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    20 September 2023, Volume 43 Issue 5
    Correction of Typographical Errors in the Protologue of Nine Taxon Names (Monocotyledoneae) in China
    Yun LIN, Haiyan BI
    2023, 43(5):  641-646.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.001
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    According to Article 9.2 of International Code of Nomenclature for algaefungiand plants(Shenzhen Code), the typographical errors in the protologues of nine taxon names(Monocotyledoneae) in China were corrected, including Puccinellia degeensis L. Liu, P. multiflora L. Liou, Diuranthera inarticulata F. T. Wang & K. Y. Lang, Bulbophyllum colomaculosum Z. H. Tsi & S. C. Chen, B. sphaericum Z. H. Tsi & H. Li, Cypripedium sichuanense Perner, Oberonia delicata Z. H. Tsi & S. C. Chen, Phaius magniflorus Z. H. Tsi & S. C. Chen and Sarcoglyphis magnirostris Z. H. Tsi, the holotypes of these species were deposited at China National Herbarium(PE), Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

    Genetic and Breeding
    Fruiting and Seed Characteristics of Abies in Northwest Yunnan
    Dan WANG, Zhongshuai ZHANG, Qingyin ZENG, Xuemin HAN
    2023, 43(5):  647-656.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.002
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    To explore the fruiting characteristics and seed characteristics and their variation patterns of Abies species distributed in Northwest Yunnan, and to provide material support and theoretical basis for promoting the regeneration and restoration of Abies forest, the specimens and cones of seven Abies species distributed in Northwest Yunnan were collected and identified, and the seed morphological characteristics, seed viability, and fruiting characteristics were analyzed, and then the differences among species and regions were explored separately. The results showed that the length, width and thickness of seeds of seven Abies species in Northwest Yunnan were 6.04-10.22 mm, 2.03-3.32 mm and 1.26-2.24 mm, respectively, and the thousand-grain weight was 4.26-30.50 g. The thousand-grain weight was significantly correlated with seed length, width and thickness (r>0.8, P<0.01). The average rates of plump, empty and insect-eaten seeds of seven Abies species in Northwest Yunnan were 27.51%, 4.92% and 67.58%, respectively. The rate of plump seed was low, and that of empty and insect-eaten seeds was high. Abies ernestii var. salouenensis was not further analyzed in this article due to field investigations revealing that most of them had no cone and only one tree’s cones were collected in this study. For the other six species, the rate of insect-eaten seeds did not differ significantly between species(P=0.750), or between regions(P=0.204). However, there were interspecies differences in the rate of plump seeds(P=0.005) and empty seeds(P=0.007). There were interspecific(P=0.008) and interregional(P=0.036) differences in Abies seed viability. Therefore, seed viability of Abies was affected by both species characteristics and environmental factors.

    Evaluation on Waterlogging Tolerance of Different Tomato Germplasm
    Luhua ZHOU, Junyi FANG, Zimo XIONG, Weifeng WU, Jiarui LIU, Qiao LU, Hongqing LING, Danyu KONG
    2023, 43(5):  657-666.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.003
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    To screen out the tomato(Solanum) germplasm with waterlogging tolerance, 50 tomato germplasm were selected as the research object, and the survival rate and physiological indexes were compared after semi-submerged and submerged treatments respectively. The results showed that 12 waterlogging tolerant tomato germplasm with 100% survival rate after seven days submergence treatment were selected, and 12 waterlogging-tolerant germplasm were observed and distributed in S. lycopersicumS. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme and S. pimpinellifolium respectively. Further analysis on waterlogging-tolerant tomato TK017 and waterlogging-sensitive tomato TK039 revealed that tomato TK017 could control the content of reactive oxygen species more effectively under submergence condition, and improved the waterlogging tolerance of tomato.

