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    20 July 2014, Volume 34 Issue 4
    Relationship Between Pteris fauriei and Pteris biaurita Based on rps4-trnS Region Sequences Analysis
    XU Dao-Lan;JIANG Nan;CAO Jian-Guo;WANG Quan-Xi;DAI Xi-Ling*
    2014, 34(4):  436-439.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.002
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    This paper mainly discussed the phylogenetic relationship between Pteris fauriei and Pteris biaurita based on the combined rps4-trnS region sequences of Pteridaceae and the allied groups that have been published in GenBank. The result showed that: no significant difference between chloroplast rps4-trnS region sequences of P.fauriei and P.biaurita was detected. Therefore, P.fauriei and P.biaurita are most probably conspecific or variant relations based on our phylogenetic analysis combining the evidences of morphological characteristics of their sporophytes and gametophytes.
    Urtica malipoensis,A New Species of Urticaceae from Yunnan
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2014, 34(4):  433-435.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.001
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    A species of the genus Urtica(Urticaceae), U.malipoensis, is described as new from Yunnan Province. The digonostic differences between it and its ally are given.
    Distribution Pattern and Analysis of Influencing Factors of Rare Plant Anemone shikokiana(Makino) Makino
    WANG Zhi;PANG Yu-Juan;LIU Chuan-Lin;BIAN Fu-Hua*
    2014, 34(4):  440-445.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.003
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    Using the contiguous grid of quadrats, the distribution pattern and aggregating intensity of Anemone shikokiana from Hualiukou and Laoding of Laoshan and Hanfengling and Taiboding of Kunyushan were studied. Moreover, the influencing factors on the distribution pattern were analyzed. The results showed as follows: (1)Four populations were characterized by clumped distribution mainly because of biological characters. (2)The aggregating trend of A.shikokiana in shrub of mountaintop was stronger than that in understorey of conifer and broadleaf mixed forest. The main reason might be that the fruiting ratio of A.shikokiana in shrub of mountaintop was higher than that in understorey. We concluded that the wind may be one of pollinators of A.shikokiana. (3)The potential of population regeneration in understorey of conifer and broadleaf mixed forest was more vigorous than that in shrub of mountaintop because the germination of seeds and growing of seedings need the moist environment. (4)We deduced the community can be steady in natural state based on distribution of associated species. In this study, the distribution pattern and aggregating intensity of A.shikokiana were analyzed for the first time, which will provide the theoretic basis for conservation and application of A.shikokiana.
    Comparison of Flowering Phenology of Two Kinds of Sandy Semi-shrub of Artemisia L. in the Horqin Sandy Land
    ZHENG Xing-Xing;WANG Tie-Juan*;WEI Xiao-Meng
    2014, 34(4):  446-451.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.004
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    The flowering phenology of Artemisia wudanica and A.halodendron were investigated at four levels (capitulum, inflorescence branches, individual and population) in the Horqin Sandy Land. The results showed that: (1) At the population level, the initial time of flowering of A.wudanica was 18th June, which was 9 d earlier than A.halodendron, the durations were 19 d and 16 d, respectively, and the overlapping flowering period was 10 d in two species. At the individual level, the initial time of flowering was 7 d earlier and the duration was 2 d longer in A.wudanica than in A.halodendron; (2)The number of capitulum on secondary inflorescence branches was less and duration was longer in A.wudanica than in A.halodendron. The flowering frequency of two species were all single-peak type, the highest frequency of flowering duration time at the secondary inflorescence branch were all 8 d, followed by 9 d; for the capitulum, the higher frequency were all 5 d, 4 d, 6 d and the highest one was 5 d; (3)The first flowering position was near the base of secondary inflorescence branches in A.halodendron, the highest frequency was the second and the third one from the base, being 12.7% and 11.9%, respectively. However, the capitulum on the top of secondary inflorescence branches was the first blossom in A.wudanica, the frequency was up to 56.3%; (4)The flowering amplitude curve of two species all showed a single peak curve, A.wudanica reached its peak on the 9th day after flowering, and A.halodendron was on the 6th day. The similarity of these two species’ flowering phenology reflected their phylogenetic relationship and adaptability to environment. The differences, especially the first flowering position, indicated the genetic differences in long-term evolution of two species.
