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Table of Content

    20 May 2014, Volume 34 Issue 3
    Clematis chaohuensis,a New Species of Ranunculaceae from Anhui Province
    WANG Wen-Tsai;HUANG Lu-Qi
    2014, 34(3):  289-291.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.001
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    A new species of the genus Clematis(Ranunculaceae), C.chaohuensis, is described as new from Anhui Province, and the diagnostic differences between it and its ally are given.
    Lectotypifications of Ten Names in Ferns
    LIN Yun;ZHANG Xiao-Bing;YANG Zhi-Rong*;WU Ting-Ting;DU Qing;SONG Li
    2014, 34(3):  292-294.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.002
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    In collating the type specimens deposited at the Herbarium (PE), Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the types of ten names, Adiantum smithianum(C.Christ.) R.C.Ching var. shensiense R.C.Ching(Adiantaceae), A.venustum Don var. smithianum C.Christ.(Adiantaceae), Athyrium woodsioides Christ(Athyriaceae), Diplazium allantodioides R.C.Ching(Athyriaceae), D.taquetii C.Christ.(Athyriaceae), Woodwardia cochin-chinensis R.C.Ching (Blechnaceae), Dryopteris athyriiformis Rosenst.(Dryopteridaceae), Hymenophyllum corrugatum Christ var. elongatum Christ(Hymenophyllaceae), Diacalpe omeiensis R.C.Ching(Peranemaceae), Cyclophorus alcicornu H. Christ(Polypodiaceae), of taxa in Pteridophyta are found to be syntypes under Article 9.5 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature(Melbourne Code). According to Article 8.1, 9.11 and 9.12, and Recommendation 9A.2 and 9A.3, lectotypes for these ten names are here designated.
    Bionomics of Pollen and Stigma of Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.
    ZHAO Tong-Xin;LIU Lin-De*;ZHANG Li;WANG Yan-Jie;JIA Xing-Jun
    2014, 34(3):  309-316.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.004
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    Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb is widely grown in China. It is a member of traditional medicinal and ornamental plants. Bionomics of pollen and stigma of this cultivar under specified condition have never been reported up to now. The pollen and stigma morphology of C.orbiculatus was studied with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Pollen viability of male flowers was determined by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) after 36 h duration at -20℃, 4℃, 15℃, 25℃, 35℃ and 50℃, respectively. A medium for pollen germination, composed of 50 g·L-1 sucrose, and 0.3 g·L-1 boric acid solidified with 6 g·L-1 agar, has been optimized in this work. Subsequently, the temperature effect on the germination of pollens of male flowers served as an indicator. The basic shape of the pollen grains in both male and hermaphrodite was exceedingly similar, which was described as prolate, elongated-elliptical in equatorial view, sub-3-lobed-circular in polar view, and had 3 colporates. The morphological changes in the female and hermaphrodite stigma organs were similar in different development periods, but different from that of male. The result of different storage temperatures demonstrated that low temperature greatly contributed to pollen storage. In this study, we found 25℃ was optimum for pollen germination, while germination decreased at 20℃ and 30℃. This study observed morphology of pollen and stigma, and investigated the effect of storage temperature on pollen viability as well as the influence of varying temperatures on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Such information would allow a deeper understanding of how specific factors impact on the effective pollination period in C.orbiculatus, and moreover provide more valuable information for other species’ theoretical study.
    Nutlet Morphology and Taxonomic Significance of Boraginoideae in China
    WU Kai;LIU Quan-Ru*;HE Yi;CHEN Rui-Wei
    2014, 34(3):  295-308.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.003
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    The nutlet micromorphology of 5 tribes, 15 genera and 32 species of Boraginoideae in China was examined using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that the shapes of nutlets are ovate, trullate, obovate, reniform, riangular pyramid and spherical; the surface ornamentations are wrinkle, strumae, verrucate, colliculate, pubescent, bristly and grapnel spine; and the micro-protuberances appear verrucate, undulate, aculeate, strumae, papilliform, colliculate, stelliform, hilly and tufted. The shape, surface ornamentation and micro-protuberance are different among some tribes, genera and species, which may be referred for the classification of Boragioideae.