    Establishment and Application of Genetic Transformation System for Populus simonii×P. nigra ‘Baicheng’
    Xu HE, Yuan GAO, Qunye ZHANG, Chenguang ZHOU, Wei LI, Shuang LI
    2023, 43(5):  667-678.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.004
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    Stems of Populus simonii×P. nigra ‘Baicheng’ in vitro plants were selected as explants and MS medium was used to establish tissue culture system by adjusting the hormone concentrations of 6-BA, NAA, TDZ and IBA. Based on the tissue culture system, the optimal concentration of kanamycin and infection time were confirmed to establish Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system for P. simonii×P. nigra ‘Baicheng’. By using this system, the transgenic plants overexpressed a key tension wood formation regulator LBD39 (Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain) were created successfully. The results showed that the tissue culture system consisted of three stages, including adventitious bud differentiation induction (MS+ 0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA+0.001 mg·L-1 TDZ, shoot differentiation rate=92.6%), stem induction (MS+0.2 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.05 mg·L-1 NAA, multiplication coefficient=6.5) and rooting induction (1/2 MS+0.4 mg·L-1 IBA, rooting percentage=100%). The optimal kanamycin concentration for genetic transformation was 30 mg·L-1 and the optimal infection time was 20 min, and the transgenic plants were obtained successfully after 30 d of adventitious bud differentiation induction, 15-30 d of stem induction and 25 d of rooting induction with 2% transformation efficiency respectively. By using this system, five overexpressed plants of LBD39 were obtained, and the transformation efficiency was 3.3%.

    Comparative Proteomics on Leaves of Triadica sebifera Clones under Salt Stress
    Dezong SUI, Baosong WANG
    2023, 43(5):  679-689.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.005
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    In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms of protein responses in Triadica sebifera to salt stress, two T. sebifera lines, including salt-sensitive P18(SS18) and salt-tolerant P21(ST21) were selected and treated with 0.4% NaCl solution. Isotope tags for relative and absolute quantitation(iTRAQ) were used to quantify leaf proteins abundance changes at different stress periods(0, 24, 72 h). A total of 279 and 106 differentially expressed proteins(DEPs) were detected in SS18 and ST21, respectively. Four proteins, including catalase, extension factor 1-α, H+-ATPase c domain protein and thioredoxin, were significantly up-regulated in two clones under salt stress, suggesting that they may be important potential target proteins in the salt-tolerant response of T. sebifera’s. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEPs of T. sebifera leaves under salt stress were primarily associated with photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid metabolism. The protein-protein interaction network showed that 5 core proteins(24 h) and 3 core proteins (72 h) involved in glucose decomposition and energy metabolism in SS18, while ST21 had 5 (24 h) and 4 (72 h) core proteins involved in carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, carbon fixation, photosynthesis and related to chlorophyll a-b binding. ST21 leaves improved metabolic pathways of sugars, amino acids and fatty acids, and accumulated a large number of small molecular soluble substances such as soluble sugars, amino acids and organic acids under salt stress, which might be an important aspect of salt stress response.

    Selection of Excellent Families and Evaluation of Selection Method for Pulpwood Half-sibling Families of Betula platyphylla
    Binghua CHEN, Jie ZHANG, Guifeng LIU, Siting LI, Yuanke GAO, Huiyu LI, Tianfang LI
    2023, 43(5):  690-699.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.006
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    To provide the theoretical basis for genetic improvement of Betula platyphylla, the genetic variation of the growth and wood characters of B. platyphylla half-sibling families were studied, and the excellent pulp families were selected, and 32 seven-year-old half-sibling families were measured respectively, and the growth and wood characters of each family were analyzed by ANOVA, genetic parameters were calculated and general combining ability was estimated, multiple selection methods were used to select excellent families and evaluate excellent parents. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.01) in growth and wood characters among families, and the family heritability was 0.71-1.00, the heritability per plant was 2.0-3.0, the coefficient of variation ranged from 5.88% to 49.84%. There was a significantly and strongly positive correlation among DBH, tree height and volume(r:0.70-0.97), and fiber length to width ratio had a significantly and strongly positive correlation with the fiber length(r:0.69), while it had a significantly and strongly negative correlation with the fiber width(r:-0.76). The general combining ability was used to evaluate the excellent parents, and the general combining ability ranges of volume, basic density and fiber length were -0.001 1-0.001 0, -0.04-0.07 and -112.09-77.36, respectively. The maternal parents of A13, A12, A21 and A24 were selected as excellent parents, and three different selection methods, including Brekin multi-trait comprehensive analysis method, principal component analysis method and breeding value method, were used to select the excellent family. After comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the three methods, five excellent pulp families were selected, and the average genetic gain of volume and cellulose reached 12.97% and 3.40%, respectively. A12, A17, A23, A19, A1 were selected as the excellent pulpwood families, which provided material for further breeding of improved varieties of fast- growing B. platyphylla.

