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    20 March 2012, Volume 32 Issue 2
    Biosystematic Relationships among Sect.Elymus,Sect.Turczaninovia and Sect.Macrolepis in Elymus(Poaceae) Based on the Micromorphological Characteristics of Leaf Epidermis
    SU Xu;LIU Yu-Ping;CHEN Ke-Long
    2012, 32(2):  129-136.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.001
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    The leaf epidermises of the major species of sect.Elymus, sect.Turczaninovia and sect.Macrolepis in Elymus were examined, their similarities and differences on the leaf epidermis were summarized, and the taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal features among them was discussed as well. Furthermore, according to the evolutionary trends of leaf epidermal characteristics of three sects, their evolutionary positions and relationships were inferred. The results show that the sect. Elymus is the most primitive one among these three sects, the sect.Turczaninovia is slightly more advanced than the former, and the sect.Macrolepis is the most advanced of them; the sect.Elymus might produce immediately the sect.Turczaninovia, whereas the sect.Macrolepis might derive immediately form the sect.Turczaninovia. The biosystmatic relationships of these three sects are corroborated by the evolutionary trend of external morphology.
    Pollinarium Morphology of 12 Species of Cynanchum(Asclepiadaceae)
    LI Yu-Ling;QIN Xin-Sheng*;FENG Yi-Qing
    2012, 32(2):  137-142.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.002
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    The pollinarium morphology of 12 species of Cynanchum Linn. were observed under light microscope (LM). Three types of pollinia (spheroidal, prolate and perprolate) and six types of retinaculum (oblong, square, near square, regular triangle and near triangle) were observed. This is important for the classification of Cynanchum otophyllum and supports the treatment of Cynanchum Sect. Vincetoxicum in Flora of China(Vol. 63). As the pollinarium in Cynanchum is saggy while that of Tylophora R. Br. is horizontal, it supports that Tylophora should be a unique group.
    Leaf Anatomical Structure and Its Ecological Adaptability of Five Species of Rhizophoraceae Plants
    WU Tian;YE Chang-Hui;HAN Wei-Dong*
    2012, 32(2):  143-146.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.003
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    Using the paraffin-section method, the leaf anatomical structures of five species of Rhizophoraceae plants (Rhizophora apiculata Bl., R.stylosa Griff., Kandelia candel(Linn.) Druce, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza(Linn.) Savigny and B.sexangula(Lour.) Poir) were observed in this study. The results showed that thick cuticles and lower epidermis were commonly existed in the leaves of all these five species of mangrove plants, while the epidermis cells contained tannin. This study also concluded that there was no stomata apparatus on the upper epidermis, and the layers of palisade tissues were also observed. Besides, the xylems in the leaves were identified to be well developed. All these results indicated that the leaves of mangrove plants exhibited strong drought-resistant capacity, and the leaves of homogeneous plants displayed similar characteristics in their anatomical structures.
    Clonal Reproductive Property and Community Characteristic of Invasive Species Coreopsis lanceolata
    ZENG Jian-Jun;XIAO Yi-An;ZHOU Xiao-Jun
    2012, 32(2):  147-150.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.004
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    The clonal reproductive property and community characteristic of invasive species Coreopsis lanceolata in different habitats in Lu Shan, Jiangxi province were studied. The results showed that there was no significant difference in clonal architecture under habitats with different resources. Whether in rock or deserted farmland, the clonal architecture was mainly phalanx which developed from the base of plant, it seemed that there was no correlation between the guerrilla clonal architecture and the level of environment resources. Those guerrilla clonal growth traits made C.lanceolata had collectivize growth strategy, which improved its resistance to barren and drought environment. Thus, naturalized C.lanceolata could dominate various indigenous plants in Lushan, the companion species of C.lanceolata populations were weeds with wider adaptability.
