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    20 January 2021, Volume 41 Issue 1
    Morphological Structure of Vessel Elements of Prunes L. from Northeast Area of China
    Zi-Yu ZOU, Li-Wei GU, Da-Wei ZHANG
    2021, 41(1):  4-12.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.002
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    The scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and resin casting method were used to observe the micromorphological characteristics of vessel molecular types, pits and perforation plates of ten species of Prunus L. in Northeast of China, and the quantitative data of lumen length, width, tail length and end wall angle were measured. The conduit type, tail length and perforation plate type of the same species were stable in different habitats, and did not change with the change of habitats. There were three types of ducts in ten species of Prunus L., including spiral, pitted and reticulate. In addition to P.ussuriensis Kov. et Kost., P.humilis(Bge.) Sok. and P.sibirica(L.)Lam., there are only two types of vessels, including pitted and reticulate. Three types are common in the other seven plants. Helical thickening is common in this genus of conduit molecules. The single perforation plate is common in the plum plants, only in P.maximowiczii(Rupr.) Kom., P.tomentosa(Thunb.) Wall. and P.salicina Lindl.. Only in P.racemosa(Lam.)Gilib. and P.ussuriensis Kov. et Kost. and P.japonica(Thunb.) Lois. and P.sibirica(L.)Lam., the relatively primitive opposite-alternate pitting was observed, and the other six patterns were all alternate pitting. The lumen length, width and end wall area were significantly related to the habitat. The measurement of the tail length shows that the tail length of the vessel elements of the same plant is relatively stable in different habitats, almost unchanged, which can be used in micro plant taxonomy.

    Pollinia Morphology of 14 Species in Dendrobium(Orchidaceae) and Taxonomic Significance
    Yan-Ping WANG, Lu LI, Chen-Xuan YANG, Yan LUO, Qing-Qing LI
    2021, 41(1):  12-25.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.003
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    The morphology and exine sculpture of pollinia in 14 species of Dendrobium Sw.(Orchidaceae) were investigated using stereoscope and scanning electron microscope in order to provide evidence for classification and systematic evolution of this genus. Under stereomicroscope, the anther is composed of 4 clavated pollinia with a golden, oily, waxy surface and a hard texture in 14 Dendrobium species. According to the general appearance, Dendrobium pollinia observed can be divided into 3 shapes(heart-shaped, nearly heart-shaped and long heart-shaped) and 4 types(extremely small pollinia, small pollinia, large pollinia and oversize pollinia). Based on the curvature of the boundary contour of a pollinium, it can be divided into four types(crescent-like, bow-like, stick-like and rice grain-like). There are 5 kinds of exine sculptures(psilate; psilate with threads; psilate-uneven,coarse reticulate and rugulate) under scanning electron microscope, as well as two types of crystals observed on the surface of pollinia in D.wislsonii Rolfe and D.thyrsiflorum Rchb. The morphology and exine sculpture of pollinia were distinguished in different species of Dendrobium, which is of some significance to its taxonomic clarification.

    Response of Flowing Time to Temperature Changein Heilongjiang Province
    Xin-Yu CHENG, Zhi-Yuan YAN, Meng-Qiao GUO, Hai-Jun XU, Bin TONG, Hong-Wei NI
    2021, 41(1):  26-36.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.004
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    In order to clarify the responding tendency of florescence to temperature change in Heilongjiang Province, the relationship between plant florescence change and the annual mean temperature change in spring, summer, autumn in the present year and the last year were analyzed according to 188 herbarium plant species(contain infra-species taxa), which were collected from Heilongjiang Province in period of 1951-2007. The results showed that was a significant correlation(P<0.05) between florescence of more than 42% plants and temperature in Heilongjiang Province. In these plants, the relative collection time index of more than 25% species had significant positive correlation with annual mean temperatures of current, last year and season(P<0.05), and most of these were herbs. The relative collection time index of the rest of herbs and woody plants had significant negative correlation with annual mean temperatures of current, last year and season(P<0.05), for example, when the annual average temperature in spring increased to 1℃, the flowering period of woody plants precocious flowered 12.65% on average. Plant florescence was 4.47%, 7.08%, 3.87%, 5.84% and 6.73% ahead of schedule respectively in Heilongjiang Province if the annual average temperature increased to 1℃ in spring, summer, autumn of the current year and last year. The florescence response to temperature changes was relatively obvious in short florescence plants. The florescence response to the change of the annual mean temperature in summer was more sensitive than that in spring, autumn of the current year in Heilongjiang Province.

