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    20 May 2012, Volume 32 Issue 3
    Two New Species of the Genus Michelia(Magnoliaceae) from Hainan Island
    FU Guo-Ai;PAN Kun
    2012, 32(3):  257-259.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.001
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    Two new species of Michelia L. are discored in Hainan Island.
    Leaf Abaxial Epidermis Structures of Cyperus from Hainan
    LI Xiao-Xia;YANG Hu-Biao;FAN Zhi-Wei*;HUANG Qiao-Qiao;LIU Li-Zhen;CHENG Han-Ting
    2012, 32(3):  260-265.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.002
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    The leaf abaxial epidermis structures of 15 species and 1 variety of the genus Cyperus Linnaeus from Hainan were studied under light microscope. The results showed that (1) the leaf micro-morphological characteristic is as follows: the shape of long-cells long tubular or short tubular, rarely sub-tetragonal, the margin of cell walls sinuosity and deeply sinuosity; short cells in absence; stomatal subsidiary cells tall dome-shaped, dome-shaped, triangular, dome-shaped to triangular; (2) on the basis of guard cells, Cyperus from Hainan could be divided into two types: both sides obviously thickening and not obviously thickening; (3) the micro-morphology of leaf abaxial epidermis structures of Cyperus from Hainan was consistent, indicating the genus Cyperus is a natural group. However, different characteristics existed among species, including the shape of long-cells, length/width of stomata, the shape of guard cells and the shape of subsidiary cells, which could be used for the taxonomy of the genus at the species level.
    Cytology Observation on the Male Semi-sterile Mutant of Rice
    PENG Miao-Miao;CHEN Fa-Ju;ZHANG De-Chun*
    2012, 32(3):  266-269.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.003
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    TP-2 is a spontaneous semi-sterile mutant of TP309 which is a variety of rice (Oryza sativa). The filaments of small flower are slender, the anthers are shriveled in white and transparent, the development of female organ is normal. Pollen viability shows that the pollen viability of mutant is 57.599%, much lower than that of control group (94.177%), the pollen grains in TP-2 pollensac 436, much lower than that of control group (798). Paraffin section shows that the development from microspore mother cell to the end of meiosis on TP-2 mutant rice is normal, compared with the normal strains in the form. However, in the early microspore formation, rapid melting of tapetum, the process of microspore development lack of nutrition can not develop normally, resulting in a small dry spore. It has irregular shape, while some small spores have broken ablation phenomenon. May be the main reasons of abnormal development of small spores on TP-2 rice is the tapetum does not degrade normally. The observation provides basic material to mutant infertility of TP-2 and lays the foundation of TP-2.
    Spore Germination of Dryopteris crassirhizoma(Dryopterydaceae)
    WANG He;FENG Yu-Lan;HUANG Di;DONG Li;
    2012, 32(3):  270-274.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.004
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    In this paper, the spores of Dryopteris crassirhizoma after three years of low-temperature storage were used as the experimental material, the influences of centrifugal, disinfection, culture media and light quality on spore germination were respectively studied. The results showed that centrifugal (≤14 000 r·min-1, ≤30 min) almost had no influence on spore germination; Sterilizing spore surface for 10-20 min with 1% NaClO was the best sterile method; Modified Knop’s medium was the best for spore germination; Spore could not germinate in dark, but the dark treatment could improve the regularity of spore germination; Red light could promote spore germinating about 1 day earlier than white light, but had no obvious influence on promoting spore germination rate.
    Anatomical Structure and Histochemical Localization of the Leaf of Prinsepia uniflora Batal
    CHEN Jing;YANG Rui-Lin;ZHU Guang-Long;ZHANG Qiang;WEI Xue-Zhi*
    2012, 32(3):  275-278.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.005
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    The methods of anatomy and histochemistry were used to research the anatomical structure and histochemical localization of flavonoids, alkaloids and polysaccharides of the leaf of Prinsepia uniflora Batal. The results showed that the structure of the leaf of P.uniflora Batal was as follows: the upper epidermis cell with relative thick horny layer, the stomata existed in lower epidermis,the density of the stomata was 278 mm-2. The upper side included 2 to 3 layers of palisade tissue cells, with a lot of crystals; the main vein of leaves had well developed xylem, with a number of radial arranged vessels. The characteristics mentioned above showed that P.uniflora Batal adapted well to the environment. The histochemical localization showed that: the total flavonoids mainly accumulated in the palisade tissue and collenchyma, alkaloids were poor existed in the leaf, polysaccharides were generally distributed in mesophyll of P.uniflora Batal.