    Comparison Study on Soil Nutrient and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Ferula ferulaeoides at Different Growth Periods
    LI Xiao-Bo;ZHUANG Li*;WANG Zhong-Ke;XU Zhi-Quan
    2012, 32(2):  151-158.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.005
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    In this paper, the dynamic changes of soil water content, pH, organic substance and soil nutrient, as well as the diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency of Ferula ferulaeoides at different growth periods were studied. We found that the soil water content, organic substance and soil nutrient showed downward tendency with the growth of F.ferulaeoides while the pH was reverse, but changed slightly. In different soil depths, the soil water content and pH gradually increased with the soil depth, while organic substance and soil nutrient gradually reduced. The net photosynthetic rates at three growth periods varied in a double-peak curve and presented obvious phenomenon of “midday rest” at 14:00, with the daily mean values of leaf expansion period>maturation period>fruit period; The transpiration rates appeared to vary in a single-peak curve and had the highest value at 14:00, with the daily mean values of leaf expansion period>fruit period>maturation period; The water use efficiency showed a increased tendency at growth period and had the lowest value at 14:00, with the diurnal mean values of maturation period>fruit period>leaf expansion period. The correlation analysis revealed that stomatal conductance, photosynthetic active radiation had positive correlation with photosynthetic rate; Light intensity had evident positive correlation with transpiration rate.
    Effect of Strong Light Stress on the Growth,Biomass and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters in Seedlings of Endangered Plant Camellia nitidissima
    CHAI Sheng-Feng;WEI Xiao*;SHI Yan-Cai;WANG Man-Lian;ZOU Rong;TANG Hui
    2012, 32(2):  159-164.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.006
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    Camellia nitidissima is shadetolerant and has a limited photosynthetic potential of acclimating high light. The effects of different shading levels (8%, 25%, 50% and 100% of full sunlight) on the growth, biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of C.nitidissima seedlings were examined in order to know the growth and physiological responses of C.nitidissima to strong light. The growth of C.nitidissima seedlings were inhibited under different strong light stress. As the strong light stress was enhanced, the color of C.nitidissima seedlings leaves turned into light green and yellow green from dark green, leaf burning was getting worse, time of shooting was delayed and the shoots grew poor, the death rate increased. The biomass of root, stem, leaf and total plant significantly decreased with the strengthened stress. The strong light stress had the most influence on leaf biomass, followed by root biomass, and then the stem biomass. With the increasing strong light stress, the contents of total chlorophyll (Chl), chlorophyll a (Chla) and chlorophyll b (Chlb) in leaves of C.nitidissima seedlings significantly decreased, while Chla/Chlb and Car/Chl increased. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fo, Fm, Fv, Fv/Fo, Fv/Fm all decreased under strong light stress, which indicated that with the increasing of strong light stress, the reaction center of PSⅡ was destroyed, photosynthetic electron transform capability was weakened and photosynthesis was restrained.
    Comparison of Photosynthesis Characteristics in Five Provenances of Chinese Pine(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)
    DI Xiao-Yan;CHI Xi-Mei;CHEN Jian-Wen;WANG Meng-Ben*
    2012, 32(2):  165-170.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.007
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    In order to reveal the photosynthetic characteristic variations of different provenances and provide the theoretical basis for the work of provenance selection, the seedlings of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) from five provenances, including provenances Luonan (LN) and Huangling (HL) from Shaanxi, Lvliang Mountain (LL) and Lingkong Mountain (LK) from Shanxi and Qian Mountain (QM) from Liaoning were planted in Loess Plateau. The photosynthetic parameters and their correlations to environmental factors were studied with Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system under natural condition in order to reveal the mechanism of adaptation of different provenances. The results indicted that the diurnal dynamics of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance(Gs) for five provenances were double-peak curves with obviously midday depression in Pn. The water use efficiency (WUE) of porvenance QM had only one peak, while those of provenances LN, LL, LK and HL had two peaks. The first peaks for all provenances occurred at 8:00 or 10:00, and the second peaks of provenances LN, LL, LK and HL occurred between 12:00 and 16:00. Based on the tendency of changes in Pn, Gs, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal limitation (Ls), we speculate that the midday depressions of provenance HL was not controlled by stomatal factors, while those of the other four provenances were. The daily mean values of Pn, Tr and WUE for provenance LK was the highest and those for provenance HL was lower than the other provenances. The correlation analyses showed that the main factors affecting Pn were air temperature (Ta) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD). The main factor affecting Tr was relative humidity (RH) for provenances LN, LL and LK, while for provenances HL and QM, the main factors were Ta and VPD.
