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    20 May 2007, Volume 27 Issue 3
    Magnolia glaucophylla,a New Species of Magnoliaceae from SE Yunnan,China
    SIMA Yong-Kang;YU Hong;CHEN Wen-Hong;LU Shu-Gang;SHUI Yu-Min*
    2007, 27(3):  257-259.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.001
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    Magnolia glaucophylla Sima et H. Yu, a new species of Magnoliaceae from SE Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. It is similar to Magnolia fulva (H. T. Chang et B. L. Chen) Figlar, from which it differs by leaf blades obovate, narrowly obovate or obovate-elliptic, glaucous beneath, with 19~24 pairs lateral nerves, petioles glabrous, as well as carpels 20~26, glabrous, valves 4~6 mm thick when fruiting.
    Additions to Fern Flora in Guangdong Province, China
    YAN Yue-Hong;MA Qi-Xia;XING Fu-Wu*
    2007, 27(3):  260-266.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.002
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    Two new synonyms, a new status and 35 pteridophytes firstly recorded in Guangdong province are reported in this paper. Ctenitis changanensis Ching and Asplenium xinyiense Ching et S.H.Wu are respectively reduced to new synonyms of Ctenitis eatoni (Bak.) Ching and Asplenium griffithianum Hook; Pteris multifida Poir. f. serralata Miau deserves to be treated as a distinct species Pteris serralata(Miau)Y. H. Yan; five genera, Callistopteris Cop., Sticherus Presl, Peranema D. Don, Lunathyrium Koidz., Scleroglossum Alderw, are newly recorded in Guangdong and one species, Selaginella boninensis Baker, is newly recorded in mainland of China. So far, about 56 families, 144 genera and 502 species are known to grown in Guangdong province.
    Validation of Two Names Betula jiulungensis (Betulaceae) and Rubia ovatifolia (Rubiaceae)
    LIN Qi
    2007, 27(3):  267-268.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.003
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    Two names Betula jiulungensis (Betulaceae) and Rubia ovatifolia (Rubiaceae) were not validly published because two gatherings were simultaneously designated as types in the protologues. Two names are here validated with the fame specimen or the flowering specimen as the holotype respectively.
    Studies on the Development of Gametophytes of Three Species in Blechnacea
    WANG Yue;ZHAO Jin-Bo;WANG Jin-Juan;WANG Xiao-Nan;LIU Bao-Dong*
    2007, 27(3):  269-274.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.004
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    Through the artifical way,this paper detailed makes a record of the whole course of gametophyte development of Blechnacea including three typical species, i.e. Blechnum orientale L.,Woodwardia japonica (L.F)Smith and Brainea insignis (Hook)J.Sm.,with 37 characteristic pictures. It explains the rationality of the classification by Ching who did it in the way of the morpha of the sporogonium, and the results of our experiments accord with his. Besides, we provide a lot of detailed data in the course of gametophyte development of Blechnacea.
    Comparative Studies on the Anatomical Structures of Leave of 3 Species in Saussurea
    WANG Wen-He;YU Jian-Jun;TIAN Ye-Lin
    2007, 27(3):  275-278.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.005
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    The anatomical structures of leaves of 3 species i.e. Saussurea medusa Maxim, Saussurea gnaphalodes (Royle)Sch, Saussurea paxiana Diels. in Saussurea grown in Qilianshan(halt≈5 000 m) were comparatively studied with the method of paraffin section. The obvious features of 3 plant species are as follows: the cell of upper epidermis in lamna is in one layer and cuticle is thick. The leaves have their stoma in both leaf surfaces and stomata that are not sunken. Epidermal hairs are 1 cell wide. The three plant species are all bifacial leaf. Palisade mesophyll which is made up by 2~3 layers is well developed, but there is quitle large intercellular spaces among palisade mesophyll and among spongy mesophyll. Aerenchyma is well developed in mesophyll. The three plant species all have anomaly schizogenous intercellular cavity. There is a little idioblasts in the phloem. All these contribut to the results of long-term effects of harsh environment on Qilianshan. There are obvious differences among them such as the color of leaves, the cell characteristic of palisade mesophyll, the development of vascular bundle, the structure of secretory canal, schizogenous irregular cavity, etc.