    Ultrastructure of Mesophyllic Cells and Chloroplasts of Spirodela polyrrhiza under Different Light Intensities and Temperatures
    CAI Shu-Mei;SHAN Yu-Hua;QIAN Xiao-Qing*
    2012, 32(3):  279-283.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.006
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    The ultrastructure of Spirodela polyrrhiza, which belongs to the family of Lemnacea, was investigated using transmission electron microscope. We have discovered that: when supplied with strong light intensity, the chloroplasts in mesophyll cells of S. polyrrhiza increased. Though the number of chloroplasts decreased with weak light intensity, the grana lamella of chloroplasts thickened to increase its photosynthesis reaction area. In terms of temperature effects, S.polyrrhiza was under stress to a certain degree in 10℃ and 35℃ treatments, as shown by shriveled chloroplasts and large cell cavity at 10℃, and dissolved chloroplast envelope, exuded stroma and increased plastoglobulus at 35℃. S.polyrrhiza transformed its internal structure inside the cell morphology in order to adapt to different light intensity and temperature conditions, making it be a certain tolerant to light and temperature stress.
    Genetic Variation on Dominant and Inferior Tree Populations and Family Selection of Larix olgensis Henry
    XU Yue-Li;ZHANG Han-Guo*;YAO Yu;ZHANG Lei;LIU Ling;WANG Yan-Hong
    2012, 32(3):  284-289.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.007
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    Taking the off-site preservation forest 9119B of Larix olgensis in Qinshan forestry centre in Linkou, Heilongjiang province as the materials, the growth variation of the dominant and inferior tree populations were analyzed. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the dominant and inferior tree populations, while rich variations existed in height, diameter and volume between these populations. The volume variation coefficient was the richest one, followed by the diameter and the least is the height, the coefficients were 46.24%, 19.82% and 12.25%, respectively. These three coefficients of dominant population were 12.98%, 20.77% and 49.36%, while the inferior population was 11.47%, 18.79% and 43.16%. The variations of the dominant tree population were respectively 1.51%, 1.98% and 6.2% higher than the inferior ones at height, diameter and volume. There were significant differences between these populations by the variance analysis. According to the analysis, we selected 6 families (856, 859, 563, 552, 567, 864), 3 were dominant tree populations and 3 were inferior tree populations. The average volume of these 6 families were 0.022 3, 0.018 6, 0.016 8, 0.016 4, 0.016 2 and 0.015 9 m3 bigger than the average values of dominant population, while 0.018 2, 0.014 5, 0.012 7, 0.012 3, 0.012 1 and 0.011 7 m3 bigger than the inferior ones. According to the 10% selection rate among the dominant and inferior tree populations, the variation gains were 59.33%, 65.18%, 74.91%, 40.64%, 40.94% and 45.34%, respectively.
    Differences of Seed Coat Structure and Ions Content between Dimorphic Seeds of Borszczowia aralocaspica
    SONG Yi-Gang;LI Li*;ZHANG Xi-Ming;PAN Xiang-Liang;ZENG Xin-Hua;
    2012, 32(3):  290-295.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.008
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    Borszczowia aralocaspica, an annual halophyte, is an endemic species in the Central Asian deserts, whose dimorphic seeds are differed in color (black and brown), shape and size. The present study was to compare the differences in the physiology and biochemistry materials and seed coat structures of dimorphic seeds of B.aralocaspica, and reveal the effect of reproductive allocation on the ecological adaption mechanism of dimorphic seeds. The seeds were collected in natural populations from Fukang county in Xinjiang. A total of 1000 grains of dimorphic seeds of B.aralocaspica were respectively selected and weighted for black and brown seeds. The seed coat structures were observed by scanning electron micrographs (SEM). The soluble sugar, soluble protein and nutrient element of dimorphic seeds were also tested. Black seeds had two layers of seed coat compared to single layer in brown seeds. The structures of both seeds were found to be totally different. Brown seeds are bigger than black ones, and the weight distribution was mostly focused on 2.1 to 3 mg. The contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, K+, Na+, K+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+ in brown seeds were significantly higher than those in black seeds. In the process of reproduction, the resource allocations of the maternal plant to brown seeds and black seeds are different, which leads to the distinct differences in dormancy and germination mechanism. This will help it to adapt to the unstable desert environment, and to maintain the stability of the B.aralocaspica population.