    The Chloroplast Division Protein PARC6 Affected the Growth of Cotyledon and Leaf in Arabidopsis thaliana
    Zhuanzhuan JIANG, Li GONG, Yaling SONG
    2023, 43(5):  700-710.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.007
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    Abnormal chloroplast division homozygous mutant strain parc6 and albinistic cotyledon homozygous mutant strain sco2 were identified at the DNA, RNA and cellular levels, while the effects of chloroplast abnormal division on the growth of cotyledon and leaf were investigated by adding different concentrations of sucrose to the medium and taking sl2, the double mutant with leaf abnormal division and cotyledon albino as the control. The results showed that the cotyledon of sco2 mutant was albino, while the leaf grew normally. Meanwhile, the cotyledon growth and viability of the parc6 mutant were significantly lower than the wild-type, which was equivalent to the sco2 mutant, however, the double mutant sl2 with cotyledon albinism and leaf abnormal division was severely hindered. The leaf growth and viability of the parc6 mutant were also significantly lower than that of the wild type, but recovered compared to the cotyledon. The inhibited cotyledon growth phenotype of the parc6 mutant and sco2 mutant could be confirmed by the addition of carbon source to the medium, but chloroplast fluorescence parameters of sco2 were different from the wild type. The results of BN-PAGE combined with SDS-PAGE showed that the high-level structure of the photosystem of the cotyledon and leaf were normal, indicating that chloroplasts of parc6 failed to produce enough energy to affect the growth of cotyledon and leaf. The phylogenetic analysis showed that PARC6 and SCO2 coevolved, suggesting a connection between cotyledon development and chloroplast division. Our results indicated that chloroplast size was closely related to plant growth, especially the development of cotyledon, which provided a new perspective for revealing chloroplast function.

    Physiology and Ecology
    The Seed Rain of Critically Endangered Plant Abies beshanzuensis
    Yougui WU, Zhicheng ZHU, Qianqian WU, Huanman CAI, Dingyun CHEN
    2023, 43(5):  711-719.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.008
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    Abies beshanzuensis is a critically endangered plant endemic species in Baishanzu Mountain, Zhejiang Province, and only three mother trees are remained, one is scattered, and the other two grow adjacent to the north and south. In order to understand the spatial-temporal pattern of the seed rain of A. beshanzuensis, 33 seed collection frames were set up to collect the seeds produced in 2017 and 2019 once every half month. The results showed that: (1)From December 16th, 2017 to February 28th, 2018, 1 093 seeds from the scattered tree and 1 020 seeds from two adjacent trees were collected using six times, while from November 31th, 2019 to January 16th, 2020, 341 seeds from scattered tree and 165 seeds from the adjacent north tree were collected using four times. (2)The fresh weight of 1 000 seeds of A. beshanzuensis varied greatly, with the minimum of two adjacent trees seeds in 2017(25.87 g) and the maximum of the adjacent north tree seeds in 2019(39.21 g). The maximum length, width and thickness of the seeds were 14.5, 6.8 and 4.1 mm respectively, and the maximum length and width of the seed wings were 16.4 and 13.7 mm respectively. Both seed plumpness rate and 1 000-seed mass showed a trend of “decreasing first and then increasing”. The seed wing, seed plumpness, and seed fresh weight were larger in the north direction, whereas those in the south direction were smaller. There was no obvious pattern between seed characters and the distance from the collection frames. (3)In 2017, there were two peaks of seed rain, and the seeds collected in the first two times were about 80% of the total. However, in 2019, there was only one peak of seed rain, and the seeds collected for the first time were about 80% of the total. After the peak, the number of seeds collected decreased significantly. There was a phenomenon of “secondary seed drop”, which prolonged the drop time of seeds. (4) The number of seeds collected decreased with the increases of the distance from the collection frame to the mother tree, 98% of seeds fell within 10 m from the mother tree. Only four seeds were collected in the 30 m frames. (5) The number of seeds collected from the west was the largest, which might be related to the lower terrain in the west direction.