    Flower Bud Differentiation and Endogenous Hormone Changes of Rosa ‘Angela’
    Zhi-Yuan LIU, Li ZENG, Xi-Wu DU, PENG-Yong-Zheng, Yi-Wei TAO, Yu-Qing LI, Jun QIN
    2021, 41(1):  37-43.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.005
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    The experiment was conducted to explore the relationship between structure of flower buds and hormones content in Rosa ‘Angela’, and to regulate flowering, to improve landscape quality and breeding work. The flower bud differentiation was divided into five periods within 30 d. The growth cone was conical before the differentiation period. Then the cone became flat, five protrusions appeared around the growth cone at the sepal differentiation period. Multiple petal primordiums and stamen primordiums were respectively appeared around the growth cone during the flower bud differentiation. Several pistil primordiums were appeared at the base of growth cone at pistil differentiation period. The contents of ABA and CTK increased first and then decreased, which contents at sepal primordium differentiation period were significantly higher than other periods. The content of IAA increased gradually trend, and the content of GA decreased gradually. The ratio of IAA/GA and IAA/ABA showed a gradual increasing trend. The ratio of CTK/GA and(ABA+CTK)/GA at sepal primordium differentiation period were significantly higher than that before the differentiation period. The significant increasing of ABA and CTK contents at the sepal primordium differentiation period were related to flower bud induction. Low level of GA and decreasing of IAA were beneficial for flower bud differentiation. The increasing of CTK/GA and(ABA+CTK)/GA ratio at sepal primordium differentiation period were related to the flower bud induction, and high levels of IAA/ABA and IAA/GA ratio may relate to the further development of floral organ primordium.

    Physiological Responses to Drought Stress of Five Speciesfrom Catalpa Scop
    Xiao-Chi YU, Gui-Juan YANG, Ju-Lan DONG, Jun-Hui WANG, Wen-Jun MA, Peng ZHANG
    2021, 41(1):  44-52.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.006
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    In order to analyze the response to drought stress of the five species of Catalpa Scop., to provide theoretical basis for the selection on drought-resistant breeding and cultivation of drought-resistant tree species of Catalpa Scop., the C.speciosaC.fargesii f.duclouxiiC.fargesiiC.ovata, and C.bungei were selected as materials, and cultivated for 50 days under the water conditions of 700 and 400 mL respectively, and seedling height, diameter, leaf water potential, relative content of chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and specific leaf weight were measured respectively. The membership function method was used to comprehensively evaluate drought resistance. The results showed that the C.bungei grew best but the C.ovata was relatively poorest under the two water conditions. Under drought stress, except for the C.speciosa, the leaf water potential(ΨL) of all other species decreased, and the maximum stomatal conductance(Gs) increased respectively. The relative chlorophyll content(SPAD) of different species increased under drought stress. The maximum light energy conversion efficiency(Fv/Fm) of photosystem Ⅱ of each species increased under drought stress, except for C.fargesii f.duclouxii and C.bungei. In addition to C.fargesii, the specific leaf weight(LMA) of other tree species increased under drought stress. The results of comprehensive drought resistance using the membership function method were gray C.fargesii>C.ovata>C.fargesii f.duclouxii>C.bungei>C.speciosa. The results showed that different species of Catalpa Scop. have different drought resistance. Comprehensive analysis showed that the drought resistance of C.bungei and C.fargesii were strong, and that of C.fargesii f.duclouxii and C.ovata were the second, and that of C.speciosa was the worst.