    Effects of Drought Stress on Ultrastructure and Stress Physiology of Nostoc flagelliforme
    ZHOU You-Wen;ZHANG Ya-Ping;YANG Jun;XU Qing;LEI Xiao-Ting;LIANG Wen-Yu*
    2012, 32(2):  171-176.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.008
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    Nostoc flagelliforme is a terrestrial nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, which has strong xeric ecological adaptability. The ultrastructure and physiological resistance of N.flagelliforme under drought stress were studied. The results showed that with increasing drought stress, the cell size and wall thickness were not significantly changed, the sheath tended to be shrunk, the arrangement of thylakoids tended to be disordered, and the polyhedron tended to be blurred and even disappeared, the amount of glycogen granules were decreased, but the amount of structural granules did not change significantly. SOD and CAT activities were firstly increased and then decreased, SOD activity reached the peak when the content of water reached 120%, but CAT activity reached the peak when the content of water reached 445%. With the increasing of drought stress, MDA content and oxygen free radical level were increased, H2O2 content firstly increased and then declined, it reached the peak when water content reach 120%. There were obvious differences between N.flagelliforme which dried storage for 1 year and resuscitative N.flagelliforme, the SOD and CAT activities, MDA and H2O2 contents were all lower than those of resuscitative N.flagelliforme, but oxygen free radical level reached the highest value. The results laid the foundation for the further studies on tolerance mechanism in N.flagelliforme.
    Effects of Light and Nitrogen Supply on the Carbon Balance of Seedling of Platycarya strobilacea
    WANG Chuan-Hua;WANG Yuan;LI Jun-Qing*
    2012, 32(2):  177-182.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.009
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    Platycarya strobilacea is widely distributed in the sub-tropical area of China. To study the potential effect of atmosphere nitrogen deposition on its seedling regeneration, the seedling leaf functional traits, biomass allocation, gas exchange and seedling carbon balance to low light (3.0%, 6.0%, 12.0% and 25.0% PAR of open sky light) and nitrogen (15.0 and 3.0 mmol·L-1) treatments were determined in a greenhouse experiment. The results showed that light deeply affected leaf functional traits and biomass allocation. In contrast, nitrogen supply had no influence on them, though the interactions of low light and nitrogen supply could significantly affect RMR. We also found that the maximum photosynthesis rate (Amax) and apparent photon efficiency (Ф) decreased with increasing nitrogen supply under low light (3.0% and 6.0% of full sun light), vice versa in a relatively higher light (12.0% and 25.0% of full sun light). Hence, the interactions of light and nitrogen deeply influenced leaves gas exchange of seedlings of P.strobilacea. The results simulated with a whole plant carbon balance model indicated that light compensation point of P.strobilacea seedlings (LCP-wholeplant) increased with increasing nitrogen under 3.0%, 6.0% PAR of open sky light, while it decreased with increasing nitrogen supply under 12.0% and 25.0% conditions. Therefore, we suggested that atmosphere nitrogen deposition would deteriorate P.strobilacea regeneration under lower light environment conditions, but increase its survival under disturbance and gap conditions.