    Effects of Drought Conditions on Interspecific Interactions and Growth of Bidens pilosa and Buddleja lindleyana
    Jiaxing CHEN, Shu WANG, Linli CHEN, Xiali HOU, Qingzhu YANG, Renya YIN
    2023, 43(5):  720-728.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.009
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    In order to investigate the effects of drought on the interspecific relationship and growth of the invasive plant Bidens pilosa and the native species Buddleja lindleyana, two methods were designed: interspecific group(one plant of each of two species were planted in a pot) and baffled group(a baffle separated the two plants in the interspecific group), and two water treatments were applied, including the drought group (30%-35% saturated moisture content) and control group(90%-100% saturated moisture content), and plant morphological characteristics, biomass, relative growth rate, and relative neighbor effect index of each plant feature were measured respectively. The results showed that: (1)under both drought conditions, interspecific interactions promoted the root, stem, leaf, and total biomass of Bidens pilosa, whereas water availability altered the interspecific interactions of Buddleja lindleyana, with competition under the drought treatment and facilitation under the control treatment; (2)under drought conditions, interspecific interactions increased the relative growth rate and root-to-shoot ratio of Bidens pilosa root, stem, and leaf biomass, and decreased the specific leaf area and root-to-shoot ratio of Buddleja lindleyanaP<0.05). (3)Interspecific interactions significantly promoted the growth of root length, root surface area, and root tip number in both species(P<0.05). The results indicate that interspecific interactions promote the growth performance of Bidens pilosa under drought conditions, provid it with a competitive advantage in arid habitats, potentially as part of its invasion strategy.

    Response of leaf Hydraulic Traits of Typha orientalis to Simulated Warming and Elevated CO2 Concentration
    Hangmei YANG, Liping LI, Mei SUN, Hongyi CHEN, Lingyan LI, Chunhui FENG
    2023, 43(5):  729-740.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.010
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    In order to explore the response strategies of plateau wetland plants to increasing temperature and CO2 concentration, Typha orientalis, a common emergent plant in plateau areas, was selected as the research object to detect its leaf functional traits, and the simulated climatic change of increasing 2 ℃ temperature and CO2 concentration doubling were designed by constructing a capping artificial growth chamber. The results showed that: (1)The net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 molar fraction and transpiration rate of T. orientalis under the CO2 concentration doubling treatment were significantly reduced (P<0.05); while the net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of T. orientalis were also significantly reduced under the warming treatment(P<0.05) compared with the control group. The results indicated that the photosynthetic carbon assimilation capacity of T. orientalis was significantly reduced under the temperature increasing and CO2 concentration doubling conditions(P<0.05). (2)The vein density of T. orientalis leaves increased significantly under the CO2 concentration doubling treatment; while the vein density and stomatal density increased significantly, but the vascular bundle area and catheter area decreased significantly(P<0.05) under the warming treatment compared with the control group. The results reflected the enhancement of water transport and transpiration loss capacity but the reducing of water use efficiency of T. orientalis under the conditions of warming and CO2 concentration increasing. (3)The correlations among leaf photosynthetic parameters were looser, while the correlations between net photosynthetic rate and leaf structure traits were stronger under warming and CO2 concentration doubling treatments than control group. The results showed that the functional synergistic or trade-off effects of leaf functional traits of T. orientalis were enhanced significantly by increasing temperature and CO2 concentration.