    Effects of 24-Epibrassinolide on the Chlorophyll Fluorescence Transient in Leaves of Pepper under Drought Stress
    Wen-Hai HU, Xiao-Hong YAN, Xiao-Hong LI, Zao-Gui CAO
    2021, 41(1):  53-59.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.007
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    In order to investigate the role of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide(EBR) in improving drought tolerance in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv.Chaola 9), the chlorophyll fluorescence transient curve(OJIP) was examined in plants under drought stress(15% PEG6000). Drought reduced the photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic performance of pepper leaves, and induced photoinhibition. Drought not only disrupted the oxygen-evolving complex(OEC), but also impaired the PSⅡ reaction and acceptor side of PSⅡ, which inhibited the photosynthetic electron transportation. Drought decreased the number of active PSⅡ reaction centers per unit area. Drought also decreased the specific energy fluxes per unit area for absorption(ABS/CS), trapping(TRo/CS), electron transport(ETo/RC), but increased dissipation energy fluxes per unit area(DIo/CS). These results indicated that drought initiated defense mechanism by decreasing the absorption and transportation of light energy by reversible deactiveation of PSⅡ, and reducing the accumulation of excess excitation energy by promoting heat dissipation. EBR treatment improved the electron transport of PSⅡ acceptor side, alleviated the drought-induced decrease of active reaction center per unit area, optimized the process of photosynthetic electron transport, maintained high heat dissipation capacity in pepper leaves under drought, and alleviated drought-induced photoinhibition. In conclusion, EBR could optimize photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic performance, and protect the photosynthetic electron transport chain and PSⅡ reaction center in pepper leaves under drought stress.

    Morphological Variations of Different Populations from Psammochloa villosa,a Peculiar Sandy Plant
    Ting LÜ, Tao LIU, Rui-Fang LIANG, Xu SU, Yu-Ping LIU
    2021, 41(1):  60-66.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.008
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    An experiment was conducted to analyze the morphological variation in terms of 12 phenotypic traits,including height of plant,length of spike,length of flag leaf,width of flag leaf,length of spikelet et al,using 20 natural populations of Psammochloa villosa. F value of 12 trait populations was 1.832?8.958,which reached a significant or extremely significant level,the phenotypic traits of different populations of P.villosa were widely varied,and the degree of variation was different. By principal component analysis,the first four principal components represented 82.277% of the morphological diversity. The PCA results indicated that the length of flag leaf,width of flag leaf,length of glume and length of spikelet were the main factors leading to morphological variations of different populations. When the genetic distance is 20.5,20 natural populations of P.villosa could be divided into 2 groups by UPGMA cluster analysis,and the phenotypic characters were not clustered according to the geographical distribution of the populations.

    Effects of Exogenous MeJA on Antioxidant System and Stress Genes of Pinellia ternata under High Temperature Stress
    Yun-Hao ZHU, Meng-Jia ZHANG, Cheng-Ming DONG
    2021, 41(1):  67-73.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.009
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    We studied the effects of exogenous MeJA on the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), peroxidase(POD) and ascorbic acid peroxidase(APX) of Pinellia ternata under high temperature stress, effects on proline(Pro), malondialdehyde(MDA), soluble sugar content and active ingredient content, and the effect on the expression of stress-related genes such as small molecule heat shock protein(sHSP). The P.ternata plants with consistent growth status were subjected to stress treatment at 40℃, the experimental group was sprayed with 50 μmol/L exogenous MeJA solution, and the blank group was sprayed with the same amount of water. Samples were taken at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively, and the indexes of the samples were determined. The results showed that spraying exogenous MeJA at a certain concentration at 40℃ could improve SOD, POD and APX activities of P.ternata leaves, reduce MDA content and increase proline and soluble sugar content. There was no obvious effect on the organic acid content of P.ternate. The expression levels of 2 cytoplasmic small molecule heat shock proteins and GRRBP proteins increased significantly after MeJA treatment. Therefore, spraying exogenous MeJA can partially enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes in P. ternate, protect the cell membrane of P. ternate, and enhance the osmotic adjustment ability of cells. Moreover, exogenous MeJA may increase the expression of P. ternate high temperature stress response genes.