    An Improved Promoter-cloning Method Based on Adaptor-PCR and Its Application in Rubber Tree
    XIN Lu-Sheng;YANG Jiang-Hua;TANG Chao-Rong*
    2012, 32(3):  296-303.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.009
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    Transcriptional regulation of eukaryotic genes is realized by the interactions between cis-elements and trans-acting factors. Most of the cis-elements reside in the promoter regions, and form the major factor controlling the start site and efficiency of transcription. Therefore, cloning and functional characterization of the promoter of a target gene becomes an important task in unraveling the mechanisms of gene expression and regulation. Here, an improved method of promoter cloning was established based on adaptor-PCR. We modified the adaptor sequences of the adaptor by increasing the specificity and annealing temperatures for the adaptor primers, and made it more suitable for two-step PCR. The genomic DNA of Rubber tree was cleaved by 25 selected restriction enzymes, then blunted and ligated to the same modified adaptor, and formed the genome-walking library for promoter cloning. The utility of this library was verified by the successful promoter cloning for six sucrose transporter genes, one invertase gene and one trehalose synthase gene. The method established in this work is suitable for promoter cloning in Rubber tree as well as other plant species.
    Cloning, Expression Pattern and Bioinformation Analyses of COBRA Gene in Tomato(Solanum lycopersicum)
    CAO Ying;TANG Xiao-Feng;LIU Yong-Sheng
    2012, 32(3):  304-310.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.010
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    COBRA is a member of plant-specific glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein family and plays an important role in controlling cellulose content of cell wall and orientation of cell expansion. Although studies on COBRA mutants from Arabidopsis, Oryza sativa and Zea mays have been extensively performed, the function of ortholog of COBRA in tomato remains largely unknown. In this study, a full-length cDNA sequence highly homologous with other plant COBRA genes was identified by RT-PCR from tomato seeding, and named as SlCOBRA(GenBank Accession No.JN398667). Results of sequence analyses showed that SlCOBRA is composed of six exons encoding a 444-amino acid protein, containing conserved features of the COBRA protein, such as a CCVS motif, an N-terminal signal peptide sequence for secretion, a highly hydrophobic C terminus, and specific features around the ω-site required for processing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence of SlCOBRA shows 80% identity with that of Arabidopsis AtCOB, thereby being organized in the same clade. Meanwhile, the expression pattern of tomato COBRA was revealed by real-time PCR. The results showed that tomato COBRA exhibits higher expression levels in roots, shoots, flower and fruits, but only during the green stages of tomato fruit development, prior to visible signs of ripening. At the start of the breaker stage, the levels of tomato COBRA mRNA decline dramatically.
    SRAP Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Riparian Plant Distylium chinense in Hubei Province
    XIE Chun-Hua;LI Xiao-Ling*;LUAN Chun-Yan;YANG Jin;CHEN Fa-Ju;LI Zheng-Yan
    2012, 32(3):  311-319.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.011
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    The genetic diversity and the genetic structure of four in situ populations and one ex situ conservation population of riparian plant Distylium chinense in Hubei province was investigated using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular marker technique. A high level of genetic diversity at the species level was observed with the selected 7 SRAP primer combinations generating 46 discernible DNA fragments, of which 37 (80.43%) were polymorphic. The observed number of alleles (A), the mean effective number of alleles (Ae), Nei’s gene diversity index (Hp) and Shannon’s information index (I) was 2.00, 1.34, 0.215 9 and 0.350 9, respectively. Within populations, the genetic variation was found to be mainly caused by the variation within populations, accounting for 88.39% of the total genetic variation and only 11.61% among the populations. The gene flow of D.chinense between populations was 3.807 2, which was a relative high gene flow and could efficiently prevent gene drift and maintain current genetic structure. Based on unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram and principal coordinates analysis (PCA) diagram, the five populations studied may be divided into two groups. Most accessions along riversides in Hubei province including Letianxi, Xiangxi and Gaojiayan populations were found in one group, which was further divided into two subgroups that corresponded to the their geographic distance. Yanduhe and Three Gorges Botanical Garden populations were clustered into another group, showing that the accessions of ex situ conservation population had relatively high relatedness with those from Yanduhe population. The mean genetic diversity in ex situ conservation population was higher than those in situ populations. Hence, the ex situ conservation program of Three Gorges Botanical Garden was considered to be successful in preserving genetic diversity of D.chinense. Moreover, combining the analysis of the genetic diversity with available information on breeding system, status of natural habitat and evolutionary history, we also evaluated the current ex situ conservation program and proposed some effective strategies to further conserve the species. The results also suggested that SRAP molecular marker technique is valuable and reliable for evaluation of the genetic diversity estimation in D.chinense and this is the first report on the application of SRAP molecular marker technique in D.chinense.