    CO2 Flux Components,Their Contributions to Stem Respiration and the Key Impact Factors in Stems of Larch
    WANG Xiu-Wei;MAO Zi-Jun*
    2014, 34(4):  452-457.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.005
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    According to a mass balance approach, plant stem respiration(RS) is composed of three parts that accounts for all fluxes of carbon dioxide of stems: transport flux (FT , dissolved CO2 entering and leaving the segment in flowing sap); storage flux (△S, the increase or decrease in mean sap [CO2] over time); efflux to atmosphere (EA, CO2 leaving the segment by diffusion through bark), in which stem internal CO2 transport in xylem sap flow (FT) plays a very important role in gas exchange of plant. It is an essential and non-specific component in respiration measurements of stems and branches. To evaluate the contribution of these three flux components to the stem respiration of Larix gmelinii, the stem CO2 efflux was continuously determined using infrared gas analysis method (IRGA) in situ and the sap flow density and stem temperature were simultaneously recorded. The relationship between stem respiration and stem temperature was fitted by Arrhenius equation assumed that the CO2 efflux is equal to the stem respiration rate when the sap flow ceased. Then, the stem respiration rate (RS), CO2 transport flux in sap flow (FT) and storage flux (△S) were calculated according to mass balance method. Our results showed that proportions of EA, FT and △S accountting for RS are dynamic. CO2 efflux (EA) on the stem surface closely related with internal CO2 flux of the stem. It means that FT and △S can affect EA. In 24 h cycle, EA, FT, △S accounted for 65.10%~104.45%, 1.86%~29.46%, and 0.42%~5.44% of the total stem respiration, respectively. Sap flow is the main factor affecting the composition of the three flux components, but the effect is different among the individual trees.
    Phenotypic Traits of Sapindus mukorossi Seedling Population for Association Analysis
    DIAO Song-Feng;SHAO Wen-Hao;JIANG Jing-Min*;DONG Ru-Xiang;LI Yan-Jie
    2014, 34(4):  458-464.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.006
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    To select the population well suited for the association analysis of character-molecular marker in Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn., the seedling population of S.mukorossi was selected, which is made up of 110 individuals and meets the conditions for association analysis. A total of 25 traits were investigated and analyzed, on which phenotypic variation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were conducted. The results showed that the variation of 23 of 25 traits was significant (P<0.05) and 7 of 23 traits was extremely significant (P<0.01), the coefficient of variation (CV) was 5.53%-65.67%. PCA showed that fruit traits and seed traits, tree traits and fruit branch traits were the best predictor of polymorphism patterns in flare tree peonies. The variation of phenotypes was in equal distribution within this population without conspicuous structure, but a hierarchical relationship was observed among different traits. The above results indicate that this selected population is well suited for the association analysis. The population may be used to select superior individuals for different purposes. Using the population of S.mukorossi as a basis for molecular assisted selection may be carried out.
    Genetic Diversity of Magnolia biondii(Magnoliaceae) Assessed by ISSR Polymorphisms
    GUO Le;KANG Yong-Xiang*;XING Zhen-Jie;YANG Ling;GUO Jian;LI Na
    2014, 34(4):  465-473.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.007
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    The genetic diversity and relationship of 35 wild Magnolia biondii accessions (came from Shannxi, Henan and Hubei provinces) were analyzed by using ISSR (Inter-simple sequence repeat) markers. Ten primers selected from 100 ISSR primers (published by Columbia university) were used for amplification. A total of 154 bands were generated, of which 143 bands were polymorphic bands. The percentage of polymorphic loci (PPB) was 93.5%. According to the result of ISSR amplification, the genetic similarity coefficient among 35 M.biondii accessions ranged from 0.55 to 0.87; Nei’s gene diversity index (H) was 0.274 7; Shannon diversity index (I) was 0.427 4. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) among 3 regions was 0.129 1. All these results illustrated that there was an abundant genetic diversity in M.biondii species. A significant genetic differentiation existed both within and among different regions, moreover, the former was relatively large proportion of the total differentiation. The UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that 35 germplasms were classified into 4 major groups based on Nei’s similarity coefficient, which showed that there were some rules in geographical distribution, however, no absolute correlation with color. The result of principal coordinates analysis basically accorded with the UPGMA dendrogram analysis. Mantel test based on genetic distance and original geographic distance revealed that the genetic relationship among the studied germplasms was not strictly correlated with the geographical provenance.