    Effects of Sucrose on Growth and Physiological Characteristics in vitro Plantlets of 84K Poplar
    Sen SHI, Na MIAO, Yu-Tong SHI, Hui-Mei WANG
    2021, 41(1):  74-78.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.010
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    Carbon source has an important effect on the growth and quality in vitro plantlets. The effects of different sucrose concentrations(10,20,30 and 40 g·L-1) on the growth and physiological characteristics in vitro plantlets of 84K poplar were studied. The results showed that with the 30 g·L-1 sucrose was the most favorable for the growth in vitro plantlets of 84K poplar with the culture period increased,and the dry weight was 1.5 times that of 10 g·L-1 sucrose concentration treatment. Secondly,in the treatment of higher sucrose concentration,with the culture period increased,the in vitro plantlets of 84K poplar had higher chlorophyll content,Rubisco enzyme activity and net photosynthetic rate,of which 30 g·L-1 sucrose treatment in vitro plantlets of 84K poplar had the highest net photosynthetic rate,which was 3.617 μmol?m-2?s-1. The in vitro plantlets of 84K poplar treated with high concentration of sucrose had higher soluble sugar content,but no significant change in starch content. To sum up,sucrose concentration has an important influence on the growth and physiological characteristics in vitro plantlets of 84K poplar. Higher sucrose concentration was conducive to promoting the growth in vitro plantlets of 84K poplar.

    Tissue Culture via Seed Embryo for Michelia macclurei
    Ying LIU
    2021, 41(1):  79-88.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.011
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    In order to explore tissue culture and micro-propagation technical system of Michelia macclurei, the seeds from its elite families were used to carry out experimental studies at aspects of explants selection and disinfection, basic medium, PVP concentration, type and concentration of rooting promoter. The results showed that:①The embryos were well sterilized with 0.1% mercury solution for 6-9 min, and the aseptic germination rate could reach 60%-65%; ②LY medium was the best basic medium, and suitable for the proliferation and growth of most embryo lines; ③Application of PVP with concentration of 4-8 g·L-1 could significantly reduce browning degree of medium and promote growth of the shoots; ④There were significant differences in rooting ability and rooting rate among tested embryo lines, the optimal concentration of both rooting promoters was 8.5 mg·L-1, and the rooting induction effect of ABT2 root powder was significantly better than that of IBA(P<0.01); ⑤The survival rate reached above 90% for rooting plantlets in 30 d, and more than 80% for plantlets with no root in 60 d after transplanted. This study provides a theoretical and technical basis for study on tissue culture and micro-propagation of M.macclurei clones and their industrial production.

    Diameter Structural Distribution of Coniferous Broad-leaved Mixed Forest in Taxus cuspidate Habitat in Changbai Mountain
    Xiao-Hong FAN, Li-Tao WANG, Juan-Yan AN, Dong MENG, Qing YANG, Chun-Jian ZHAO, Yu-Chun YANG, Yu-Jie FU
    2021, 41(1):  89-97.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.012
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    This research aimed at the management of Taxus cuspidate stand by selecting suitable models for imitating diameter structural distribution of coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest in T.cuspidate stand, Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve. On the basis of 15 coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest in T.cuspidate stands in Longhuanggou Forest Farm, Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, negative exponential model, three-parameter Weibull model and χ2 test were used to analyze the diameter structural distribution of 15 plots. The density of 15 plots was 400-981 trees·hm-2, and the mean DBH was 10.5-19.9 cm. The skewness of all plots was positive, which showed the diameter distribution function curves was partial to left. The three-parameter Weibull distribution model was better for the diameter distribution of the 9-11 plots, while negative exponential model was suitable for other plots. The irregular diameter distribution can be fitted better by three-parameter Weibull model, while the inverse J-shaped curves can be fitted well by negative exponential model. It showed that the diameter structure of coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest of Taxus cuspidate stand in the study area were not reasonable, and the management of T.cuspidate stand should be strengthened.

