016
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    With the leaf and one-year twig of four evergreen garden tree species as the experimental materials,disposed through low temperature,relative leakage of electrolytes of leafs and twigs,super-oxide dismutase(SOD) activity and peroxidase(POD) activity and malondialdehyde(MDA) content were measured and compared. The results showed that:the relative leakage of electrolytes of leaf and twig increased with decreasing disposed temperature,but the relative leakage of electrolytes of leaf was higher than the twig’s to the same tree species; Mal-ondialdehyde(MDA) contents of Euonymus japonicus Thunb first descended(-20~0℃) then increased but MDA contents of other tree species increased with decreasing disposed temperature; Superoxide dismutase(SOD) activites of tree species first increased then descended but peroxidase(POD) activites descended with decreasing disposed temperature.The cold-resistance ability of the plants were comprehensively judged with all indexes,there were obvious differences among the clones of the ability of cold resistance.The ability of cold resistance on the plants from high to low was Euonymus japonicus Thunb.> Magnolia grandiflora L.> Ligustrum lucidum Ait.> Ligustrum quihoui Carr.
    Programmed Cell Death in the Process of Nicotiana benthamianav Leaves Callus Inducement
    WANG Li;LIU Ying;JIANG Yang;QI Chang-Qing;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2007, 27(5):  582-587.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.017
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    We induced the ten different stages callus from the leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco) cultured in the MS medium. The morphologic varieties of nucleolus was observed through the fluorescence microscope and DNA Ladder was tested during ten different stages of the induced callus tissue of tobacco leaves, which correlated with PCD by RT-PCR method in the nine different stages, leaf segments cultured at 3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19 days. Northern blotting result showed that the expression of Beclin1-like gene at stage six, the leaf segments cultured 13 days was showed Programmed cell death (PCD) happened in the process of callus inducement, and stage six, the leaf segments cultured 13 days was the active period of PCD occurred. Then we cloned fragment of Beclin1 gene (678 bp) cDNA which was higher than those of the other eight stages, Furthermore the content of endogenous hormones ABA in leaf segments was measured by ELISA method, ABA reach to peak at stage six, All these results proved that PCD certainly happened during the tobacco leaves callus induced, ABA and Beclin1 gene had regulated function in this process.
    The Vector Construction and Prokaryotic Expression of Catharanthus roseus metallothionein(CrMT) in E.coli
    ZU Yuan-Gang;FANG Si-Liang;NIE Ming-Zhu
    2007, 27(5):  588-592.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.018
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    A full-length sequence coding for metallothionein gene from Catharanthus roseus was cloned into the high expression vector pGEX-6P-1, and named pGEX-6P-1-CrMT. The GST-CrMT fusion protein was expressed and the expression conditions were optimized. Through the research on optimization of expression temperature, induction time and the concentration of IPTG and so on, results showed, the expression of GST-CrMT increased accompany with the induction time. The expression level of GST-CrMT fusion protein reached the highest for 24 hours cultured at 22℃ and for 240 min cultured at 37℃, 0.8 mmol·L-1 IPTG can effectively induced the expression of GST-CrMT in prokaryotic expression system.
    The method for RNA isolating from leaves of Phellodendron amuranse
    ZU Yuan-Gang;WANG Yan-Bing;WANG Hui-Mei;SUN Lian-Hui
    2007, 27(5):  593-595.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.019
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    A method of rapid isolation of total RNA from leaves of Phellodendron amuranse Rupr. was developed. RNA was extracted by guanidine hydrochloride, Trizol regent, and CTAB, respectively with analysis the rate of yield, purity and electrophoretograms. The A260/A280 of RNA extracted by guanidine hydrochloride was 1.928 with two clear bands of 28S and 18S and good integrity. The feather of RNA by this method was with less cost, fast, high purity and quantity, which can meet the demands of mRNA isolation, cDNA library construction and Northern blotting.
    Study on Characteristics of Absorption and Transfer of Soil Lead in Tea Plant with Different Growth Period
    ZONG Liang-Gang;ZHOU Jun;LI Chang-Ling;YU Wen-Gao;SHAN Gui-Xian
    2007, 27(5):  596-600.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.020
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    Through field experiment in Yangxian tea plantation of Yixin city, the difference of lead content in each part of immature and mature tea plant was studied, and the correlation of lead content between each part of tea plant and soil were also analyzed. The result showed that there was obvious difference of lead content in different part of tea plant, and the distribution arrange of lead content was as follows: lateral branch>old leaf>stalk>side root>main root>young leaf. The content of lead in lateral branch was more three times than that in other part of tea plant, and the lead content of young leaf in immature tea plant was higher than that in mature one. At the same time, the correlation analysis results about content of lead in each part of tea plant and in soil showed that correlation of lead content between in soil and in tea root is more obvious than that in others parts of tea plant. When lead pollution occurred in soil of tea plantation, content of lead in each part of tea plant increased. It was showed that the content of lead in side root and main root increased rapidly, and with the prolonged pollution, lead in each part of tea gradually drew toward lateral branch. So the content of lead in branch lateral would show more and more, ultimately becoming the most in aboveground of tea plant.