    Micromorphological Characteristics of Pollen and Its Taxonomic Significance of Saussurea in Sedgera Mountains of Tibet
    Shujun ZHNAG, Xinxin YANG, Jian LUO
    2023, 43(5):  741-755.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.011
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    The pollen of 22 species of Saussurea and 1 species of Himalaiella were observed and compared by scanning electron microscopy to understand the degree of differentiation at the level of pollen morphology, and the pollen cluster analysis was carried out to provide a sporological basis for the classification of this genus, and further provided germplasm resources utilization of Saussurea in the region. The results showed that: (1)There were 20 species of 23 plants with subspherical pollen shape and three were oblate spherical; most of the pollen volume belonged to medium-sized pollen, and the overall type was relatively evolved. (2)Except for Saussurea Nephrolepis, which was a four-pore pollen, the pollen of the other 22 species had three pore grooves. (3)The outer wall ornamentation of pollen of 23 species could be divided into seven types: seven types of reticulate, six types of reticular and granular, six types of cavernous, and there were one smooth, one spine-based cavernous and one interspinous with wrinkled waves, one granular and one ruffled. (4)Cluster analysis based on pollen micromorphology of 23 plant species showed some consistency with the plant classification system and was even relatively clear among some subgenera. The results of this paper suggested that pollen micromorphological features might provide a basis for species identification in this genus.

    Molecular biology
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Catalase Gene in Lilium pumilum
    Yu SONG, Wenhao LIN, Yibo JING, Yi DONG, Shumei JIN
    2023, 43(5):  756-767.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.012
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    To explore the relationship between the CatalaseCAT) gene and saline-alkali stress tolerance of Lilium pumilum, the CAT gene was successfully cloned from L. pumilum bulb. The length of region ORF was 1 479 bp, encoding 492 amino acids, and sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis were performed, and the Catalase protein of L. pumilum was found to be closely related to the Catalase proteins of L. sargentiaeAnanas comosusElaeis guineensis and other plants. The Catalase protein was induced to express, and purified in vitro with 1 mol·L-1 IPTG as the inducer after constructing prokaryotic expression vector pQE-LpCat. The results showed that the growth concentration of bacteria solution containing PQE-LpCat protein was higher than that of the control strain under the stress of 50 mmol·L-1 NaHCO3. Under the stress of 1 mol·L-1 NaHCO3 and 2.5 mol·L-1 H2O2, less wilting was observed in plants overexpressing the LpCAT gene compared to wild-type. Determination of the physiological indexes including net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 and transpiration rate, H2O2 concentration and contents of malondialdehyde(MDA) showed that tobacco plants overexpressing the LpCat gene were more tolerant to saline and alkali stress than wild-type tobacco plants.

    Functional Analysis of FmCCoAOMT Gene in Fraxinus mandshurica During Lignin Synthesis and Abiotic Stress
    Chaoran SHAN, Xiaohu CHEN, Yunfei DING, Wei ZHAO, Han LU, Shangzhu GAO, Fenghui QI, Yaguang ZHAN, Fansuo ZENG
    2023, 43(5):  768-778.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.013
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    To clarify the function of FmCCoAOMT gene, the expression pattern of FmCCoAOMT gene was analyzed by qRT-PCR using Fraxinus mandshurica as material in this study. The results showed that FmCCoAOMT gene was tissue specific. The expression level was the highest in the xylem of both female and male perennial plants, and was 9.4 times higher than that in the bark of new shoots in male plants, and was 13.1 times higher than that of leaf in female plants. The leaf disk method was used to obtain transgenic tobacco plants. Compared with the wild type, the lignin content of overexpressing FmCCoAOMT was increased by 41%, while the cellulose and hemicellulose contents were decreased by 32% and 52%, respectively. Tobacco overexpressing FmCCoAOMT after abiotic stress treatment compared to wild type, the activity of POD and SOD increased, the content of MDA decreased, and the content of reactive oxygen decreased after stress treatment. After NaCl treatment, POD activity was 83% higher than that of control group. After NaCl, ABA and mannitol treatments, SOD activity increased by 56.6%, 44.2% and 19.0%, and MDA content decreased by 77.2%, 11.7% and 47.6%, respectively. The results indicated that FmCCoAOMT gene might be involved in lignin synthesis of F. mandshurica, promoted abiotic stress tolerance.