    Effects of Ethephon on the Expression of Genes Related to Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Grapevine
    YU Miao;ZHAO Quan;WANG Jun;*
    2012, 32(2):  183-190.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.010
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    The present study investigated the effects of different concentrations of ethephon on the changes of anthocyanin contents and the transcription of anthocyanin biosynthesis enzyme genes during the fruit coloring period in Jingyou grapevine by means of real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes, including CHSs, CHIs, F3Hs, F3H, F35H, DFR, LDOX, UFGT, OMT, GST and transcriptional factors (MybA1, MybA1-2) were up-regulated expressed at veraison. The transcription of CHS3, CHI2 and F3H2 in gene families of CHSs, CHIs and F3Hs is closely related to the anthocyanin synthesis. Besides, UFGT, GST and MybA1 were transcribed in great quantity with anthocyanin synthesizing. The transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway genes was enhanced by ethephon treatments, which accelerated transcribing earlier and enhanced the quantity of transcription, especially GST, UFGT and MybA1. Correlation analysis of the principal related genes and anthocyanins demonstrated that the genetic transcriptional level of some anthocyanin biosynthesis genes (CHS3, CHI2, F3H2, F35H, UFGT and GST) and transcription factor (MybA1) were positively correlated to the content of anthocyanin. The genetic transcriptional level of CHS1, CHS2, CHI1, F3H1, DFR, F3H, LDOX and OMT was not correlated to the content of anthocyanins. The results of this experiment will provide a theoretical basis for further clarifying the mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis and application.
    Tree-ring Climatology of Larix gmelinii in Maoershan Region,Northeastern China
    ZHENG Guang-Yu;WANG Wen-Jie*;WANG Xiao-Chun;YU Jing-Hua;LIU Dan;QIU Ling;ZU Yuan-Gang
    2012, 32(2):  191-197.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.011
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    Through collecting the meteorological data, sampling and standardizing the data of tree rings of larch (Larix gmelinii), the climatic changes in Maoershan region were analyzed and their influences on tree ring features were studied in this paper. In the past 50 years, significant increases in temperature were found (p<0.05), i.e. about 0.4℃ per decade in average annual temperature, 0.3℃ per decade in average annual maximum temperature as well as 0.5℃ per decade in annual average minimum temperature were observed. However, no significant change in annual precipitation was found (p>0.05). Average monthly temperature (average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature) also showed increasing tendencies and the most significant month was in February of the winter, about 0.9-1℃ per decade. Much smaller temperature increases, ca. 0.2-0.7℃ per decade was found in June to August of the summer). No significant change in monthly precipitation was found in most months (p>0.05). During the coming climate warming, widths of early and whole tree rings (p<0.05) might be decreased with the temperature increment in summer (June to July), while widths of early and the growth of tree rings would increase with the temperature increases in spring (May). The width of late might be increased with the temperature increases in autumn (September). These might cause the non-obvious change in ring width with annual temperature changes (p>0.05). Although non-significant changes in precipitations, the significant correlations between annual precipitation and variable tree rings indices indicated the growths of early wood and whole tree rings might be positivity affected by the amount of annual precipitations. Considering the warming trend of the climate change is significant in northeast China in future but the rainfall does not. The growth of tree rings caused by spring and autumn temperatures could be offseted by too high temperatures in summer which inhibited the tree ring growth. Therefore, the influence on the radial growth of the Larix might be little.
    Molecular Cloning and Function Analysis of HMGR Gene from Tilia miqueliana Maxim
    ZHENG Zhu-Jun;CAO Xiao-Ying;LIU Qun;LI Chang-Gen;LU Fang;JIANG Ji-Hong*
    2012, 32(2):  198-203.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.012
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    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is the key enzyme in the pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. In this paper, a new HMGR gene, TmiHMGR, was first isolated from the leaves of Tilia miqueliana Maxim by rapid amplification of cDNA end technique. The full length cDNA of TmiHMGR was 2 160 bp, with a 1 758 bp open reading frame encoding a peptide of 585 amino acid residues. The deduced protein TmiHMGR has a calculated molecular weight of 62.9 kD and a pI value of 6.11. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that TmiHMGR had the closest relationship with HMGR from Malusx domestica. Tissue expression analysis revealed that TmiHMGR was strongly expressed in stems, while weakly in roots and leaves. The functional color complementation assay indicated that TmiHMGR could accelerate the biosynthesis of carotenoids in the Escherichia coli transformation, suggesting that TmiHMGR plays an influential role in isoprenoid biosynthesis.