    Total DNA Extraction and RAPD System Optimization of Endangered Plant Populus euphratica and P.pruinosa
    JIAO Pei-Pei;WANG Yan-Qin;PANG Xin-An;LI Zhi-Jun;*
    2012, 32(3):  320-325.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.012
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    An improved method based on CTAB was used to extract the total DNA from dry leaves of endangered plant Populus euphratica and P.pruinosa, and to research their reaction system of RAPD-PCR. The results showed that the total DNA extracted by the improved CTAB method could be fit for the RAPD analysis of P.euphratica and P.pruinosa. A suitable RAPD-PCR system for P.euphratica and P.pruinosa was developed as follows: 20 μL PCR solution, including 2.5 mmol·L-1 Mg2+, 0.15 mmol·L-1 dNTP, 0.2 μmol·L-1 primer, 100 ng DNA template and 1.5 U Taq DNA polymerase. By testing the stability of the system with 6 polymorphic primer pairs, the results indicated that the developed system could amplify stably and keep a rich polymorphism. These results provided a reference for the further research on both P.euphratica and P.pruinosa at molecular level.
    Effect of Phytohormone on Induction of Genetic Tumor in Different Tobaccos
    QU Guan-Zheng;ZHENG Tang-Chun;MA Lin;ZHAO Xue-Cai;LI Shuang;LI Kai-Long*
    2012, 32(3):  326-330.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.013
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    The morphology of N.glauca, N.langsdorffii and N.glauca×N.langsdorffii was detected, and the effect of phytohormone on hybrid genetic tumor formation was analyzed. The result showed that exogenous cytokinin (N6-benzyladenine, BA) enhanced the tumor formation on hybrid seedling, while auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) inhibited. It was the first report on genetic tumor formation from N.glauca, suggesting that genetic factors may control tumor formation independent of the specific interspecific cross. The SEM assay showed that the tumor surface cells arranged irregularly and we proposed that the irregular arrangment of tumor cells was due to the loss of normal interaction and coordination between cells.
    Effect of Forest and Farm on Vertical Patterns of Soil Carbon,Nitrogen and Other Parameters in Northeast China
    AN Jing;WANG Wen-Jie*;WANG Hong-Yan;SU Dong-Xue;QU Ling;ZU Yuan-Gang
    2012, 32(3):  331-338.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.014
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    Based on 8 paired plots in larch (Larix gmelinii) plantations and adjacent farmlands in northeast China, the aim of the present study is to find the relations of different soil layers vertical patterns to land uses. Seven out of the 8 paired samples showed higher SOC contents in surface (0-20 cm) soil of larch plantations than those in farmlands, and the mean value of the pooled data showed larch plantation was 37% higher. However, deeper soil layers showed a contrasting 8%-58% higher SOC contents in farmland. In different samples of SIC, higher SIC contents were observed in forest comparing with farmland in total 0-80 cm soil profile (forest: 1.33 mg·kg-1; farmland: 1.17 mg·kg-1 ). In most cases, surface (0-20 cm) soil layer of larch plantations showed higher soil N and alkaline-N content than those in farmland and the average increments of the 8 plots were respectively 20% and 34%. However, deeper layers (20-80 cm) usually showed contrasting tendencies. Higher soil N (6%) and alkaline N (4%) contents in farmland than those in forest land were found. Generally, 0-20 cm soil of forest had a higher pH, but lower EC and bulk density than those of farmland. In deep layers (20-80 cm), 4-5 of the 8 plots showed contrary patterns. Pooled data showed no obvious difference between these two land uses in pH, EC in farmlands was 2.2 μs·cm-1 higher than forests, and bulk density showed a difference as small as 0.02 g·cm-3(1%). These findings clearly manifested that the vertical pattern in soil C, N and other physic-chemical parameters is robustly evident, and land use impacts on surface soil may be totally different, and even contrary from those in deep layers. Without deep layer inclusion, some conclusions of SOC depletion and degradation of soil fertility by farmland reclamation may overestimate the changes and we should consider the changes both at surface and deep soils in future studies for a non-bias and scientific evaluation.