    Quantitative Characteristics of Xylem Cells and Variation in Vessel Element Length and Fibre Length for 13 Psammophytes
    YANG Shu-Min;JIANG Ze-Hui;REN Hai-Qing*;FURUKAWA Ikuo
    2007, 27(5):  601-606.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.021
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    Fibre length and vessel element length were measured and analyzed in 13 psammophytes grown in arid sandy region, and the horizontal variations of them showed decreasing, increasing, considerable fluctuations or constant tendency with age. Fibre length is less than 900 μm which included in short range according to IAWA Committee. There was significant difference in both fibre length and vessel element length among-tree and within-tree except A. mongolicus. From the quantitative study of anatomical characteristics, the secondary xylem cells have high adaptability to desert. Vessels solitary or grouped in multiples with small diameter, very short elements and minute pits are in respond to demands for greater water transport capacity and the above appearances in the xylem of arid zone species are interpreted as a strategy for conductive safety.
    Researches on Correlation and Geographic Variation in Wood Chemical Compositions of Betula platphylla in Natural Stands
    SHANG Jie;JIA Hong-Bai;WANG Qiu-Yu*
    2007, 27(5):  607-611.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.022
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    Chemical compositions of the wood of Betula platyphylla were studied, which grew in five natural stands of the Northeast of China. The results showed as follows:the chemical compositions among the populations were different obviously, except 1% NaOH extraction, holocellulose and pentosan content. And the variation in each population was quite high, which could provide the possibility for selection among and within populations for pulpwood of this species. A significant positive correlation between the content of ash and benzo-alcohol extraction of the wood existed among the populations. Besides, the holocellulose and pentosan content were also great positively correlated each other in the wood. Some negative correlations could be seen between the content of ash, benzo-alcohol extraction and longitude, as well as between lignin and latitude, also some positive relations between the holocellulose, pentosan content and latitude. That means the birch from high longitude and latitude areas will have lower content of the ash, extraction and lignin, higher content of the holocellulose and pentosan in the wood.

    Wood Chemical Compositions and Growth Rate Analysis of UGP Transgenic Camptotheca acuminata
    YU Jing-Hua;LI Yan-Hua;ZHANG Xue-Ke;ZU Yuan-Gang*;TANG Zhong-Hua;CHANG Ying;GAO Yin-Xiang
    2007, 27(5):  612-615.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.023
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    Plant UDP-glucose (UDPG) pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) is involved in the production of UDPG, a key metabolite for sucrose and cell wall biosynthesis. It has been shown that UGP can increase the cellulose content of wood. In order to enhance the cellulose content of Camptotheca acuminata Decne, Axgllnum UGP gene had been transferred into C. acuminata. This paper concerned the wood chemical compositions and growth rate of the UGP transgenic C. acuminata, analyzed the data according to the typical broad-leaved pulpwood stander. Result showed that: the contents of holocellulose, cellulose, and lignin were 78.87%, 36.34% and 15.05% respectively, the transformed plants are more fitful for paper making compared with control. From May to November, we checked the height, base diameter and biomass of UGP transgenic plant and control each month, the result showed that: three parameter of transgenic plants raised 78.00%, 236.37% and 322.61% respectively of control. In short, the growth rate of transgenic plant increased obviously. Above all, C. acuminata was a good quality pulpwood, and the UGP, although not increasing the cellulose properties obviously, improved the growth rate and total biomass significantly, and increased the cellulose yield indirectly.
    Optimum Extraction Process of Total Flavonoids in Juglans mandshurica Leaves
    LIN Ping;ZHANG Ying;ZU Yuan-Gang*;WANG Wen-Jie
    2007, 27(5):  616-618.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.024
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    The method of extraction total flavonoids from the leaves of Juglans mandshurica was optimized with the assistant of ultrasonic energy. The optimum extraction conditions of total flavonoids in J. mandshurica leaves were determined with orthogonal test. Four factors below were tested according to the extraction yield: ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, the ratio of material to solvent and extraction time. The optimum conditions of extracting were obtained as follows: 70% ethanol as extraction solvent at 50℃ for 20 min, and the ratio of solvent to material was 20:1 and the average extraction yield of total flavonoids from the leaves of J. mandshurica could be reached 4.458% under the optimum process.
