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植物研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (6): 830-838.doi: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.06.005

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    

蒙古栎次生林群落结构及优势种群点格局分析

李想1, 刘万生1, 周玮2, 陈福元3, 穆立蔷1()   

  1. 1.东北林业大学林学院,哈尔滨 150040
    2.威海职业学院,威海 264200
    3.黑龙江中央站黑嘴松鸡国家级自然保护区服务中心,嫩江 161499
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-07 出版日期:2020-11-20 发布日期:2020-11-04
  • 通讯作者: 穆立蔷 E-mail:mlq0417@163.com
  • 作者简介:李想(1995—),女,硕士研究生,主要从事资源植物保护与利用的研究。
  • 基金资助:
    中央站保护区生态监测样地建设及调查(2017-049)

Analysis on Community Structure and Dominant Population Point Pattern of Secondary Forest of Quercus mongolica

Xiang LI1, Wan-Sheng LIU1, Wei ZHOU2, Fu-Yuan CHEN3, Li-Qiang MU1()   

  1. 1.Forestry College,Northeast Forestry University,Harbin 150040
    2.Weihai Vocational College,Weihai 264200
    3.Heilongjiang Zhongyangzhan Black-billed Capercaillie National Nature Reserve Service Center,Nenjiang 161499
  • Received:2020-03-07 Online:2020-11-20 Published:2020-11-04
  • Contact: Li-Qiang MU E-mail:mlq0417@163.com
  • About author:LI Xiang(1995—),female,master’s degree students,mainly engaged in the protection and utilization of resource plants.
  • Supported by:
    Construction and investigation of ecological monitoring plots in the Zhongyangzhan Protection Area(2017-049)

摘要:

为探求大小兴安岭过渡区物种共存、生物多样性保护与维持机制,以黑龙江中央站黑嘴松鸡国家级自然保护区蒙古栎天然次生林25 hm2固定样地调查数据为基础,从群落物种组成、结构特征、径级结构以及优势种群的空间点格局分析对该样地进行分析。结果表明:样地内共有胸径≥1 cm的维管植物10种,活立木共 34 778株,平均密度1 392株·hm-2。其中,重要值大于10%的物种共计4种,依次为蒙古栎(Quercus mongolica Fisch.ex Ledeb.)、黑桦(Betula dahurica Pall.)、白桦(Betula platyphylla Suk.)、兴安落叶松(Larix gmelinii(Rupr.)Kuzen),占全样地的89.65%。该样地的Shannon-Wiener多样性H′、Simpson多样性D、Pielou均匀度指数J分别为1.577、0.760、0.685。表明该群落稀有物种较少,常见种比例较大,群落结构较为简单。样地内所有树种平均胸径10.77 cm。群落内总径级分布呈“倒J型”,符合典型异龄林的分布特征。黑桦、白桦径级分布近似“倒J型”,属于增长种群,蒙古栎种群径级结构为双峰型。兴安落叶松种群径级近似正态分布,有随演替进行逐渐消失的趋势,属于该群落的衰退种。在CSR模型下,4种优势种群的空间格局主要表现为聚集分布,且聚集程度随尺度增加聚集程度减弱,最终呈现随机或均匀分布趋势。在NS模型下,除兴安落叶松外,其余3种植株在小尺度(0~5 m)表现聚集性,可能是受种子的扩散限制的影响。对比4种优势种群,聚集强度表现为黑桦>白桦>蒙古栎>兴安落叶松,因此我们推断群落内不同种群的聚集强度不仅与研究尺度相关,与种群的多度也存在一定的相关关系。

关键词: 蒙古栎, 次生林, 物种组成, 群落结构, 点格局分析

Abstract:

To explore the mechanism of species coexistence, biodiversity conservation and maintenance in ecotone of Daxing’an and Xiaoxing’an mountains, the community species composition, structural characteristics, size structure and spatial point pattern of dominant population were analyzed based on the data of 25 hm2 forest plot of natural secondary forest of Quercus mongolica at Black-billed Capercaillie National Nature Reserve of national station in Heilongjiang province. The results showed that there were 10 species of vascular plants with DBH ≥1 cm in the plot, and 34 778 living trees with an average density of 1 392 trees·hm-2. There were 4 species with important values of more than 10%, which were Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb.,Betula dahurica Pall.,Betula platyphylla Suk.,Larix gmelinii(Rupr.) Kuzen successively, accounted for 89.65% of the whole plot. The Shannon-Wiener diversity, Simpson diversity and Pielou evenness index were 1.577, 0.760 and 0.685, respectively. The results showed that in this community, there were fewer rare species, larger proportion of common species than the others. What’s more, the community structure was simple. The average DBH of all tree species in the sample plot was 10.77 cm. The total diameter distribution in the community was of “reversed J type”, which was consistent with the distribution characteristics of typical uneven-aged forests. The diameter distribution of B.dahurica and B.platyphylla was approximately “reversed J type”, belonging to the growth populations, while the population of Q.mongolica showed a bimodal structure. The population of L.gmelinii was a declining species with an approximate normal size distribution and a tendency to disappear with succession. Under the CSR model, the spatial distribution of the four dominant populations was aggregation distribution and the degree of aggregation decreases with the increase of the scale, finally presenting a random or uniform distribution trend. Under the NS model, except L.gmelinii, the remaining 3 planted strains showed aggregation at 0-5 m scales, possibly influenced by the diffusion limitation of seeds. Comparing aggregation intensity of the four populations, it was found that B.dahuricaB.platyphyllaQ.mongolicaL.gmelinii. Therefore, we might reasonably infer that the aggregation intensity of different populations was not only related to the scale of the study, but also to the population abundance.

Key words: Quercus mongolica, secondary forest, species composition, community structure, point pattern analysis

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