    Antibody Preparation and Protein Expression of NdhK in Nostoc flagelliforme
    GUO Zheng-Hong;WEI Lan-Zhen;WANG Quan-Xi*
    2012, 32(2):  204-207.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.013
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    Nostoc flagelliforme, a terrestrial cyanobacterium, is distributed in arid and semi-arid steppes of the west and northwest of China. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) is an important photosynthetic membrane protein complex, and is essential to CO2 uptake, cyclic electron transport around photosystem Ⅰ and cellular respiration. However, little is know about the function roles of NdhK subunit in cyanobacteria. In this study, the ndhK gene was PCR amplified from the N.flagelliforme, and the expression plasmid pET32a-ndhK was generated and transformed into BL21(DE3)pLysS, and the expression of NdhK protein was induced by IPTG. After purification, the fusion protein pET-NdhK was used to immunize Japanese white rabbit to obtain the polyclonal antibody. The titer of the polyclonal antibody was detected and analyzed by Western blotting, the result showed that the polyclonal antibody possessed a high specificity. Therefore, the antibody of NdhK obtained in this study will further help us to reveal the functional roles of cyanobacterial NdhK subunit.
    Genetic Diversity and Relationship Among 7 Species of Genus Epimedium in Sichuan Revealed by ISSR Analysis
    CHEN Yan-Ying;LI Yun-Xiang*;QUAN Qiu-Mei;LIAO Xing-Li;CHENG Xian-Ge
    2012, 32(2):  208-212.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.014
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    In order to investigate the genetic diversity and relationship of genus Epimedium in Sichuan province, 7 species including 12 populations were used to study the genetic variation by the ISSR marker technique. The result showed that 194 DNA fragments among 12 populations were amplified using 23 reliable ISSR primers, among which 169 DNA bands were polymorphic (the percentage of polymorphic bands reached 87.11%). The genetic distance and similarity among 12 populations were 0.298 0-0.620 7 and 0.653 2-0.748 9, indicating variation of genetic diversity existed among different populations. The observed effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei’s gene diversity index (He) and Shannon’s information index (I) were 1.534 2, 0.314 4 and 0.469 7, respectively, showing the geographical distribution was very obvious. The result of cluster analysis using the unweighted pairgroup method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) and Principal Component analysis (PCA) based on ISSR data both showed that these tested resources were divided into two main groups. In addition, the ISSR marker technique is suitable for the analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship of genus Epimedium in Sichuan.
    Optimization of SSR Reaction System in Juglans nigra
    ZHAO Peng;;WOESTE E. Keith;CHENG Fei;ZHANG Shuo-Xin;*
    2012, 32(2):  213-221.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.015
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    The optimization of the SSR-PCR (simple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction) reaction system is an important basic protocol when SSRs are used for pedigree construction, genotyping or population genetics research in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.). We systematically tested the concentrations of Taq DNA polymerase, BSA, dNTPs, Mg2+, primers, and template DNA concentration in the PCR reaction to determine the optimal reaction system. The results indicated that the optimal SSR-PCR reaction conditions for black walnut (J.nigra L.) included a total volume of 10 μL containing 1 μL of 10 ng·μL-1 DNA, 1 μL of 10 X Taq DNA polymerase reaction buffer (1.5 mmol·L-1 Mg2+), 1.25 μL of 200 mmol·L-1 dNTPs (0.3 mmol·L-1), 1 μL of 1 mg·mL-1 BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin, 0.1 mg·mL-1), 1.0 μL of 10 μmol·L-1 each primer (when using one pair primer in each PCR reaction) or 0.5 μL of 10 μmol·L-1 each primer (when using three pairs primer in each PCR reaction), 0.5 units Taq polymerase, and 4.5 μL sterilized distilled water. The thermal cycling conditions were as follows: denaturation 3 min at 94℃; 32 cycles of 15 s at 93℃, 1 min at the annealing temperature for the primer, 30 s at 72℃; and a final extension of 10 min at 72℃ at the end of the amplification. The results showed that this SSR-PCR protocol resulted in clear, reproducible results suitable for the analysis of population genetics, genotyping, and for molecular ecology.