    Comparative Studies on Gametophyte Morphology and Development of Four Species of Athyriaceae
    DAI Xi-Ling;SHEN Zhuo-Yan;WANG Jia;YE Wen-Ting
    2014, 34(3):  317-321.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.005
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    Light microscopy was used to observe the spore germination and gametophytic development of four species i.e. Athyrium vidalii, A.longius, A.fimbriatum and Acystopteris japonica belonging to two genera in Athyriaceae. The characteristics of each gametophytic developmental stage were recorded. Spores of four species are monolete, bilaterally symmetrical, the germination is Centripetal-type and the gametophyte development is Adiantum-type, sex organs are of the type of leptosporangiate, adult gametophytes are cordate, no hairs; differences among species include spore ornamentation, germination time, formation time of the prothallus, filament length, plate shape, prothallus shape and sex organ size.
    Gametophyte Development and Apogamy of the Fern Cheilosoria chusana
    GUO Yan-Dong;CAO Jian-Guo*;DAI Xi-Ling;WANG Quan-Xi
    2014, 34(3):  322-327.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.006
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    The gametophyte development and apogamy of the fern Cheilosoria chusana were studied using microscopy. The spores, with echinate ornamentation, are tawny, trilete, circular triangle in polar view. The spores germinate about 15-20 d after being sowed. The spore germination pattern is the Vittaria-type. The filaments generally have 3-5 cells. The plates form by division of the apical cell or intercalary cells of the filament. The gametophyte forms the meristematic tissue in the apical or lateral region of the plate, and grows into prothallus in about 2 months after being sowed. The development of the prothallus is the Ceratopteris-type. The antheridia appears in the irregular plates. The antheridia are numerous. The repeat cultures show that no archegonia occurs in the adult prothallus. The prothallus can produce sporophytes through apogamy. The filament branches are easily formed, whether in the stage of filaments, plates or prothallus. One spore of C.chusana can develop into caespitose gametophyte (cluster) with filaments or filamentous plates in appropriate culture conditions. It is proved that the clusters of gametophyte are in favor of adaptability to the dry environment to single prothallus.
    Tissue Culture of Gunnera manlcata L.
    CHEN Suo-Liang;LV Xiu-Li;CUI Xin-Hong*;WANG Cheng;ZHANG Qun;ZHU Yi;LU Liang
    2014, 34(3):  328-332.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.007
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    Using the apical buds of Gunnera manlcata as explants to induce the aseptic seedlings and then using the new leaves of aseptic seedling to induce the adventitious buds, in vitro culture and regeneration process of apical buds of G.manlcata were studied in this paper, and the quick propagation system in low cost was successfully established. The result showed: (1)Multiplication stage: MS+BA 1.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1, cultured for 30 d, the stable multiplication rate was 3.80; (2)Induction stage: MS+ZT 1.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1, which was proved to be superior to the others to be used to induce apical buds directly from the leaf explants, the induction rate reached 95%; (3)Rooting stage: 1/2MS+NAA 1 mg·L-1+sugar 20 g·L-1, the rooting rate reached 95%.