    ISSR Analysis on Genetic Diversity of Brassica campestris L. var. rosularis Germplasm Resources
    SONG Jiang-Hua;ZHAO Ying;WANG Cheng-Gang*;YANG Jing
    2014, 34(4):  474-478.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.008
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    ISSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 48 Brassica campestris cultivars. A total of 103 markers were scored from 9 primers, which were screened out from 60 random primers and demonstrated highly reproducible, clear and polymorphic bands. Each primer produced 11.4 bands. Among the obtained markers, 85 bands were polymorphic, accounting for 82.68% of the total. The genetic similarity coefficients among the cultivars ranged from 0.59 to 0.97, reflecting the high genetic diversity of B.campestris germplasms by ISSR markers. Cluster analysis with UPGMA method showed that these 48 germplasms could be divided into four groups, which were closely related to the leaf color of the different cultivars. The results will provide the reference to the study and usage of B.campestris germplasms.
    Genetic Diversity Analysis on Rhodoleia championii Wild Populations
    XU Bin;ZHU Bao-Zhu;ZHANG Fang-Qiu;PAN Wen;WANG Yu-Xia
    2014, 34(4):  479-484.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.009
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    The genetic diversities and genetic structures of 8 Rhodoleia championii wild populations were evaluated using ISSR markers. The results showed that R.championii had higher genetic diversity at both species level (percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB)=94.86%, Shannon’s phenotypic diversity index (H0)=0.343 8) and population level (PPB=73.07%, H0=0.267 3). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic differentiation among and within populations was all found to be remarkably high, and 29.71% of genetic variation existed among populations. The Mantel test showed that the geographic and genetic distances were not significantly correlated to each other.
    Logistic Model Building of Seedling Growth Traits in Transgene Populus simonii×P.nigra Clones Carrying TaLEA Gene
    LIU Meng-Ran;BIAN Xiu-Yan;MA Wen-Jun;SHAO Long-Ting;YAO Li-Xin;MENG Bing-Nan;LIU Gui-Feng;ZHAO Xi-Yang*
    2014, 34(4):  485-491.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.010
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    A total of 10 transgene and one control Populus simonii×P.nigra clones were used to investigate and analyze the variation of growth curve of tree height and basic diameter. The result showed that tree height and basic diameter growth process curve accord with “S” shape. The coefficient of Logistic model was higher than 0.9 which indicated that the function of the model was effective. There were remarkable differences within different variation sources between the tree height and basic diameter of different clones (P<0.01). The average rapid growth last for 44 d for tree height and 70 d for basic diameter, respectively. The average increments during rapid growth period were 1.85 cm and 0.99 mm for tree height and basic diameter, respectively. There were remarkably positive correlation coefficients between tree height, basic diameter, average increment during rapid growth period and average increment each day during rapid growth period. XL-1 and XL-9 grew fast, tree heights (basic diameters) were 16.73%(32.82%) and 10.92%(22.68%) higher than control, respectively, which indicated transgene remarkably affect tree growth and this research can provide fundamental basis for future research.
    Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2Genes in Poplar(Populus simonii×Populus nigra)
    LI Shuang;ZHENG Tang-Chun;DAI Li-Juan;ZANG Li-Na;QU Guan-Zheng*
    2014, 34(4):  498-504.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.012
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    Flowering is the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase in plants, and it is regulated by APETALA1(AP1) gene. We cloned two full-length cDNA sequences of homologous gene AP1 from Populus simonii×Populus nigra by RT-PCR, named as PsnAP1-1(GenBank No.KC866354) and PsnAP1-2(GenBank No.KC866355). PsnAP1-1 contains an 726 bp open reading frame (ORF) corresponding to a deduced protein of 241 amino acids, while the estimated molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the putative protein were 28.1 kD and 8.19. PsnAP1-2 with a open reading frame(ORF) of 750 bp, encoding 249 amino acid with a predicted molecular mass of 28.7 kD and a pI of 9.07. A comparison of the deduced amino acid residues indicated that PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 nucleotide sequences were 71% and 67% identities with AP1 gene homologues of Arabidopsis thaliana. With expression analysis by RT-PCR, the PsnAP1-1 and PsnAP1-2 genes only expressed in flower buds, but not expressed in root, leaf, and stem tissues. Furthermore, we constructed recombinant plasmid pET-PsnAP1-1 and pET-PsnAP1-2, transformed to E.coli(BL21), and then induced proteins expression by IPTG. Two 35 kD recombinant proteins were expressed and separated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Our results will provide theoretical and technical bases for analyzing the interaction mechanism of AP1, other MADS-box protein, and the molecular regulation of floral meristem in poplar.