    SEM Observation on the Pollen Grains of Ten Species in Impatiens L. (Balsaminaceae)
    CAI Xiu-Zhen;LIU Ke-Ming*;CONG Yi-Yan;CHEN Wei
    2007, 27(3):  279-283.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.006
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    In the present study, the pollen morphology of 10 species in Impatiens L. has been examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). In these species, the pollen grains are long-elliptic, goniotreme, reticulate exine ornamentation. The size of pollen grains ranges from 20.3 to 46.7 μm in diameter. Based on the exine ornamentation differentiation, pollen grains are distinctly divided into two types. One is that reticulations have no (or few) granule such as Impatiens siculifer and I. wuyuanensis, the other is that granules are obvious including the other eight species. The results showed that the species of Impatiens can be classified on the basis of the pollen morphology, especially the granule characters of exine ornamentation. The exine sculptures are different among different species and therefore can provide some proof for identification of some species in Impatiens.
    Primary Study of the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Strain 849 under Salty Stress
    JIANG Wen-Ting;WANG Quan-Xi;WU Shuang-Xiu;*
    2007, 27(3):  284-288.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.007
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    We choose Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as our subject to focus on it’s photosynthesis characteristics under salty stress. The growth rate of C. reinhardtii under 0.04 mol·L-1 NaCl treatment showed no obvious inhibition but it decreased about 50% under 0.075 mol·L-1 NaCl treatment. In the low light density, the photosynthetic rate and respiration rate of C. reinhardtii were stimulated by the NaCl stress within 7 hours after the treatment. While in the high light density, the photosynthetic rate and respiration rate decreased under NaCl treatments. The increase degree and decrease degree of the photosynthetic and respiration rates were parallel with the concentration of NaCl.
    Cloning and Expression of Gene which Encode SOD of Nostoc flagelliforme in E. coli
    WANG Ying;CHEN Li-Ping;CHEN Xiao;ZHANG Xiu;YU Jing;WANG Quan-Xi*
    2007, 27(3):  289-292.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.008
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    SOD gene was cloned from Nostoc flagelliforme and the amino acid sequence is 97% identical to that of Nostoc commune published. The gene was inserted into a constructed E.coli expression plasmid pET-sod and the plasmid was transferred into expressing host BL21. Induced by 1 mmol·L-1 IPTG,the recombinant SOD of Nostoc flagelliforme was accumulated to a very high percent and the protein is exist as soluble protein. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the molecular weight of expression SOD of Nostoc flagelliforme was approximate 22 kd. Purified by Ni2+-resin column,the specific enzymatic activity was measured using NBT method and the calculated result of this purified enzyme is 2 550 U·mg-1. It was also found that after high temperature stress at 60℃ for 90 min,the specific enzymatic activity still retains 85%.
    Cloning and Analysis of Metallothionein Gene from Tamarix androssowii
    ZHANG Yan;YANG Chuan-Ping*;WANG Yu-Cheng
    2007, 27(3):  293-296.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.009
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    The amino acid sequence of metallothionein gene from Casuarina glauca was subjected to local tBlastn searching against the ESTs local datebase of Tamarix androssowii. The full length cDNA encoding metallothionein (MT) gene was obtained. The MT gene was 366 bp in length without its polyA sequence, including 97 bp of 5′untranslated region and 59 bp of 3′untranslated region. It had an open reading frame(ORF) of 210 bp, encoding 70 amino acid residues of which 10 Cys residues distributed at protein N terminal and C terminal. The protein molecular weight was 6.793 kD and theoretical pI was 4.99. The BlastP analysis revealed that amino acids sequence of MT gene from Tamarix androssowii shared the highest similarity with Arachis hypogaea and the lowest similarty with Vigna angularis. The EST sequence of MT gene was accepted by GenBank (accession numbers: CV792539).