    Effect of Poplar Plantation on Soil Amelioration in Severe Saline-alkali Soil
    YANG Feng-Jian;LIU Wei;LI De-Wen;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2012, 32(3):  339-342.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.015
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    In order to investigate the effect of constructing poplar plantation on soil amelioration, the severe saline-alkali soil of Zhaodong City, Heilongjiang Province was studied. The 4 treatments were CK (Control), Bar treatment (Small hole improvement-Bar foraging ditch-In situ repair), Cross treatment (Small hole improvement-Cross foraging ditch-In situ repair) and Grid treatment (Small hole improvement-Grid form of foraging ditch-In situ repair), respectively. The results of the present study showed that the different improvement treatments changed the severe saline-alkali soil characteristics, significantly decreased the pH value, conductivity and carbonate content in soil surface (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the exchange of calcium and magnesium ion contents, and the humic acid and chitosan contents were significantly increased (p<0.05). Therefore, the 3 different treatments, based on Small hole improvement and In situ repair, had well modified effects for the severe saline-alkali soil.
    Comparative Study on Stand Density Measures Based on Self-thinning Theory for Chinese Fir Plantation
    CHE Shao-Hui;ZHANG Jian-Guo*
    2012, 32(3):  343-347.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.016
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    The relationship between yield and stand density is of critical importance in precision forestry. A necessary first step is how to accurately quantify the stand density. The objective of the paper aimed to find out the optimum measure from three relative stand density index based on self-thinning theory, such as Curtis’s, Reneike’s and Nilson’s stand density. These density measures were developed through the same data from experiment of Chinese Fir plantations (Cunninghamia lanceolata(Lamb.) Hook), and selected according to theoretical analysis and practical verification. Theoretically, Curtis’s relative stand density (RD) is equivalent to accepted stand density index (SDI), and SDI can be viewed as a special sample of Nilson’s stand density (SD). A case of Chinese Fir plantations showed that SD measure was superior to conventional SDI and RD for reflecting the actual dynamic change rule of stand density. Additionally, it had less correlation with site quality than SDI and RD measures. The SD measure is able to apply for modeling and predicting of planted Chinese Fir all over site index and age.
    Correlation between Spectrophotometric Absorbance of Soil Solution and Contents of Variable Carbon and Nitrogen in Larch Plantation Forests
    SU Dong-Xue;WANG Wen-Jie*;QIU Ling;WANG Hong-Yan;AN Jing;ZHENG Guang-Yu
    2012, 32(3):  348-353.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.017
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    Based on 100 samples from 4 soil depths, the spectrophotometric absorbances of soil solutions at 14 wavelengths (250, 254, 260, 265, 272, 280, 285, 300, 340, 350, 365, 400, 436 and 465 nm) and soil carbons (dissolved organic carbon DOC and soil organic carbon SOC)and nitrogens (dissolved soil nitrogen DON and soil organic nitrogen SON) were concurrently measured. We are aiming to answer the question that absorbance at which wavelength is most correlated with the soil carbon and nitrogen, and whether or not differences exist in these relations between top- and sub-soils. The following conclusions were obtained. Firstly, although absorbance values of surface and deep soil solutions significantly decreased with wavelength, the decrease in top soil was much steeper than that in sub-soils. The lower region of the studied wavelengths was more powerful to distinguish the difference between surface and deep soils, accordingly. Comparing with deep layers, more robust correlations between soil solution absorbance and SOC, DON and SON were found in surface soil layer (0-20 cm). However, the difference in the DOC and absorbance relations between surface and deep soils was much weaker. Secondly, the absorbance values of 8 wavelengths (250-300 nm) were significantly auto-correlated, indicating that each of them could function the same in characterizing soil solution. Using 254 nm as a representative of them, the regression analysis between absorbance (254, 340, 365, 400, 436 and 465 nm) and soil carbon, nitrogen have been carried out by using the entire pooled data. The best regressions (R2=0.53-0.59) for SOC, DON, SON were found in 254 nm, and sharp decreases in R2 value with wavelength increases were found. No such large change was found in DOC, and R2 from 0.25 to 0.33 were found in wavelengths of 254, 340, 365 and 400 nm. Our findings indicate that the spectrophotometric absorbance of soil solution (particularly from 250 nm to 300 nm) can be used as indicators for monitoring soil carbon and nitrogen changes, and attention should be paid to the soil sampling depths and variation in different soil carbon and nitrogen parameters.