    The Gene Cloning,Prokaryotic Expression and Purification of Rice Zinc Finger Protein OsRZ3
    SUN Yu;WANG Jin-Lin*
    2014, 34(4):  492-497.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.011
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    This research is based on the NCBI’s NO.AK062094, OsRZ3 gene, and uses it to design specific primer. Then through adding the cDNA’s full length genome by RT-PCR, nucleotide sequencing, and compare the homology of nucleotide to show C2HC-zinc finger domain. Analyze and forecast protein molecular mass-34 kD and isoelectric point is 9.05;Arabidopsis protoplast the cytoplasm location detect indicates it is in the nucleus. Structure pGEX6P-3::OsRZ3 fusion vector, transformation of electrical Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) bacterial strain is induced by 1 mmol·L-1 IPTG ,SDS-pAGEX protein electrophoresis to show it can reach the maximum 60 kD fusion protein through 4 hours; in LB liquid culture,0.5 mmol·L-1 IPTG is induced and express. We can get a lots of fusion protein through GST adsorption column.1L bacterial suspension can induce and purify to concentration 1.58 mg·mL-1 inclusion body fusion protein. The system of fusion protein pronucleus can express pGEX6P-3::OsRZ3 fusion protein,0.5 mmol·L-1 IPTG is induced ,we get a lots of fusion protein through GST adsorption column. This is the basis of further antibody preparation and chromatin co-immunoprecipitation and the DNA combine.
    Expression of Zinc Finger Protein Gene in Populus alba×P.berolinensis in the Infection Process by Cytospora chrysosperma
    YANG Ming-Xiu;SONG Rui-Qing*
    2014, 34(4):  510-515.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.014
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    The expression of zinc finger protein gene after inoculation by Cytospora chrysosperma was studied, which lays foundation for poplar disease-resistant breeding. The virulence of a bacterial strain (CHH001) isolated from poplar to the P.alba×P.berolinensis was determined by inoculation. The bacterial strain was identified as C.chrysosperma using the methods of morphology and ITS-PCR. Real time RT-PCR was used to study the expression of resistance genes of P.alba×P.berolinensis in this study. ZFP1 and 69-Ⅳ-2-4 have higher levels of relative expression. The results showed that the expressions of ZFP1 and 69-Ⅳ-2-4 continuously increased after inoculation. The expressions of ZFP1 were 4.21 times and 3.11 times of the scalded control and blank control, respectively, after inoculation for 48 h. The expressions of 69-Ⅳ-2-4 were 9.56 times and 7.06 times of the scalded control and blank control, respectively, after inoculation for 48 h. The expressions of ZFP1 and 69-Ⅳ-2-4 were higher in early inoculation. It showed that the zinc finger protein gene may participate in the processes of plant-pathogen recognition and defense.
    Construction of Brucella rOmp3148-74-BLS Expression Vector and Its Transformation into Alfalfa
    ZHAO Liang;WANG Jing-Yan;*;WANG Jian-Ying;GUO Jiang-Bo;XIN Cui-Hua;
    2014, 34(4):  505-509.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.013
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    For the purpose of expression in plant an antigen of Brucella, the causative agent for zoonosis brucellosis, transgenic alfalfa was constructed using agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Towards that end, a fusion gene rOmp3148-74-BLS containing Brucella Omp31 antigenic epitope spanning amino acids 48-74 and the lumazine synthase was cloned into vector pJG045 with ligation-independent cloning (LIC). The recombinant vector was transformed into Agrobacterium AGL0 by tri-parental hybrid method, which was used to infect calli of alfalfa Medicago sativa Zhongmu No.1. The transformed calli were identified by PCR, after stimulating the growth of roots, transgenic alfalfa was obtained. The experiment has laid experimental basis for the development of Brucella transgenic plants vaccine in the future.