    Comparison of the Protein Composition and Analysis of the Specific Protein from Wheat-Haynaldid villosa Chromosome Substitution Line and Translocation Line by 2D-PAGE
    FAN Bao-Li;LI Chun-Zheng;PENG Yong-Kang*
    2007, 27(3):  297-301.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.010
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    With 2D-PAGE techniques, comparison of leaf protein in cultivar wheat (AABBDD), Wheat-Haynaldia villosa chromosome substitution line (6V/6A), translocation lines (6VS/6AL), (6VS/6DL) and H. villosa (VV) have been made in this study. Over 350 protein species were detected in the leaf of cultivar wheat, chromosome substitution line and two translocation lines. Their molecular weight ranged from 10~110 KD and pI from 4.5~8.6. 2D-PAGE patterns of leaf protein are almost the same among cultivar wheat, 6V/6A, 6VS/6AL, 6VS/6DL; but different from H. villosa. A specific protein (16 KD/pI5.0) was found in substitution line, two translocation lines and H.villosa, but not found in the cultivar wheat. These results suggested that the protein (16 KD/pI5.0) may be located in the short arm of V chromosome of H. villosa.
    Molecular Identification of Apoacynum venetum and its Confusable Species
    PENG Xue-Mei;ZHANG Wei-Ming;WANG Man-Li;LU Chang-Mei*;GU Gong-Ping
    2007, 27(3):  302-307.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.011
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    To identify Apoacynum venetum and its confusable species on the molecular level, rDNA ITS (including ITS1, 5.8 s and ITS2) and cpDNA trnL intron as well as trnL-F non-coding region from A. venetum and its confusable species were sequenced and analyzed in this study. Results showed that ITS sequences from all samples of A. venetum were the same as those from all samples of Poacynum hendersonii, but differed from that of A. cannabinum at 13 sites in ITS1 region and 10 sites in ITS2 region. In trnL intron and trnL-F non-coding region, A. venetum differed from P. hendersonii at 3 sites while from A. cannabinum at 23 sites; In addition, P. hendersonii was different from A. cannabinum at 20 sites. The results demonstrated that ITS sequence could be used for the identification of “Luobuma” of China from A.cannabinum, and sequences of trnL intron and trnL-F cpDNA could be used for the identification among A. venetum, P. hendersonii and A. cannabinum.
    Genetic Relationships of Platycodon grandiflorum Cultivars from East-Asian Area Using RAPD Markers
    YAN Yi-Zi;WU Ji-Ri*
    2007, 27(3):  308-312.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.012
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    The genetic variation and genetic relationships among 24 samples of Platycodon grandiflorum DC. cultivars collected from East-Asian area (China, Japan, Korea and DPRK)were analyzed by the method of RAPD-PCR markers. The results showed that 131 bands were amplified by 11 primers with an average of 11.9 bands per primer and 61 polymorphic bands were obtained with an average of 5.5 bands per primer, which revealed relatively high percentage of polymorphic bands (46.6%). The genetic similarity calculated from RAPD data varied from 0.668 to 0.994, and the 24 samples of Platycodon grandiflorum DC. cultivars were divided into 7 major groups on a criterion of 0.78 coefficient.
    Genetic Diversity of Sinocalycanthus chinensis in Four Different Habitats Revealed by RAPD
    ZHANG Wen-Biao;JIN Ze-Xin*;LI Jun-Min
    2007, 27(3):  313-318.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.013
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    The genetic diversity of Sinocalycanthus chinensis populations in four different habitats, namely, scrub, evergreen broadleaved forest, Chinese fir forest and bamboo grove, was analyzed by polymorphic DNA technique. 12 primers were selected at random and 182 repeatable loci with 49 polymorphic loci were produced from 80 DNA samplings. The total average percentage of polymorphic loci was 26.92%. The percentage of polymorphic loci of four populations varied from 6.04% to 11.54% with an average of 8.93%, among which bamboo grove population was the highest and evergreen broadleaved forest population was the lowest with the order as follows: bamboo grove population>scrub population>Chinese fir population>evergreen broadleaved forest population. The results of Shannon’s index and Nei’s index were in the same trend, the highest was scrub population, followed by bamboo grove population, and then was Chinese fir population, the lowest was evergreen broadleaved forest population. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated that the genetic differentiation among population was high. Variation among population occupied 71.91%, while that within population occupied only 28.09%. The gene differentiation coefficient among populations was 0.672 6. The gene flow among populations was very low, Nm=0.297 0. Cluster analysis showed Chinese fir population and scrub population got together first, then evergreen broadleaf forest population joined in, and the final population was the bamboo grove. It was obvious that different population had different genetic diversity, and there were remarkable genetic differentiation among populations.