    Cloning and Expression Analysis of E2 Ubiquitin-conjugating Enzyme Gene TkUBC2 in Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin
    Xiao-Xiao WANG, Bi QIN, Yu-Shuang YANG, Qiu-Hai NIE, Ji-Chuan ZHANG, Shi-Zhong LIU
    2021, 41(1):  98-106.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.013
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    In order to analyze the function of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme(UBC) in stress response and signal transduction, an UBC gene was cloned from Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin(TKS) line 1151 and named as TkUBC2. The ORF of this gene was 459 bp and encoded 152 aa. Sequence alignment analysis showed that UBC2 shared high level homology among different species, and TkUBC2 had more than 99% similarity with Lactuca sativa LsUBC2 and Helianthus annuus HaUBC2. qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression pattern of TkUBC2in TKS. The results indicated that TkUBC2 was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues. Moreover, TkUBC2expression was down-regulated by treatments of PEG6000 simulated drought stress, mannitol mediated osmotic stress and plant hormone i.e. methyl jasmonate(MeJA), abscisic acid(ABA) and ethylene(ET) respectively, but its expression was up-regulated by the treatments of NaCl salt stress and UV radiation respectively. The results of this study suggested that TkUBC2 was involved in response to various stress conditions, hormone signaling and DNA damage repair process, which lay a good foundation for further revealing the function of TkUBC2 in TKS.

    Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis GATA Family of Populus trichocarpa
    Meng-Xuan REN, Yang ZHANG, Shuang WANG, Rui-Qi WANG, Cong LIU, Zhi-Gang WEI
    2021, 41(1):  107-118.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.014
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    The GATA transcription factor gene family played an important role in plant growth and development, cell differentiation, and response to environmental changes. However, no genome-wide analysis of this gene family has been reported in woody plants so far. We systematically analyzed the number, gene structure, chromosome positioning, phylogenetic evolution, physicochemical characteristics and conserved motifs of the GATA family members from the genome level respectively. The results showed that the GATA family contains 39 genes distributed on 15 chromosomes, and 6 genes distributed on chromosome 5, and only 1 gene distributed on chromosomes 9, 13 or 19 respectively. The rest chromosomes had no gene distributed on. The genes structure in this family and the basic characteristics encoded protein were somewhat heterogeneous, and could be divided into 4 subfamilies. By the qRT-PCR, there were significant differences in the expression levels of the genes of the GATA family at different developmental stages, and salt stress significantly affected the expression characteristics of the genes. The above results indicated that the structure and function of the genes were significantly differentiated after the replication of GATA family genes, and some of these genes might play an important role in the secondary growth of Populus trichocarpa and the response to salt stress. This study laid the foundation for a comprehensive analysis of the biological functions of the members of the GATA family of P.trichocarpa in their growth and development and response to salt stress.

    To Explore the Transcription Factor in Response to Low Temperature Stress in Nicotiana alata by Transcriptome Sequencing
    Lin LU, Shang-Yu YANG, Wei-Dong LIU, Li-Ming LU
    2021, 41(1):  119-129.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.015
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    In order to identify the transcription factors involved in the low temperature stress of Nicotiana alata seedlings, 4℃ low temperature was carried out, and samples of the seedlings were collected in 12-hour treatment, then the total RNA was extracted, and high-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence the transcriptome. For differentially expressed genes, GO and KEGG analysis were applied, the transcription factors involved were classified, and the results of transcriptome sequencing were verified by qRT-PCR. There were 8 388 genes(P<0.01) whose expression changed more than twice after low temperature treatment, of which 4 229 genes were up-regulated and 4 159 genes were down regulated. The functions of these differentially expressed genes were classified into three categories: biological process, cell components and molecular functions, 69 items in go entries, and were significantly enriched in 40 KEGG metabolic pathways. At the same time, under low temperature stress, the expression of 118 transcription factors in N.alata changed significantly, among which 82 genes were up-regulated and 36 genes were down regulated. These transcription factors belonged to 28 families, of which 19 genes to NAC family, 16 genes to ERF family, 15 genes to MYB family and 15 genes to WRKY family. The results provided a reference for the study of the molecular mechanism of low temperature response in N.alata.