    Contamination Control of Underground Buds in Peony Tissue Culture
    QU Wen-Jing;LI Qing*;LIU Yan
    2014, 34(4):  524-528.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.016
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    The selection of different peony explants and sterilization methods were studied to suppress the high contamination rate in underground bud tissue culture of peony. The results show that healthy plump underground buds in moderate size should be first considered and different HgCl2 sterilization time should be applied according to the buds’ size, and 5-8 min is advisable. Striping several outer scale layers and leaving at least 2 inside scale layers and choosing the one-step sterilization method could reduce the contamination rate and ensure a thorough sterilization.
    Genetic Transformation of CYP79F1 Gene in Brassica oleracea var. italica
    WANG Hong-Bo;LI Cheng;CAO Yang-Li-Hui;LI Jing*
    2014, 34(4):  516-523.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.015
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    Establishment of effective transformation system is an important precondition to improve plant traits by genetic engineering. In this study, an agrobacterium-mediated transformation system of Brassica oleracea var. italica was established. Hypocotyls of 7-day-old seedlings were used as explants and preincubated for 2-3 d and infected by agrobacterium-tumefaciens. After co-incubation, the explants were transferred to degerming medium without selective agent to induce adventitious buds. Following the incubation in darkness for 7 d, the explants were transferred to selective medium containing 10 mg·L-1 kanamycin. When the adventitious buds grew 2-3 cm long, they were moved to rooting medium with 0.1 mg·L-1 IBA to induce adventitious roots. Finally, the domestication and transplantation were performed. PCR detection demonstrated that glucosinolate biosynthetic gene CYP79F1 was successfully transferred into the genome of B.oleracea var. italica commercial cultivar “Qingxiu”. HPLC determination proved that short chain aliphatic glucosinolates significantly increased in transgenic plants.
    Relationships of Pinus koraiensis Cone Production with Stand and Climate Factors
    HOU Qing-Juan;QU Hong-Jun;SUN Hong-Zhi*;LIU Ji-Chun
    2014, 34(4):  537-541.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.018
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    In order to analyze the relationship of Pinus koraiensis cone production with stand and climate factors, 6 plots were set in a broad-leaved P.koraiensis forest at Liangshui nature reserve, Heilongjiang province in China. The cone production, diameter at breast height (DBH), and tree height (H) for each individual were investigated. The monthly climate factors (eg., temperature, relative humidity and precipitation) were also measured. At a scale of individual, cones yield decreased with the DBH and H increasing. At a scale of stand, mean cone production per tree was not significantly related to forest age, and there was not significant difference between the stands at forest edge and the stands far away from forest edge. Between years, the cone production per tree significantly correlated with the mean air temperature in May and June, and precipitation in last June.