    Effects of Shading on the Photosynthetic Characteristics,Growth,and Biomass Allocation in Fraxinus mandshurica and Quercus mongolica
    XUE Si-Lei;WANG Qing-Cheng*;SUN Xin-Xin;ZHANG Ming-Jun
    2012, 32(3):  354-359.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.018
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    In order to explore the acclimation of Fraxinus mandshurica and Quercus mongolica to light regimes and the optimal light for growth, 2-year-old F.mandshurica and Q.mongolica were cultivated under four light intensity regimes (100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of full light, which were termed as FL, LS, MS and HS, respectively). The parameters of gas exchange, chlorophyll content (Chl), leaf mass per unit area, growth, and biomass allocation were determined during the growth season. The results showed that leaf dry mass per unit leaf area (LMA), leaf fresh mass per unit leaf area (LFA), root/shoot ratio of these two species were decreased along with the decreasing irradiance; Chlorophyll content (Chl) was increased(p<0.05) with the decreasing irradiance; Light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (Rd) were in a “N” form change, but the differences are not significant(p>0.05); F.mandshurica had the greatest Pmax and the smallest Rd under HS, Q.mongolica had the greatest Pmax and small Rd under LS; Height growth of full light treatment was lower than that of the HS for these two species, basal diameter growth of full light treatment was higher than that of the HS. The results suggested that F.mandshurica was moderately shade-tolerant at the seedling stage, and the growth was better under the low light intensity; The requirement of Q.mongolica to light is higher and growth was better under relatively high light intensity.
    Tumor Cell Absorption of Folate Conjugated Albumin Nanoparticle and Folate Receptor-related Gene Expression
    NIE Si-Ming;ZHANG Zhong-Hua;ZHAO Dong-Mei;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2012, 32(3):  360-364.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.019
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    To investigate the effect of folate conjugated albumin nanoparticle on tumoral cell, the folate receptor positive FR(+) SK-OV-3 cell and FR(-) lung A549 cell were used for experiment. By the techniques of cell culture in vitro and semi QRT PCR, SKOV3 cell and A549 cell were treated by folate conjugated albumin nanoparticles in various concentrations for 24 h. Folate conjugated albumin nanoparticles significantly increased the expression of FR1 gene of SKOV3 cell. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of folate conjugated albumin nanoparticle and the expression of FR1 gene. Folate conjugated albumin nanoparticle increased the activity of FOLR1 protein and related gene, which may be one of important endocytosis mechanisms of folate conjugated albumin nanoparticle.
    Volatile Components of the Essential Oils from the Leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L. by GC-MS
    HUI Yu;SUN Mo-Long*
    2012, 32(3):  365-368.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.020
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    The volatile components of the essential oils from the leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L. were extracted by steam distillation and then analyzed by GC-MS. Total of Fifty four volatile components were identified, composed of 97.84% of total essential oil. The major volatile components are: eduesmol, relative content 10.95%; β-guaiene, relative content 10.21%; longifolenaldehyde, relative content 7.88%; 1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene, relative content 7.80%; germacrone, relative content 5.91%; (-)-Humulene epoxide Ⅱ, relative content 5.52%; 2-heptyl-1,3-dioxolane, relative content 4.99%; caryophyllene, relative content 3.70%; (+)-γ-gurjunene, the relative content 3.44%.