    Cryopreservation Technique of Jiangxi Yanshan Red Bud Taro(Colocasia esculenta L. Schott var. cormosus CV.Hongyayu) Embryogenic Callus by Droplet-vitrification
    HONG Sen-Rong;YIN Ming-Hua*;WANG Ai-Ping
    2014, 34(3):  333-338.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.008
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    To explore the cryopreservation of Jiangxi Yanshan red bud taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott var. cormosus CV. Hongyayu) embryogenic calli by droplet vitrification, which will provide the technical and theoretical basis for the cryopreservation of its germplasm resources. Plant tissue culture and single factor test were applied. A cryopreservation system of Jiangxi Yanshan red bud taro embryogenic calli by droplet-vitrification was established: About 0.2 g embryogenic calli was pre-cultured in liquid MS medium supplemented with 2 mg·L-1 TDZ, 1 mg·L-1 NAA and 0.5 mmol·L-1 sucrose and maintained under a 14 h photoperiod at 25℃ for 3 d. Pre-cultured embryogenic calli was loaded with MS+2 mmol·L-1 Gly+0.4 mmol·L-1 sucrose for 20 min at 25℃ and then dehydrated with PVS2 at 0℃ for 40 min. Five drops of PVS2 were absorbed and dropped to aluminum foil strip, the dehydrated red bud taro embryogenic callus pieces were transferred to the PVS2 droplet on the aluminum foil strip. The aluminum foil strips were dipped in the liquid nitrogen using tweezers, then quickly transferred to 2 mL freezing tubes filled with liquid nitrogen. After keeping for 1 d, the aluminum foil strips were removed from freezing tubes using tweezers and immersed into the preheated 40℃ washing solution (MS+TDZ 2 mg·L-1+NAA 1 mg·L-1+1.2 mmol·L-1 sucrose), the embryogenic callus blocks dropped from the aluminum foil strips, and then washed three times with liquid MS medium supplemented with 2 mg·L-1 TDZ, 1 mg·L-1 NAA and 1.2 mmol·L-1 sucrose and each kept for 10 min and then post-cultured on solidified MS medium supplemented with 2 mg·L-1 TDZ, 1 mg·L-1 NAA in the dark for 7 d and then transferred to a 14 h photoperiod. After 30 d, the differentiated embryoids were again transferred onto fresh solidified MS medium supplemented with 2 mg·L-1 TDZ, 1 mg·L-1 NAA under 14 h photoperiod to developed into the whole plantlets. The average survival rate of embryogenic calli after cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification amounted to about 80%. No significant difference was observed in the morphological, physiological and cytological index of plantlets coming from control and cryopreserved embryogenic calli. Red bud taro embryogenic calli cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification could guarantee the stability of its genetic resources, which provided a new way for in vitro conservation of Jiangxi Yanshan red bud taro germplasm resources.
    Characteristics and Biochemical Indexes of Cajanus cajan Hairy Root
    LI Min;QU Dan;YU Hai-Di;WANG Hui-Mei*
    2014, 34(3):  339-342.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.009
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    In this paper, the growth characteristics, biosynthesis pattern of secondary metabolites and carbon consumption in the liquid culture of Cajanus cajan hairy root were studied. Results showed that the metabolic cycle of C.cajan hairy root was 25 days including the experienced delayed phase, growing fast phase and steady phase. In C.cajan hairy root growth cycle, its growth rate and consumption of carbon were highly related, the faster growth rate, the more carbon consumption. With the growth rate becoming steady, carbon consumption leveled off. The contents of apigenin and genistein in the hairy root increased with the time increasing but became steady in the moderate growth period.
    Simulation of Height-diameter Relationships for Larix gmelinii Based on Mixed Effects
    LI Wan-Ting;JIANG Li-Chun;WAN Dao-Yin
    2014, 34(3):  343-348.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.010
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    The sample data was from dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii(Rupr.)Rupr.) plantations located in Daqingchuan and Yongcui Forest Farms, Dailing Forest Bureau in Heilongjiang Province. Height-diameter model with stand variables was developed based on sample data from 41 plots and Richards’s model. A mixed-effect modeling approach was applied in fitting Richards’s model yij=(β1+bi1)(1-e-(β2+bi2)xij)(β3+bi3)+εij and the same model with stand variables yij=(β1+bi1)(Dq)(β2+bi2)(1-e-(β3+bi3)(N(β4+bi4))xij)+εij. Results showed that Richards model with inclusion of random parameters b1, b2 was the best when fitting mixed-effects model of Richards; Inclusion of random parameters b2, b4 was the best when fitting Richards model with stand variables. Model validation indicated that mixed model showed lower error than fixed-effects model when randomly selected independent samples. However, using calibration with randomly selected four trees, mixed model reduced the bias and RMSE of the prediction by almost 71.8% and 42.1%, respectively.
    Organic C and N in Various Surface Mineral Soil Fractions in the Broadleaved Korean Pine Mixed Forests in Changbai Mt.