    Effect of Liberation Cutting on the Vegetation Carbon Storage of Korean Pine Forests by Planting Conifer and Reserving Broad-leaved Tree in Changbai Mountains of China
    MU Chang-Cheng;ZHUANG Chen;HAN Yang-Rui;ZHANG Xiao-Liang;TONG Jing-Qiu;CHENG Jia-You;CAO Wan-Liang
    2014, 34(4):  529-536.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.017
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    The effects of liberation cutting on the vegetation carbon storage of the 33-year-old Korean pine forests by planting conifer and reserving broad-leaved tree was studied by using crown thinning control test method in Changbai Mountains of China. Five levels of cutting intensities were taken, which were non-selective cutting(control), low-intensity selective cutting(25%), moderate-intensity selective cutting(50%), heavy-intensity selective cutting(75%) and clear cutting(100%)(cutting intensity refer to volume percent). The results showed that: (1)Liberation cutting made its vegetation biomass (154.86±9.84-217.56±4.90 t·hm-2) significantly decrease by 12.5%-28.8%(P<0.05), in which low-intensity, moderate-intensity and heavy-intensity selective cutting decreased by 21.1%-28.8%, while, clear cutting only decreased by 12.5%; (2)Liberation cutting had different effects on the carbon concentration of tree layer (404.53±1.28-479.64±7.22 g·kg-1), shrub layer (454.87±9.82-474.52±5.82 g·kg-1), herb layer(401.24±8.65-419.52±7.98 g·kg-1) and litter fall layer (348.91±13.21-376.03±12.36 g·kg-1) of the Korean pine forests. The carbon concentrations of trunk from Pinus koraiensis, Ulmus pumila and Tilia amurensis significantly decreased by 2.3%-6.1% (P<0.05), the carbon concentrations of branches and leaves from Quercus mongolica, Ulmus pumila and Tilia amurensis significantly decreased by 2.6%-12.7%(P<0.05), the carbon concentration of shrub layer significantly decreased by 3.5%-3.6%(P<0.05), but the carbon concentrations of branches and leaves from Pinus koraiensis significantly increased by 5.4%-7.7%(P<0.05); (3)Liberation cutting made its vegetation carbon storage (68.38±1.78-97.40±2.98 t·C·hm-2) significantly decrease by 16.1%-29.8%(P<0.05), in which low-intensity, moderate-intensity and heavy-intensity selective cutting decreased by 22.5%-29.8%, while, clear cutting only decreased by 16.1%. Therefore, in order to sequestrate carbon, low-intensity, moderate-intensity selective cutting and small-scale clear cutting should be taken for the Korean pine forests by planting conifer and reserving broad-leaved tree.
    Tree Layer Biomass Distribution and Carbon Storage Capacity of Larix olgensis Plantation
    WANG Ni-Hong;GAO Meng;LI Dan
    2014, 34(4):  554-560.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.021
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    With the biomass data of Larix olgensis plantations of 8-56 years, we built the organic biomass model, and discussed the distribution and change rules of biomass in bole, bark, branches, leaves and root as well as the carbon storage capacity of tree layer. The organic biomass of individual wood and stand had a certain trend to increase with the increase of forest age, the biomass of individual wood increased from 0.714 kg in 8 years to 328.196 kg in 56 years, and the biomass increased from 0.519 t·hm-2 in 8 years to 251.39 t·hm-2 in 56 years. The trunk took the largest percentage and amplification. The average carbon storage of individual wood was 74.822 kg, the carbon density of stand in 56 years was 130.455 t·hm-2 with the average value of 63.113 t·hm-2, and the carbon storage in each organ had obvious change rule. The average annual carbon storage of juvenile, middle-aged, near-mature and mature stand were 0.087, 1.193, 1.703 and 2.124 t·hm-2, respectively. The average annual growth rate order from big to small is middle-aged stand, juvenile stand, mature stand and nearmature stand. Therefore, the organic biomass of individual wood and stand of L.olgensis plantations has an obvious change rule with the increasing of forest age, the mature stand has the highest carbon storage level, and the middle-aged stand has the largest potential carbon storage ability.
    Tree Species Diversity and DBH Diversity of the Secondary Forests on the North Slope of Changbai Mountains
    LI Xue-Mei;WANG Shu-Li*
    2014, 34(4):  542-546.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.019
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    The tree species diversity and DBH diversity of the secondary forests on the north slope of Changbai Mountains were studied and compared with that of virgin Korean pine forest by using Margalef species richness index, Shannon Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index and Simpson dominance index through the methods of field investigation and indoor analysis. It was shown that: (1)Tree species diversity index H and evenness index J were bigger, richness index S and ecological dominance index D were smaller in the secondary forest than those in virgin Korean pine forest. DBH ecological advantages index D, richness index S and diversity index H of the secondary forest were smaller than those of virgin Korean pine forest. DBH evenness index of the secondary forest was similar to that of virgin Korean pine forest. DBH richness index and diversity index of the poplar-birch forest were the biggest, and those of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. forest were the smallest among three secondary forests. DBH evenness index and dominance index changed oppositely to DBH richness index and diversity index among three secondary forests; (2)Tree species diversity and DBH diversity changed with the same pattern. Tree species diversity index and evenness index, DBH richness index and diversity index increased gradually, tree species and DBH dominance index decreased gradually with forest age increased. (3)Either virgin Korean Pine forest or secondary forests, tree species diversity would reduce after cutting, the stronger the cutting intensity, the greater the decrease degree. The response of the DBH diversity to the cutting intensity was complex, which was associated with the cutting methods.