    An Optimized HPLC Procedure for Analyzing Three Endogenous Hormones in Tulip Bulbs
    Yang-Jing ZHAO, Nan TANG, Dao-Cheng TANG, Jing ZHANG
    2021, 41(1):  130-137.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.016
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    Agilent HPLC was used to establish a method for simultaneous determination of endogenous hormones GA3, IAA and ABA in tulip bulbs, and an extraction method of isopropanol was established. The external standard method was used for determination, C18 reverse phase column, mobile phase A(methanol)∶B(phosphate buffer pH=3.5)=45∶55; flow rate 1 mL·min-1; detection wavelength 0-3.2 min 265nm, 3.0-4.5 min 212 nm, 4.5-6.5 min 218 nm; 6.5-13.0 min 265 nm; column temperature 20℃ for HPLC determination. Isopropyl alcohol extractant and dichloromethane low temperature shaker to purify the endogenous hormones in the bulb. The whole process was simple to operate, which took only 2.0-2.5 h to complete the hormone purification. The linear correlation of the detection methods was above 0.995. Detection limits of GA3, IAA and ABA were 200 ng·mL-1, 5 ng·mL-1 and 20 ng·mL-1, respectively. Recovery rate of Purification method was 84.812%-95.679%. The relative standard deviation was 6.432%-2.831%. A stable baseline and high accuracy, and a satisfactory peak shape, simple operation, less loss of hormones can be obtained in each link by extracting the endogenous hormone.

    Growth Responses of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Seedlings under Simulated Nitrogen Deposition and Different Inoculation of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Treatments
    Xu-Fu WANG, Long-Fei HAO, Jia-Xin HAO, Wen-Ying HAO, Hui-Ga BAO, Shu-Lan BAI
    2021, 41(1):  138-144.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.017
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    The growth responses of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings in pot culture conditions were discussed under different inoculation treatments and simulated nitrogen deposition. The different inoculation treatments were performed after 2-month seedling, which included a strain inoculation of Suillus bovinus(SB)and8 strain mixed inoculation(HJ), including Suillus luteusS.grevilleaTricholoma fulvumB.grisellusS.bovinusLeucocortinarius bulbiger Rhizopogon luteolus and Pisolithus tinctorius. The simulated nitrogen deposition treatments were performed for six months after mycorrhizal colonization, which included on nitrogen(CKN), 1-time nitrogen concentration(CN) and 2-time nitrogen concentration(2CN) treatments. The seedling growth index, root morphology and mycorrhizal colonization rate were measured after the 5-month interaction treatments. The results showed that: ①With the increase of nitrogen concentration, the mycorrhizal infection rate showed a downward trend under SBand HJ treatments. The mycorrhizal infection rate of SB inoculation was affected significantly by nitrogen deposition treatments. ②The seedlings aboveground and underground biomass were accumulated significantly after inoculation treatments, which were the best effect under mixed inoculation treatment. The aboveground biomass in the same inoculation treatments were inhibited by the increase of nitrogen concentration. The seedlings ground diameter and above-ground biomass were affected significantly by interaction of inoculation and nitrogen concentration, but the seedlings height and underground biomass had no effects. ③Compared with CK and SB treatments, the seedlings average root diameter, total root length and total surface area of CKN and CN treatments were promoted significantly under HJ treatment. With the increase of nitrogen content, the seedlings average root diameter, total root length and total surface area were promoted significantly under CK and SB treatments, but the morphological indexes were inhibited under HJ treatment. The seedling root morphology were affected significantly by the inoculation, nitrogen concentration, and the interaction treatments.