    JI Chang-Ping;WANG Hui-Mei*;WANG Wen-Jie;HAN Shi-Jie
    2014, 34(3):  372-379.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.014
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    In this paper, taking the natural broadleaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mt. as research object, 5 soil fractions of sand and stable aggregates (SA), acid insoluble fraction (AI), easily oxidized fraction (EO), particulate fraction (P) and soluble soil fraction (S) with different physic-chemical stabilities were separated by a physicchemical method. Weight percentages, organic C and N concentrations, C/N and allocation proportions of organic C and N in the various fractions were analyzed to explore the mechanism of potential of soil C sequestration and N supply. The results showed that the C/N of stable soil fractions (AI and SA) was 2-8 times higher than that in labile fractions (P and EO), which resulted in the different physic-chemical stability characteristics of soil fractions to soil microbial decomposition. About 90% of the soil quantity occluded on stable fractions (SA and AI), which leaded to the higher organic C in the AI (42.7%) and SA (29.5%) fractions. The organic C concentrations in labile soil fractions (P and EO) were 2-6 times higher than those in stable soil fractions (AI and SA), whereas in term of N, this difference was enlarged to 4-37 times. N was distributed similarly in labile fractions (EO,33.6% and P,19.7%) and stable fractions (AI, 21.1% and SA,24.3%). The results reveal the characteristic of the carbon sequestration is mainly intercepted on the stable components, while N is allocated fairly in the labile fractions and stable fractions in the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forests in Changbai Mt. area. The characteristic of soil fractions is good for the long-term accumulation of soil carbon, and sustainable and fast supply of soil fertility of N.
    Prediction Model of Nut Yields for Korean Pine Plantation
    LI Ling-Ling;LI Feng-Ri;JIA Wei-Wei;DONG Li-Hu
    2014, 34(3):  349-355.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.011
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    Logistic and non-linear models were developed for predicting nut yields for Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) plantation based on 579 Korean pines measured in 12 sample plots in Mengjiagang forest farm, Jiamusi, Heilongjiang Province. First, the statistical analysis system (SAS 9.22) was employed using data of pine nut yields to establish Logistic model for predicting whether individual pine could seed or not. Second, a non-linear regression was set up for predicting nut yields of individual seeded pines using tree variables. The results showed that the predicting accuracy of whether individual pine could seed or not, was above 65% for Logistic model. The optimal model of predicting nut yields was y=a(D2CW)b due to the best fitting performance, which included the prediction accuracy of 77% and evenly distributed model residuals. The accuracy assessment was 92.78% for the two models using the observed pine nut yield data of Plot 2, which indicated a good prediction performance. This paper has been provided suitable method for predicting pine nut yields for Korean pine plantation.
    Variations in Nutrition Compositions and Morphology Characteristics of Pine-Nuts in Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) Seed Orchard of Tieli
    ZHANG Zhen;ZHANG Lei;ZHANG Han-Guo*;LIU Ling;JIANG Ying
    2014, 34(3):  356-363.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.012
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    The seed morphology, quantity, nutrition composition and content of 15 clones in Tieli korean pine seed orchard were analyzed with genetic variation analysis, correlation analysis and clone selection. The results showed: there were variations among the pine seeds in morphology and quantity characteristics. The seed weight variation coefficient was the highest (21.92%), while the seed length variation coefficient was the lowest (8.43%). Fat content was the highest among the main nutrition compositions including fats, proteins, polysaccharides, crude fiber, ash, carbohydrate, the content of which was 56.55%, while its variation coefficient was rather low (6.76%), the variation coefficient of carbohydrate was the highest (60.30%). There were 11 fatty acids in pine-nuts, including 5 saturated fatty acids and 6 unsaturated fatty acid, the content of linoleic acid was the highest among all unsaturated fatty acids (42.55%). Variance analysis showed that there were significant differences among clones in morphological traits and nutrient contents. Multiple comparisons showed that the kernel percentages of TL1357 and TL1383 were higher than the others and they were 11.86% and 10.98 higher the average of clones, respectively. Seed weight of TL1194 was the highest and it was 24.33% higher than the average. Kernel weights of TL1131 and TL 1383 were the highest and they were 27.04% and 26.37% higher than average. Seed length of Tl1194 was 15.77 mm, which was the longest among all clones and 11.69% longer than the average. Fat content of TL1024 was the highest and it was 10.79% higher than the average. Protein contents of TL1024 and TL1061 were the highest and they were 28.62% and 28.50% higher than the average, respectively. Polysaccharide contents of TL1194 and TL3083 were the highest and they were 26.04% and 23.50% higher the average, respectively. Ash of TL1024 was the least, it was 1.49% and 67.11% less than the average. Unsaturated fatty acid content of TL1185 was the highest(62.53%) while TL1271 was the least (58.23%). Correlation analysis showed that seed weight was highly significantly positively correlated with the kernel weight, testa weight, seed length, and seed width, there was no correlation between kernel percentage and the other indices, hence, this characteristic could be used for independent selection. Polysaccharides content was significantly negatively correlated with carbohydrate content while there was no significant correlation among main nutrition compositions, hence, most nutrition compositions could be used for independent selection to select excellent clones.