    Effect of Expression of Aeβ-AS gene from Aralia elata on the Content of Saponins in Nicotiana tabacum L.
    Qingqing HUO, Yuxin XIA, Jiale LI, Wei HAN, Shuya ZHANG, Zhe ZHANG, Meiling XIA, Wenhua GUO, Xiangling YOU
    2023, 43(5):  779-786.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.014
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    To investigate the effect of β-amyrin synthase gene(Aeβ-AS) on triterpenoid saponin synthesis of Aralia elata, the Aeβ-AS gene was cloned and genetically transformed into tobacco. The expression difference of Aeβ-AS gene in different parts of transgenic tobacco was analyzed, and the expression levels of Aeβ-AS gene, upstream and downstream key enzyme genes and total triterpene content were detected respectively. The results showed that the plant overexpression vector PROKⅡ-Aeβ-AS was successfully constructed and transferred into wild type tobacco, and seven transgenic lines were obtained and expressed at the mRNA level, and the expression level in leaves was higher than that in roots and stems. In transgenic tobacco, the expression levels of Aeβ-AS gene and its upstream and downstream key enzyme genes were higher than those of wild type, and the relative expression levels of NtFPS and NtSS genes of strain L21 were the highest, and the relative expression levels of NtSE and Aeβ-AS genes of strain L30 were the highest. Compared with wild-type tobacco, the total triterpene content of GM tobacco was significantly increased(1.1-1.6 times). The results showed that synthesis of Aeβ-AS gene and heterologous transformation in tobacco could significantly increase the total triterpene content in transgenic tobacco.

    Analysis of Non-Cellulosic Monosaccharide Composition of Poplar Cell Wall by HPAEC-PAD
    Xiaoling JIN, Huimin WU, Chaofeng YANG, Jin ZHANG, Mengzhu LU, Wei ZENG
    2023, 43(5):  787-793.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.015
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    To establish an ion exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) method for non-cellulosic monosaccharides in poplar(Populus spp.) cell walls, the 9 main cell wall monosaccharides could be base-line separated in one run by optimizing the separation conditions. Dionex CarbiPacTM PA100 (4 mm×250 mm) with sodium hydroxide analytical column was used for gradient elution at flow rate is 1.0 mL·min-1 and the column temperature of 30 ℃ was used for the determination of monosaccharide fraction in the cell wall of different poplar species. The results showed that the 9 monosaccharides had a good linear relationship in the linear range of 0.5-150.0 mg·L-1, the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.999 0-0.999 3, the reproducibility(RSD) of the method was 1.09%-3.96%, and the recovery rate by standard addition was 91.32%-109.25%. The detection limit was 1.57×10-3-1.41×10-2 mg·L-1. Galacturonic acid was the highest composition followed by xylose, and the glucuronic acid content was the lowest monosaccharide. The method developed in this study was widely applicable and simple, and could be used for the detection of monosaccharides in the cell walls of poplar and other species.

    Plant reproductive biology
    Observation on the Formation and Composition Analysis of Blue Pollen of Caryopterisincana
    Qinghua YANG, Binjie GE, Dasheng ZHANG
    2023, 43(5):  794-800.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.05.016
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    In majority of plants, colorful pollen is rarely seen on the surface of pollen except light yellow. In this article, the existence of blue pollen was discovered in Caryopteris incana, and the color of anther and pollen at different developmental stages was observed by microscope, and the anthocyanin components of mature pollen were analyzed by UPLC/MS(Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). The results showed that mature anthers and pollens were blue due to the rich anthocyanins. The color of anther and pollen changed obviously at young buds, early flowering buds and flowering stages, which were light yellow, light blue and blue purple respectively. The blue pigments of pollen mainly existed in the surface of pollen coat and tapetal cells by the cross-section observation. The UPLC/MS analysis showed that there were six kinds of anthocyanins on the pollen surface at the flowering stage, among which the main blue components were Delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and Malvidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, followed by Peonidin, Cyanidin and Petunidin, while the content of Pelargonidin was the lowest.