    Effects of Nitrogen Deposition and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Root Architecture and Rhizosphere Soil Enzyme Activities of Larix olgensis Seedlings
    Ting-Yan LIU, Long-Fei HAO, Xu-Fu WANG, Hai-Xia YAN, Shu-Lan BAI
    2021, 41(1):  145-151.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.018
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    In order to explore the responses of root morphology and rhizosphere soil enzyme activities of one-year-old Larix olgensis seedlings to different simulated nitrogen deposition and ectomycorrhizal fungi, the morphology of roots with diameter of 0-0.5 mm(including the total root length, surface area, volume and tips) and soil enzyme activities(including β-1,4-glucosidase(BG), L-leucine aminopeptidase(LAP), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase(NAG), acid phosphatase(ACP) and alkaline phosphatase(ALP)) were measured respectively. The different inoculated seedlings of L.olgensis were selected, including the not noculated(-M) and inoculated with 8 ectomycorrhizal fungi(+M) respectively. Four nitrogen deposition treatments were set, including no nitrogen(0N, 0 kg·N·hm-1·yr-1), low nitrogen(LN, 15 kg·N·hm-1·yr-1), middle nitrogen(MN, 30 kg·N·hm-1·yr-1) and high nitrogen(HN, 60 kg·N·hm-1·yr-1). The results indicated that: ①The nitrogen deposition concentration had a negative effect on the total root length, surface area, volume, tips with a diameter 0-0.5 mm of L.olgensis seedlings under +M and -M treatments. The root morphology indexes of -M was higher than that of +M treatment under 0N, LN, and MN treatments, respectively. ②With the increasing of nitrogen deposition, the activities of BG, LAP, ACP, ALP in the rhizosphere soils showed a tendency of first rising and then decreasing under the two inoculation treatments, but the activities of NAG showed a decreasing tendency. ③The morphology of roots with diameter of 0-0.5 mm was significantly negatively correlated with the activities of BG in the rhizosphere soils(P<0.05), under the +M and -M treatments. There was significantly positive correlation between the activities of NAG and root morphology(P<0.05), except the number of the tips. The effect of nitrogen deposition on root morphology of L.olgensis seedlings was weakened by ectomycorrhizal fungi inoculation treatment. However, the activation of soil enzyme activity by +M was higher than that of -M treatment under low nitrogen deposition.

    Preparation and Slow Controlled Release of Porous Starch Solidifying Rhododendron tomentosum Oil
    Qian ZHANG, Xiu-Hua ZHAO, He-Di KANG, Xiao-Xue ZHANG, Jian-Hang YANG
    2021, 41(1):  152-160.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2021.01.019
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    Rhododendron tomentosum was abundant plant resources inthe northeast of China. The plant was a distinctive aroma and high oil content in leaves. For the disadvantages of high volatility, poorly stable, short fragrance and inconvenient carry of R.tomentosum oil, it limited the development and utilization of essential oil related products. We explored the preparation and slow controlled release of porous starch solidifying R.tomentosum oil. The solidified essential oil powder was prepared by grinding and adsorption. DSC and TG were used to investigate the thermal stability of the solidified essential oil powder and the effect of the slow controlled release fragrance at different temperatures. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of porous starch was 1.42 g?g-1. When the mass ratio of porous starch to essential oil was 1∶0.75 (g·g-1), the solidified essential oil powder smelt well and presented yellowish powder. The thermal stability of the solidified essential oil was 3.57 times higher than the retention rate of essential oil. At the same temperature, the slow controlled release fragrance effect of solidified essential oil powder was more significant than that of uncured essential oil powder at the same time. The preparation process of the porous starch solidified essential oil was simple, and the effect of sustained release of the sample was obvious with the application and promotion values.