    In Vitro Culture of Axillary bud Sprouting of Fraxinus mandshurica
    ZHANG Li-Jie;ZHANG Li-Wei;FENG Dan-Dan;ZHAO Xia;SHEN Hai-Long*
    2007, 27(3):  319-324.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.014
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    The proper sterilizing method, the effects of basic media and hormones for axillary bud sprouting and proliferation in vitro were studied. The explants were stem cuts with axillary or apical bud from one-year old seedlings of Fraxinus mandshurica. The sterilization was proved to be very difficult. Sterilizing the buds with 0.05% HgCl2 for 2 min resulted in the lowest contamination. The effect of BA for bud germination was better than that of 2ip. Eight mg/L was proved to be the optimum level of BA, and the bud sprouting rate could reach 100% by this level. Shoot cluster could be obtained by transplanting the sprouted axillary buds onto medium with ZT, the best proliferation was observed on medium with one mg/L ZT, and the proliferation rate could reach three. WPM was proved to be the best medium either for the bud sprouting and shoot proliferation, that is, WPM medium is proper for in vitro axillary bud culture of F. mandshurica.
    Structure and Spectral Analysis of Castanopsis carlesii Population in Wuyishan Nature Reserve
    GUO Lian-Jin;XU Wei-Hong
    2007, 27(3):  325-330.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.015
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    The population dynamic of Castanopsis carlesii in Wuyishan Nature Reserve was studied and their age structures, the life table, survival curve and dead curves were analyzed.At the same time, the population dymamics were analyzed by spectral analysis method. The results showed that the C. carlesii population in Wuyishan Nature Reserve was a progressive or stable type. The number of young-age individuals was more than that of middle-age and old-age individuals. The population density differed amongdifferent altitudes,and the population C was the biggest. The life tables showed that the death rates at age class Ⅰ and Ⅱ were higher, and with the diameters class increasing, the death rates were decreasing. However, at age class Ⅳ and Ⅴ, the death rates increased again. The expected life of age class was higher before class Ⅳ, with age increasing, the expected life decreased gradually. The type of the survival curves of different population was close to Deevey Ⅲ. The spectral analysis of the population dynamics of C. carlesii was made, which showed that there was a marked regularity of periodic fluctuation in the process of natural regenration of C. carlesii.
    Spatial Pattern Analysis of Shrub Population in Wulanbuhe Desert
    SONG Ying-Chun;LI Feng-Ri
    2007, 27(3):  331-337.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.016
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    In this paper, the spatial pattern for 4 main shrub populations in Wulanbuhe Desert, Inner Mongolia was studied by using the semivariogram in Geostatistics. A sample plot with 1 000 m×1 000 m (total area is 100 hectares), which was divided in to 1 600 grids(25 m×25 m for each grid), was set in southwest of Bayangaole Town. The species and mean crown width of each shrub in each grid were investigated and recorded. Using the software GS+ for Windows, the parameters of the isotropic semivariogram were calculated and the Kriging map was drawn for each shrub population in the plot. According to parameters of the isotropic semivariance model, The spatial distribution of Tamarix chinensis can be described with spherical model of cluster distribution and proportion of spatial structure was high, which indicated less change and the lag of 25 m is appropriate at this area. The spatial distributions for Nitraria tangtorum, follow the exponential model of cluster distribution and proportion of spatial structure was lower. The results will provide the basis of sampling inventory for the desert plants.