    Individual Tree Growth Model of Larch Plantation based on Crown Competition Factors
    LIU Qiang;LI Feng-Ri*;DONG Li-Hu
    2014, 34(4):  547-553.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.020
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    Based on the re-easured data between 2007-2009 from 14 permanent sample plots in larch plantations located in Mengjiagang Forest Farm, Jiamusi city of Heilongjiang province, the relationship between crown variables and increment of tree was analyzed and the distance-ependent individual tree growth model for larch plantation was developed by introducing two crown competition factors (CIa and CIb) as new competition index in this paper. The results showed that two crown competition factors (CIa and CIb) are better than the Hegyi competition index (CI). The correlation between various competition index with basal area increment of individual tree is CIb>CIa>CI for larch plantation. With enlargement of the competition influence zone of object tree, the competition index tends to be stable and the model fitting effect increases. Tee size is the main affecting factor for the individual tree growth for larch plantation. The basal area increment of individual tree increases as tree diameter at breast height increasing. The goodness of fit for individual tree growth model was improved 5.6% by introducing new distance-ependent crown competition index. The distance-ependent individual tree growth model developed in this paper can be suitable for predicting basal area increment of individual tree for larch plantation.
    Microwave-assisted Extraction of Paeoniflorin and Paeonol from Tree Peony Seed Coat and Content Determination
    ZHAO Lian-Fei;CHEN Feng-Li;SUN Xi-Xiao;DU Xin-Qi;ZHAO Chun-Jian*;YAO Huan-Huan;YANG Lei;WANG Gui-Bin;ZU Yuan-Gang
    2014, 34(4):  561-566.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.022
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    In this study, single factor experiment was used to optimize the main factors of microwave-assisted extraction for paeoniflorin and paeonol from tree peony seed coats. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol extract fraction was 70%, liquid-solid ratio was 10∶1, microwave power was 230 W, microwave time was 10 min, soaking time was 1 h and extraction times was one. Under these conditions, the yields of paeoniflorin and paeonol were 2.88 and 0.52 mg·g-1, respectively. Meanwhile, the proposed method was validated in stability, repeatability and recovery experiments and the proposed method was a stable and efficiency method.
    Preparation and Characterization of Vitexin Nanosuspension Frozen Powder
    GUO Dong-Jie;GU Cheng-Bo;*;ZU Yuan-Gang;LI Wang;ZHAO Xiu-Hua;
    2014, 34(4):  567-571.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.023
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    For improving the water solubility and in vitro dissolution rate of vitexin, we prepared vitexin nanosuspension by recrystallization method combined with high pressure homogenization, and characterized the physiochemicalproperties of vitexin nanosuspension frozen powder and in vitro release behavior. The mean particle size and Zeta potential of vitexin nanosuspension after reconstituting were (135.7±10) nm and (-17.05±1.40) mV, respectively. The morphology of vitexin nanoparticles was spherical in shape by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). By XRD, DSC and FT-IR, the chemical properties of vitexin nanoparticles were unchanged when compared with unprocessed vitexin. The dissolution rate of vitexin nanosuspension frozen powder were significantly enhanced, and in vitro cumulative release from the freeze dried nanosuspension were 4.5 times greater than that of pure drug in 5 min.
    Research Progress of Gallic Acid from Tara
    LU Qi;ZHANG Ying;ZU Yuan-Gang*;XIANG Feng-Ying;ZHAO Chun-Jian;MENG Qing-Huan;ZHANG Jun;GAO Yue
    2014, 34(4):  572-576.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.04.024
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    Tara is one precious economic tree with rich tannin in pods. The gallic acid from Tara pod hydrolysis can be prepared for pyrogallic acid and gallic acid methyl ester. We briefly analyzed the Tara market and reviewed gallic acid preparation methods, including acid, alkali, fermentation and enzyme methods. Then, we introduced the applications of gallic acid in food, chemical and medicine with the prospect.