    The Content of Flavonoids and Anti-oxidation in Different Efficient Parts of Euonymus alatus
    SUN Xue-Bin;CHENG Ming;LI Na;LIN Feng;WU Yan-Li;DONG Lu-Lu;*
    2007, 27(5):  619-621.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.025
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    To extract two efficient parts with macroreticular resin; To determine the content of total Flavonoids with UV-spectrophometry. To measure their anti-oxidation by means of pyrogallol oxidation .The results showed that total flavonoids in two efficient parts are 3.055%±0.068% and 38.80%±0.066% respectively; both parts have activity of anti-oxidation. Functions of decreasing blood sugar and anti-myocardial ischemia have something to do with the anti-oxidation action.
    Ultrasonic Extraction of Oil from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Kernels and Its Composition Analysis by GC-MS
    FU Yu-Jie;ZHANG Nai-Jing;WANG Li-Li;ZHANG Su;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2007, 27(5):  622-625.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.026
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    Ultrasonic extraction of oil from Xanthoceras sorbifolia kernel was studied with orthogonal method. The influencing factors, such as particle size, extraction time, ratio of material to solvent and ultrasonic power were researched in the experiment. The optimal conditions were obtained as follows: the particle size 0.5 mm, extraction time 90 min, ratio of material to solvent 1:5 (w/v) and ultrasonic power 175 W, the oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The present study provides a scientific reference for the potential raw material of biodiesel from Xanthoceras sorbifolia kernel oil.
    Antimicrobial Activities of Mentha haplocalyx Briq. Essential Oil
    WANG Wei;WU Nan;FU Yu-Jie;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2007, 27(5):  626-629.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.027
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    The sample of the Mentha haplocalyx Briq. essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS. From 21 compounds representing the oils, Isophorone(41.22%), β-Caryophyllene(10.01%), Spathulenol(2.89%), β-Pinene(1.45%) and Eucalyptole(1.13%) appeared as the main components. The screening of antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Tests showed that the oil presented the biggest inhibition zones in the two strains of Bacillus subtilis and Proteus vulgaris. The MICs of the oil against the tested microorganisms ranged from 5.00% to 0.039%. Of the 8 microorganisms, Proteus vulgaris presented the lowest MIC(0.625%) and MBC(1.25%) values. Results presented here may suggest that the essential oil of Mentha haplocalyx Briq. possesses antimicrobial properties, and therefore is a potential source of antimicrobial ingredients for food and pharmaceutical industry.
    Experiment Study on Iva xanthifolia to Feed Young Rabbit
    WANG Li-Juan;ZHAO Xiu-Hua;YU Jing-Hua;ZHANG Xin-Juan;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2007, 27(5):  630-635.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.028
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    The crashed invasive plant Iva xanthifolia and routine premix composition were mixed according to the proportion (quality percentage) as followed: I. xanthifolia weed flour 50%, maize flour 11%, bean cake flour 20%, wheat bran 9%, fish flour 3%, bone meal 5%, yeast flour 1% and table salt 1% to prepare pellet forage. It was divided into control group that the young rabbits were fed routine pellet forage, and four experiment groups which containing I. xanthifolia weed flour 70, 60, 50, 40 g. Every group young rabbits were bred in single cage for 60 days. Our experiment adopted serology analysis, blood routine analysis, anatomy experiment and increase weight effect to investigate the palatability and toxicity of I. xanthifolia for young rabbits, and the young rabbit growth performance for containing different I. xanthifolia weed flour. The results showed that I. xanthifolia had better palatability and no toxicity symptom, and there were no significant differences for all the evaluation dates. On the opinions of feeding value, I. xanthifolia was feasible to substitute parts of young rabbit forage.
    Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Plant Growth
    XU Hui;ZHANG Jie*
    2007, 27(5):  636-640.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.05.029
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    Mycorrhiza is the most universal and important symbiosis on earth. The most prevalent type is the arbuscular mycorrhiza(AM). It can strengthen soil water use of plants, improve the absorption of P, Cr and other mineral elements in roots, and then accelerate the growth of plants. In this paper, effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(AMF) on plant growth were summarized. The effects of AM on water and mineral nutrition in plants have been studied deeply, especially phosphor. Seldom researches were related to plant photosynthetic characteristic. These researches can provide basic materials for the studies of the relationship between mycorrhizal fungi and plants.