    Traits of Plant Diversity in a Hillclosing and Afforestation Sequence of Hippophae rhamnoides Community Stands in Loess Hilly Region
    ZHANG Xi-Biao;SHANGGUAN Zhou-Ping;WANG Gen-Wang
    2007, 27(3):  338-344.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.017
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    Traits of plant diversity in a hillclosed and afforested sequence of Hippophae rhamnoides stands in Ziwuling mountains were preliminarilly analyzed. The results showed that species richness and species diversity indexes of different layers in the forest stands are as follows: herb layer>shrub layer. D and H′of species diversity indexes of identical layer are different, but it has basically the same tendency in different growth stages of Hippophae rhamnoides community. Species diversity indexes of shrub layer increase with increasing time. Species diversity indexes of herb layer in one yearly stage is bigger and in the other stage they decline with time increasing. The similarity of Hippophae rhamnoides communites is increased with time increasing. On the whole , different plants and families have impeoved greatly and ecology dominance of communities have improved and communities are stabilized greatly. The limited human disturbances is the effective measure for Hippophae rhamnoides community recovery.
    Study on the Niche of the Main Populations in Abies chensiens Community
    SHI Xiao-Hua;XU Xiao-Bo;ZHANG Wen-Hui*
    2007, 27(3):  345-349.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.018
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    Based on the data collected from the plots investigation along with the implementation Levins, Shannon weiner index and niche overlap formulas in Mt. Qinling Shaanxi, the niche breadth values, niche similarity and niche overlap values of the main tree species were measured in the forestry of Abies chensiensis in this study. The results showed that: with the respective Levins and Shannon weiner index, the results of niche breadths of the main populations were almost the same and the highest value of niche breadth in arbor layer, shrub layer and herb layer were Abies chensiensis, Sinarundinaria nitida and Carex lanceolata, respectively. Abies chensiensis was prone to form mixed forest with populations with high value of niche breadth. In the populations with high value of niche breadth, the niche similarity was generally higher accordingly. Niche overlaps extents of main populations in Abies chensiensis community were correspondingly lower, indicated that the environmental resource could be shared by every population and the community was comparative stable.
    Interspecific Relationships Among Woody Plants of Forest Communities in Pangquangou National Nature Reserve at Mt. Guandi,Shanxi,China
    ZHANG Xian-Ping;WANG Meng-Ben*;ZHANG Wei-Feng;XIAO Yang
    2007, 27(3):  350-355.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.019
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    Based upon data obtained from field investigation, the interspecific relationships among 21 dominant woody species of forest communities in Pangquangou National Nature Reserve at Mt. Guandi were analyzed by using χ2-test for 2×2 contingency table, variance ratio (VR) test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient test, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient test.The results clearly show that the overall association of forest communities among all species tends to no correlation (χ20.95N<W<
    The Species Diversity of the Floras of Daxing’an Mountain, Xiaoxing’an Mountain and Ecotone
    ZHANG Ling;YUAN Xiao-Ying*;ZHANG Dong-Lai
    2007, 27(3):  356-360.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.020
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    Typical plots were established in Daxing’an mountain,Xiaoxing’an mountain,and ecotone of the Notheast of China Plant species composition and vertical structure of different distribution regions were studied in Daxing’an Mountain, Xiaoxing’an Mountain and ecotone using species richness, Simpson diversity index, Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index. Meanwhile, the biodiversity and evenness index of the same community in different regions and different life-forms were compared and analysed.The results indicated:There is significant characteristic of transition between Daxing’an Mountain and Xiaoxing’an Mountain. Theopencedrymion dominates Xiaoxing’an Mountain and ecotone,conifer-conifer forest dominates Daxing’an Mountain;The species diversity indexes of three regions are Xiaoxing’an Mountain>econtone>Daxing’an Mountain;The species diversity of different life-forms in different plant regions are herb layer>shrub layer>tree layer. Species diversity was significant different in tree layer, but not found in shrubs layer and herb layer.