    Construction of SSH cDNA Library and the Corresponding EST Analysis in Petals and Labellum of Cymbidium lianpan
    WU Yun-Yun;TIAN Lu;ZHU Yong-Ping;HE Feng-Mei*
    2012, 32(2):  222-226.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.016
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    In order to explore the molecular mechanism of orchid labellum formation, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed with petals and labellum of Cymbidium lianpan in this study. One hundred and forty-seven randomly selected clones of positive library were sequenced, assembled and spliced, 37 unique sequences were found, containing 25 single sequences and 12 spliced sequences. After homology comparison, these ESTs were classified as protein folding, binding, unknown function, stress response, photosynthesis, transcription regulation, signal transduction, biosynthesis, metabolism, MADS and other 10 categories. Through the analysis of phylogenetic tree about MADS-box genes, we can initially speculate that MADS-Contig1 and MADS-Contig2 belong to A class SQUA-like subfamily genes.
    Analysis on the Factors Influencing Transformation of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens
    YAO Qing-Rong;GUO Yun-Ling;KONG Hua;HE Li-Ka;GUO An-Ping*
    2012, 32(2):  227-231.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.017
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    Agrobacteriurn tumefaciens-mediated transformation system was used to study the factors influencing transformation in cassava. Histochemical GUS assay showed that the transient expression rate was significantly improved by using the following transformation conditions: GV3101 as A.tumefaciens strains, infection time 30-45 min, co-culture time 3-4 d, engineering bacterium concentration (OD600) 0.45 and application of 200 μmol·L-1 AS. However, pre-culture showed negative influence on the transient expression rate. Eight transgenic cassava plants from 453 explants were obtained in this study and the integration of glgC336 transgene was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. The transformation frequency was 1.77%.
    Chemical Compound Characteristic Analysis of Wood forming Tissue from Reaction Wood of Pinus koraiensis
    ZHU Li;SHI Jiang-Tao*
    2012, 32(2):  232-236.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.018
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    The acetyl bromide lignin content of wood-forming tissue from Pinus koraiensis reaction wood was detected, and the FTIR and X-ray diffraction patterns were analyzed. The results showed that the lignin content of wood-forming tissue was lower than the mature wood, and the compression wood was higher than normal. The infrared spectrum results indicated that the characteristic absorption peak sites of hydroxyl and absorption band in 1 034-1 510 cm-1 were obviously different between immature and mature woods. The relative absorption intensity of chemical functional group in immature wood was lower than mature one. The site and shape of characteristic absorption peak showed no significant difference among compression, opposite and normal woods. However, the relative absorption intensity of functional group in compression wood was higher than normal one. The diffracted intensity of wood-forming tissue was significantly lower than mature wood by X-ray diffracted pattern. Meanwhile, the diffracted intensity of compression wood was lower than opposite and normal ones. Moreover, the relative crystallinity of wood-forming tissue was significantly lower than mature xylem and it was lower in compression wood than opposite and normal ones. Hence, the chemical properties of wood-forming tissue are dynamic changing in wood formation and differences are existed between reaction and normal woods.
    Analysis on the Aroma Components of Different Flower Parts in Magnolia officinalis Wild and Cultivated Species
    WANG Jie;YANG Zhi-Ling*;YANG Xu
    2012, 32(2):  237-242.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.019
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    The aroma components in flower bud samples of Magnolia officinalis wild and cultivated species whose bracts had just opened were studied by solid phase micro-extraction and GC/MS technology. The aroma components and their relative contents in different flower parts were compared and analyzed. The results showed that there were 39 components in M.officinalis wild species, 26 in pistils and stamens, 22 in petals. There were 75 components in M.officinalis cultivated species, 49 in pistils and stamens, 54 in petals. Terpenes were the major compounds in the flower bud of M.officinalis, camphene, (Z)-3, 7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene, caryophyllene and 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol were identified in both wild and cultivated species and their relative contents were high. Both the aromatic compounds and their relative contents in M.officinalis wild and cultivated species were distinctly different, the aromatic compounds and their relative contents were also significantly different in pistils and stamens, petals of M.officinalis wild or cultivated species.