    Preparation and Characterization of Hydroxycamptothecin Nanoparticles using Anti-solvent Ultrasonic Method
    WANG Ying;ZU Yuan-Gang*;ZHAO Xiu-Hua
    2012, 32(3):  369-372.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.021
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    Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) primary particles were prepared using anti-solvent ultrasonic method in order to improve the water-solubility, stability and bioavailability in vivo. Various indexes were tested according to the solubility of HCPT in different organic solvents and water. The optimal preparation conditions were obtained with the HCPT-DMSO concentration of 5 mg·mL-1, H2O∶DMSO of 1∶1, titrate speed of 4 mL·min-1 and the mixing time of 10 min. Various characterizations of the obtained HCPT were carried out. The SEM result demonstrated that the particles were uniform with the mean particle size of 746 nm. The HCPT primary particles have smaller particles size and the higher solubility compared with the raw HCPT.
    Optimization of Homogenate Extraction Technology of CoQ10 in Tobacco Leaves by Orthogonal Experiments
    LI Chun-Ying;ZHAO Chun-Jian;ZHANG Bao-You;Liu Shuai-Hua;Liu De-Man;ZU Yuan-Gang
    2012, 32(3):  373-376.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.022
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    Using tobacco leaves as materials, the homogenate extraction technology of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in tobacco was optimized by orthogonal experiments. The effect of homogenate time, ethanol volume percent, ratio of liquid to material and number of extraction cycles on the extraction yield of CoQ10 was investigated. The optimized homogenate extraction technology was determined as follows: 85% ethanol as extraction solvent, homogenate time 6 min,ratio of liquid to material 9∶1(mL· g-1), 2 extraction cycles. A comparison between homogenate and Soxhlet extractions was conducted. The extraction yield of CoQ10 was 12.82 μg·g-1 by homogenate extraction, which was almost equivalent to Soxhlet extraction. Homogenate extraction is faster and needs less solvent, thereby homogenate extraction has an advantage over Soxhlet extraction.
    Effects of pH Value and Potential Coupling on the Preparation of Vinorelbine Tartrate Loaded Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles
    LI Yong;ZHAO Xiu-Hua;ZU Yuan-Gang*;GE Yun-Long;WANG Wei-Guo
    2012, 32(3):  377-380.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.023
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    pH value plays an important role in preparing nanoparticles using antisolvent procedure. In this research, vinorelbine tartrate loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles were prepared at different pH values. The preparation process of nanoparticles was analyzed in the view of potential coupling. The results indicated that vinorelbine tartrate and bovine serum albumin took the opposite charges at pH value from 4.5-7.5. However, they took the same charge at pH 2.5, 3.5, 8.5 and 9.5. Especially, vinorelbine tartrate and bovine serum albumin took +4.48 and -8.52 mV respectively. The particle size of vinorelbine tartrate loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles reached 193.3 nm and zeta potential reached -30.86 mV in this condition. Moreover, the preparation process of nanoparticles were optimized at this pH value and the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of this drug were approximately up to 45.6% and 90.6%, respectively.
    Organ-specific Distribution of Alkaloid Accumulations in Catharanthus roseus Artificially Cultivated in Fuyang,Zhejiang Province and Wenchang,Hainan Province
    CHANG Bo-Wen;FENG Shi;ZHAO Xiao-Ju;ZHANG Xue-Ke;DUAN Xi-Hua*
    2012, 32(3):  381-384.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.03.024
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    The medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus has been widely cultivated in Hainan province, China in an artificial way and now it was increasingly introduced to other regions, including Zhejiang province and Sichuan province. To reveal the organ- and region-specific properties of alkaloids accumulation in C.roseus seedlings, materials were collected from Zhejiang Fuyang and Hainan Wenchang, and then extracted for alkaloid analysis. The contents of vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine were respectively measured in leaves, branching twigs, stems and their different combinations. The results showed that these three kinds of alkaloids accumulated in leaves were all higher in seedlings from Hainan than from Zhejiang. However, vinblastine in twigs was significantly higher in Zhejiang seedlings than in Hainan controls. The correlation analysis among vinblastine, vindoline and catharanthine in leaves, stems and twigs indicated that vindoline was positively correlated with catharanthine in leaves and twigs. Vinblastine, however, is significantly related to catharanthine in stems in a negative way. The present paper will provide useful information for region selection when considering artificial cultivation of C.roseus.