    The Studies of the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Larix olgensis Herry., Larix kaempferi Carr. and Larix gmelinii Rupr. Seedlings
    ZHAO Xi-Zhu;JIANG Hai-Feng;MAO Zi-Jun*
    2007, 27(3):  361-366.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.021
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    Responses of photosynthetic parameters of current and 1-year-old Larix olgensis Herry., Larix kaempferi Carr. and Larix gmelinii Rupr. seedlings to light intensity,curves of diurnal variation and seasonal variation were studied,the results are as follows: ①Among the three plants,the diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate of current and 1-year-old Larix olgensis Herry. and Larix kaempferi Carr. seedlings and current Larix gmelinii Rupr. seedlings were found as a double-peak curve,which were featured with “Noon rest” but that of 1-year-old Larix gmelinii Rupr. seedlings presented a single peak curve. ②Larix kaempferi Carr. seedlings had the highest light saturation point (LSP) and Larix gmelinii Rupr. seedlings had the lowest light compensation point (LCP). ③All of the 1-year-old Larix seedlings appeared highest photosynthetic capacity in the middle growing stage. From the age,the photosynthetic capacity of current Larix seedlings were lower than that of 1-year-old seedlings in the first and middle growing stages,but higher in the late growing stage. ④From the species,the sequence of maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax) of current and 1-year-old Larix seedlings was Larix kaempferi Carr.>Larix gmelinii Rupr.>Larix olgensis Herry. in the first growing stage; by the middle growing stage,the sequence of Pmax of current Larix seedlings was the same to the first growing stage,but 1-year-old Larix seedlings were different as Larix olgensis Herry.>Larix kaempferi Carr.>Larix gmelinii Rupr.; turn to the late growing stage,the sequence of Pmax of current Larix seedlings was Larix olgensis Herry.>Larix gmelinii Rupr.>Larix kaempferi Carr. and that of 1-year-old seedlings was in reverse with those in middle growing stage. We conclude that,there were different photosynthetic characteristics of the three species in the same growing stage; while the different photosynthetic characteristics of same species had also been showed in different ages and growing stages; among the three Larix species,the repair ability to the photoinhibition of Larix olgensis Herry. seedlings were strongest,that of Larix kaempferi Carr. seedlings took second place and Larix gmelinii Rupr. seedlings were weakest. Larix kaempferi Carr. seedlings were more photophilic and had strong photosynthetic capacity, which were not prone to photoinhibition,while Larix gmelinii Rupr. seedlings were more shade-tolerant. Therefore,we should consider the photosynthetic characteristics of different species to obtain optimal illumination conditions in cultivation and forestation.
    Changing Regularity Analysis of Cold-resistant Physiology Targets about Parthenocissus Plants
    LIU Hui-Min;ZHANG Shu-Hui;LI Jin-Rong;FAN Chao;ZHANG Chao;FENG Nan-Nan
    2007, 27(3):  367-371.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.022
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    By taking samples to dispose artificial low-temperature gradient freeze,crossing winter naturally without protecting,freeze and melt season in spring and autumn,testing the physiology targets changing regularity of materials’ cold-resistant,researching the cold-resistant mechanism and ability. Significance analysises through Excel and SAS data software indicate that soluble carbohydrate and protein content and conductivity rate are unimodal curvilinear motion with the reducing of temperature,reach supreme value in winter and the artificial most low temperature; POD keeps higher enzyme activity in autumn and spring,especially the enzyme activity is the highest in spring;the injury of unimodal curve to materials in spring is stronger than autumn; Parthenocissus quinquefolia’s semilethal temperature is -26.89℃,Parthenocissus tricuspidata’s semilethal temperature is -24.07℃,Ability of the cold-resistant and crossing winter without protecting of Parthenocissus quinquefolia is stronger than Parthenocissus tricuspidata; Experiment materials have certain ability of surviving the winter among Harbin’s cold environment; The growth behaves after the experiment material survives the winter revealing conforms with the experiment conclusion.
    Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Flavonoids from the Aerial Parts of Chinese Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.)
    FU Yu-Jie;SHI Xiao-Guang;LIU Xiao-Na;WANG Wei
    2007, 27(3):  372-375.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.023
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    Factors of effect on the yield of flavonoids from licorice of overground stem and leaves were studied by single factor’s analysis experiments. The single factor’s analysis experiments were carried out to investigate influential factors of extraction temperature, pressure, flux of CO2 and extraction time. The extraction of flavonoids with Supercritical CO2 was studied on the yield of extracts. It had been found that the optimized technological parameters were: particle size 40~60 sieve mesh, 80% ethanol as entrainer, extraction time 1.5 h, extraction pressure 30 MPa, extraction temperature 50℃, CO2 flow rate 10 kg·h-1, separation pressure 5.8 MPa, separation temperature 40℃. The yield of flavonoids was 2.09% and the content was 5.42%. The results offered basic research of a new method for the product of flavonoids of licorice.
    Analysis of Sugars in Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr.et Maxim.) by HPLC with ELSD Detection
    ZHENG Chun-Ying;PING Wen-Xiang;LIU Song-Mei;ZU Yuan-Gang
    2007, 27(3):  376-379.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.024
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    A simple and rapid HPLC coupled with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection (ELSD) method was developed for the determination of glucose and sucrose in Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.). The HPLC separation was performed on a CHROMATOREX NH2 column using acetonitrile-water (84.5:15.5, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL·min-1. The drift tube temperature of ELSD was set at 100℃, and with the nitrogen flow-rate of 2.5 L·min-1. The linear ranges were from 0.023 2 to 0.116 0 mg·mL-1 for glucose, and from 0.099 6 to 0.496 5 mg·mL-1 for sucrose. All regression coefficients were more than 0.999 0. The detection limits (Signal/Noise=3) obtained were 3.87 ng and 3.31 ng for glucose and sucrose, respectively. The method was first used for separation and determination of sugars in Traditional Chinese herb Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) without prior derivatization, and the results were satisfactory.
    Experiment on Controlling Dendrolimus superans Butler with Crude Extracts of Nine Plants
    ZHANG Guo-Cai;ZHANG Hong-Hao;WANG Wei;WANG Yan-Jun;YU Feng-Long;YU Xian-Jun
    2007, 27(3):  380-384.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.03.025
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    From the aspect of biological control, the physical and chemical properties of venomous insecticidal plants in Heilongjiang province were studied, and physiologically active substances for insecticides were extracted from 9 kinds of insecticidal plants widely distributed in Heilongjiang province with Soxhlet-extraction method. The virulence test and control experiment with Dendrolimus superans Butler in larch forests of Keshiketeng County Jingpeng forestry centre in Chifeng of the Inner Mongolia were carried out. The 20 times diluents of extracts of 6 insecticidal plants including Pulsatilla dahurica(fisch.)Spr., Angelica amurensis Schischk., Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., Chelidonium majus L., Veratrum dahuricum Loes.f. and Angelica dahurica (Fisch. ex Hoffm.) Benth. et Hook. f. ex Franch. et Sav..exhibited good virulence effect on the 3-year larvae of Dendrolimus superans Butler, and the emendation mortalities were 85.0%, 81.7%, 80.0%, 76.7%, 73.3% and 60.0%, respectively. The control efficiency of 50 times diluents of extracts of 5 insecticidal plants including Pulsatilla dahurica(fisch.)Spr., Chelidonium majus L., Veratrum dahuricum Loes.f., Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., and Angelica amurengis Sehischk. on the Dendrolimus superans Butler were 62.0%, 60.4%, 58.6%, 58.6% and 53.5%, respectively. The drug effects were compared to those of biological medicaments, botanical pesticides and chemical pesticides, and the results of this study provided references for the biological control of forest pests as well as the exploitation and utilization of venomous plant resources.