    Response of Growth and Interspecific Competition of Pinus koraiensis and Quercus mongolica Seedlings to Drought
    LÜHai-Liang;MAO Zi-Jun*;LI Na
    2014, 34(3):  364-371.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.013
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    Broad-leaved Korean pine forest is the zonal vegetation in eastern mountains of northeast China, which accounting for a third of the China’s national forest. In order to understand the response of temperate dominant tree species Korean pine and main associated tree species Mongolian oak in broad-leaved Korean pine forest under future climate change conditions (air temperature rising, decrease in precipitation), a competition pot experiment of two-year old Korean pine seedlings and one-year old Mongolian oak seedlings under different soil water contents were conducted under completely random design in April 24, 2012. This experiment set up four experimental treatments, with eighteen seedling replicates for each treatment. Two levels of soil water content were respectively 75-85 percent of the soil water-holding capacity for the high level, and 50-60 percent of soil water-holding capacity for the low level. The competition treatments were six same seedlings in one pot for mono culture and three seedlings for each of the two species in one pot for mixed culture. We analyzed the photosynthetic and physiological parameters and changes in biomass allocation. The experimentation of a growing season showed that: (1)Soil water deficit treatment resulted in the decreases of the maximum net photosynthetic rate in both Korean pine and Mongolian oak seedlings, the reduction rate of Mongolian oak reached a significant level, while Korean pine did not. Drought caused the decline in water use efficiency in Mongolian oak, while it increased significantly in Korean pine. Soil water deficit also led to the decreases in lateral root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass and whole tree leaf area in Mongolian oak seedlings, but the increases in fine root biomass and root to shoot ratio of Korean pine seedlings. (2)Mixed culture treatment reduced the maximum net photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency of Mongolian oak seedlings, thereby reduced their stem and lateral root biomass. While for the Korean pine seedlings, mixed culture treatment also reduced their water use efficiency, but it increased the specific leaf area and whole tree leaf area of Korean pine seedlings and therefore had less impact on seedling growth. These results indicate that, Mongolian oak is more sensitive and rapid response to drought. Korean pine seedlings are more competitive than Mongolian oak seedlings in interspecific competition.
    EST-SSRs Locus Information Analysis from Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.
    SUN Hong-Ran;QI Feng-Hui;ZHAN Ya-Guang*;YE Peng
    2014, 34(3):  393-402.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.017
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    In order to apply the EST-SSRs technique in molecular marker aided breeding, gene localization, and gender identification of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., a total of 12 100 ESTs from NCBI database were analyzed. The sizes of non redundant ESTs added up to 3.02×106 bp, which can be clustered into 5 423 clads. A total of 9 489 SSRs loci (6-46 bp in length) were found via SSRIT software. Dinucleotide repeats is a predominated feature of these loci (accounting 72.86%), followed by trinucleotide repeats (24.96%) and tetranucleotide repeats (1.37%). The pattern (AG/CT)n is the most frequent one among all repeat patterns, followed by (AC/GT)n and (AT/AT)n. We designed 147 pairs of EST-SSRs primers by Primer 5.0 software. EST-SSRs in F.mandshurica Rupr displayed a relatively high level of occurrence frequency with abundant patterns. These results will pave the way for application of EST-SSRs molecular marker in F.mandshurica breeding.