    Comparison of the Contents of Total Polyphenols and Tannins in Different Parts of Pinus sinensis
    XIE Jiu-Xiang;LIN Gong-Hua;DU Yu-Rong;YU Xue-Feng;SUO You-Rui;ZHANG Tong-Zuo*
    2012, 32(2):  243-247.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.020
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    Pinus sinensis is a widely distributed Chinese endemic species, with a long application history in Chinese herbal medicine. Polyphenols and tannins are important medicinal components in pines. In this paper, Folin-Cicalten method and the Chinese national standard determination method of tannins were adopted to determine the total polyphenols and tannins contents in root, stem and leaf of P.sinensis. The total contents of polyphenols in root, stem and leaf of pine was 89.24±12.06, 68.18±11.20 and 104.30±12.51 mg·g-1, respectively, and tannin contents were 25.38±5.85, 20.92±3.55 and 39.02±5.68 mg·g-1, respectively. The results showed leaf contained the highest content of total polyphenols, while stem the lowest. Compared with other medicinal plants, the relatively high contents of total polyphenols and tannins make P.sinensis a promising treasure in development and application.
    Influences of Chinolyda flagellicornis on Volatile Organic Compounds of Cupressus funebris in Natural Conditions
    SHI Sheng-Qing;HU Yong-Jian;LIU Jian-Feng;LEI Jing-Pin*;LI Liang-Jun;WU Jiang-Hui
    2012, 32(2):  248-252.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.021
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    Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a crucial role in the defence of insect pests. In this study, the VOCs components of Cupressus funebris under healthy and insect (Chinolyda flagellicornis)-damaged conditions were measured and analyzed at Forest Farm of Changjiang River, Chongqing. VOCs analysis before the occurrence of insect pest showed that 37 components were identified in both samples, the main component is terpenoids and the followings are phytols, esters, aldehydes, alkanes, etc.; Among them, borneol is specific to the healthy C.funebris, while (Z)-2-decena is to the damaged ones, the rests are presented in both but different in the concentrations. After the occurrence of insect pest, 32 components were identified in both samples, however, the other 5 components, borneol, (Z)-2-decenal, menthol, naphthalene and alpha-caryophyllene, had not been detected. Moreover, most of the detected ones had the contrary trends in the changes of concentrations to the results before the occurrence of insect pest. The results suggested that the difference of VOCs emission in the healthy and the damaged C.funebris is one of the important mechanisms of C.funebris defending insect pest, which would be a desirable trait and index for the selection and breeding of C.funebris against C.flagellicornis.
    Inhibition Effects of Flavonoids from Exocarpium citri Grandis on Nitrosation
    DUAN Zhi-Fang;FU Li;ZHAO Ze-Hai
    2012, 32(2):  253-256.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.02.022
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    The total flavonoids in Exocarpium citri Grandis were extracted using the optimum ultrasonic extraction conditions and were further separated by ethyl acetate to yield lipid-soluble and water-soluble parts. The inhibitions of these different extracts on nitrosation were studied. The lipid-soluble extract was purified by chromatography on silica gel and the water-soluble extract was purified by macroporous adsorption resin. The structures of the flavonoids were identified and their inhibitions on nitrosation were experimented. The results showed that the extraction yield of the flavonoids was as high as 26.42%. The lipid-soluble and water-soluble extracts had some inhibition effects on nitrosation such as nitrosodimethylamine synthesis and sodium nitrite, in which the inhibition of the water-soluble extract was stronger than the lipid-soluble extract. In the four flavonoids, naringin had stronger inhibition than the others, the maximum blocking rate to nitrosodimethylamine synthesis was as high as 94.7%, while the highest removal rate to sodium nitrite was 92.3%.