    Rooting and Transplanting Method of Populus davidiana×P.bolleana Tissue Culture Seedlings
    WANG Na;DOU Kai;WANG Zhi-Ying;ZHANG Rong-Shu;WANG Yu-Cheng;LIU Zhi-Hua*
    2014, 34(3):  380-385.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.015
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    A new typical and high efficient rooting and transplanting method of Populus davidiana×P.bolleana was set up from hardening off seedlings, moisturizing and pollution prevention in the study. Firstly, put the tissue culture P.davidiana×P.bolleana seedlings in large test tubes with liquid medium for rooting for 12-15 d. Secondly, refine hydroponic seedlings in the aseptic water for 2 d. Then, transplant the seedlings into soil and cover with plastic cups to moisturizing, which will be removed after 15 d. At last, the 17 d old seedlings with soil were transplanted into the field. Using the above method, the survival rate of transplanting seedlings can increase to more than 98%. The advantage of the method is not only economic, simple, small-scaled and high efficient but also suitable for many other woody plants, so it is easy to generalize.
    Multi-objective Management Planning of Carbon Storage in Larix gmelinii Natural Forest in Great Xing’an Mountains
    LI Yuan;LIU Zhao-Gang*;JIANG Meng-Zhu
    2014, 34(3):  386-392.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.016
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    In this research, with timber harvest, carbon storage on the ground and spatial structure as the targets, selective cutting for business means, non-spatial structure as major constraints, the multiobjective management planning model were established. Taking the inventory data of Pangu Forest Farm in Great Xing’an Mountains region, Northeast China, 2008 and the standard investigation data set in 2011 as an example, under the constraint condition, we controlled 22 strains of cutting wood effectively and accurately.The timber harvest was 3.715 7 m3. Aboveground carbon storage of forest stand increased 0.089 tons. At the same time, the spatial structure comprehensive target value increased from 1.378 5 to 1.378 5. The scheme made the whole of the forest stand spatial structure greatly improved and it is an optimal solution. Therefore, this management plan can provide a reliable basis for long-term implementation of timber production, increase forest carbon reserves and maximumly keep the integrity of the forest spatial structure.
    Amplification and Sequence Characterization of ITS in Camellia
    YOU Huan;ZHOU A-Tao;YUE Liang-Liang;CUN Dong-Yi;DING Yuan-Ming*
    2014, 34(3):  403-408.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.018
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    In this study, PCR amplification of nrDNA ITS of Camellia was improved by the addition of DMSO in PCR protocol, the sequence characteristic of ITS were analyzed. The results showed that: (1)The PCR amplification efficiency of ITS was improved by the addition of 4% DMSO, and the ITS pseudogenes were prevented from being amplified; (2)ITS pseudogenes exhibited a significant deletion in ITS1 and ITS2 region, and displayed lower GC content and unstable secondary structure; (3)ITS pseudogenes could not provided the real phylogenetic relationships, it showed the necessity of great care when used the ITS sequence in evolutionary studies in genus Camellia.
    Response of Alkaloids Content of Nature Phellodendron amurense from Different Vegetation Areas to Seasonal Change
    ZHANG Yu-Hong;XU Li-Jiao;QIU Jing-Jun;SUN Ming-Long;ZHOU Zhi-Qiang*
    2014, 34(3):  409-416.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.019
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    Phellodendron amurense Rupr. (Rutaceae) is a deciduous tree commonly called the Amur cork tree. It is a kind of endemic species in China. The bark of P.amurense has been widely used as a traditional medicine in China. The resources of P.amurense have been excessively exploited due to its important biologically-active components. In this paper, HPLC was used to determine the contents of ajrtohrrizine, palmatine and berberine. The impact of different parts, seasons and ages on the alkaloid distribution was analyzed. The results showed that: the relative ajrtohrrizine levels were: root bark>trunk bark>perennial branch bark>annual branches>leaves. the palmatine contents were: trunk bark>perennial branch bark>root bark>annual branches>leaves. The berberine levels in different parts were: root bark>trunk bark>perennial branch bark>annual branches>leaves. The jatrorrhizine contents in root bark and trunk bark gradually increased along with the season passed, i.e. autumn>summer>spring. The jatrorrhizine levels in perennial branch bark, annual branches and leaves were autumn>spring>summer. The palmatine in every plant parts increased along the season, i.e. autumn>summer>spring. The berberine was the highest value, the contents in root bark, trunk bark and perennial branch bark increased along the season changed firstly, then reduced in autumn, i.e. summer>autumn>spring. The berberine content in annual branches was initially reduced in summer, then increased in autumn.
    Critical Cis-acting Element in the Promoter of the Stress-tolerant Gene AtRPK1
    SHI Cui-Cui;LI Xiao-Xu;LI Jing-Lan;REN Ya-Nan;ZHANG Fu-Zhen;HUANG Zhan-Jing;GE Rong-Chao*
    2014, 34(3):  417-422.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.020
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    To identify the critical cis-acting element, the deletion analysis was performed using the promoter region of the stress resistance related gene AtRPK1 in Arabidopsis. By the 5′ terminal deletion methods, the 203, 316, 604, 809 bp promoter fragments were obtained and constructed into p1300-pro-GUS expression vector and transferred into Arabidopsis. By GUS staining detection of 809 bp length promoter transgenic Arabidopsis, it was found that the AtRPK1 gene was expressed in the leaves, stems, flowers and roots. However, the expression of AtRPK1 was stronger in meristem organization and vascular tissue. The detection results show that the region from the transcription start sites to the -114 section of AtRPK1 gene promoter contains the critical cisacting elements. After the stress of 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, quantification detection results of β-glucuronidase activity showed that the GT-1 cis-element GAAAAA at -19 section may be directly related to the salt stress response.
    HPLC Fingerprints of 12 Taraxacum from Jilin Provinc
    LI Jing-Hua;ZHONG Jia-Jia;LIU Yu-Qin;ZHANG Yu-Hong*
    2014, 34(3):  423-427.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.021
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    To explore the characteristics of HPLC fingerprints of Taraxacum in Jilin province and provide a theoretical reference for the quality control of dandelion herbs, the HPLC fingerprints of Taraxacum in Jilin province were compared. HPLC analysis was carried out in Agilent Extend-C18(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) column with a mobile phase of methanol and 0.5% acetic acid water at the flow of 1.000 mL/min, the detection wavelength was 323 nm, the temperature was 35℃, the injection volume was 20 μL. The established fingerprint of herba Taraxaci was used to determine 12 batches of samples from different sources. Nine peaks were identified as the character fingerprints through similarity analysis and 3 compounds among them were determined as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and flavonoids by HPLC. Quantitative results showed that the average contents of three kinds of ingredients were 0.027%, 0.026% and 0.128%, respectively. The method has good precision, reproducibility and stability, and can be used as the quality control of Herba taraxaci in Jilin Province.
    Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction of Polysaccharide from Eucommia ulmoides and Evaluation of its Antioxidant Activity
    SUN Xi-Xiao;LIU Zai-Zhi;DU Xin-Qi;ZHAO Chun-Jian*;WANG Hua;YANG Lei;WANG Gui-Bin;ZU Yuan-Gang
    2014, 34(3):  428-432.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.03.022
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    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was used for the extraction of polysaccharide from Eucommia ulmoides bark. The effects of the pre-soaking time, the ultrasonic power, the extracting time, the ultrasonic temperature, the ratio of liquid to solid and the extraction times were examined. The optimal conditions for ultrasound extraction were obtained as following: pre-soaking time 2 h, extraction power 250 W, extracting time 30 min, ultrasonic temperature 40℃, liquid to solid ratio 1∶12 g·mL-1, and extraction 2 times. The highest polysaccharide yield (1.94%) was obtained under the optimal extraction condition. In addition, the antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from E.ulmoides was analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that the DPPH free-radical scavenging ability of polysaccharide is much higher than that of vitamin C at the same concentration. While compared with vitamin C, it exhibited a moderate and concentration-dependent ferric-reducing power.