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    05 September 2019, Volume 39 Issue 5
    Palynology of Deparia(Athyriaceae) from Shandong and Its Significance in Classification
    LI Xiao-Juan, LI Jian-Xiu
    2019, 39(5):  641-646.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.001
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    The palynology of 8 species of Deparia from the Shandong was investigated using scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The submicroscopic structures of spore morphology of a new taxonomic system of the Deparia Hook.& Grev.(Athyriaceae) from the China had been studied for the first time. The spores morphology of Deparia were reniform, bilaterally symmetrical, and possessed a perispore, the perispore ornamentation was stable within species, with clear distinctions between species. This study provided a palynological basis for establishing of Subgen.1.Athyriopsis and Subgen.2.Lunathyrium. The perispore ornamentation characteristics showed that Lunathyrium shandongense J.X.Li et F.Z.Li was a distinct species,and should be restored to a species level position rather than incorporated with Lunathyrium pycnosorum(Christ) Koidz., and we have recombined L.shandongense as D.sinoshandongensis according to the new classification system of the Deparia. This study not only accumulated new data for the palynology of Deparia, but also provided palynological basis for the classification and identification of related species. Therefore, the study of the spore morphology of the Deparia was of great significance in the genus palynology, taxonomy and system evolution.
    Morphological Characteristics of Flowers and Microspore Development in Physalis pubescens
    FENG Xu-Chao, CHEN Lu-Lu, DU Ke-Yu, LI Yong-Peng, ZHAO Ling-Xia
    2019, 39(5):  647-652.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.002
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    Numerous plants in Solanaceae family were important crops of the vegetable fruit worldwideto provide source of nutrients and vitamins in the human diet, and flower development is associated with species continuityin nightshade family and yield formation. Physalis pubescens is a small half-domesticated berry for medicinal and edible in Solanaceae family. To understand the flower development in Solanaceae family plants deeply, the approach of the comparative biology was adopted to dissect flower phenotypes, microsporogenesis and development in P.pubescens compared with cherry tomato(Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme), which a model plant in Solanaceae family. The results showed that sepal growth of P.pubescens was faster after flowering than that in cherry tomato, which even was slow growtheven cease. The yellowish petal with a brown spot like eyein P.pubescens was distinctly differed from yellow petal of cherry tomato. The top anther was fertile and mature pollen was spilt out from back of the anther in P.pubescens, while narrowtop anther in cherry tomato was sterile and pollen was spilt out from opening ventral suture of the anther. The microspore development was delayer in P.pubescens before tetrad stage than that in cherry tomato, but was earlier after tetrad stage than that in the latter. The most striking is abnormal growth of theseptum tissue intopollen locules in cherry tomato, and reached 1/2 of locule while pollen mature stage, but not found in P.pubescens. Those results would develop a novel model plant and provide an insight into flower development in the huge Solanaceaefamily.
    Chloroplast Genome Characteristics of Endangered Relict Plant Tetraena mongolica in the Arid Region of Northwest China
    DUAN Yi-Zhong, DU Zhong-Yu, WANG Hai-Tao
    2019, 39(5):  653-663.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.003
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    Tetraena mongolica is a strong dry shrub of Zygophyllaceae plant, which is unique species in China. Because it's an ancient origin and strong resistance species, it can be an ideal target for the study of biodiversity origin, environmental evolution, and academics research value as usual. Illumina Double-end Sequencing Technology was used to sequence and analyzed the chloroplast genome of T.mongolica. A total of 30 species of chloroplast genomes were selected from the order of the genus and geranium, the phylogenetic relationship with T.mongolica was carried out. The chloroplast genome of T.mongolica was 106 259 bp in length, there were 7 genes in the inverted repeat region(in the IR region), including 4 PCG genes and 3 tRNA genes. Total chloroplast genome coding 98 genes, including 65 protein-coding genes, 29 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. Bioinformatics showed that 92 SSR loci were found in T.mongolica, including 74 single nucleotide repeat motifs, 7 dinucleotide repeat motifs, 1 trinucleotide repeat motif, 9 tetranucleotide repeat motifs and 1 pentanucleotide motif. There is no hexanucleotides and no single nucleotide glycosylate and the proportion of chloroplast genome SSR in T.mongolica was 80.1%. The chloroplast genome of 31 species including T.mongolica was clustered by MEGA software using neighbor-joining(NJ). The Larrea tridentate is the closest species, followed by the genus Viviania marifolia, which is closely related to the Pelargonium fulgidum. The genus Hypseocharis bilobata has the closest relationship, which indicates that T.mongolica belongs to the genus Polygonaceae, which has certain reference value for the study of T.mongolica.
    Population Structure and Dynamics of Original Abies faxoniana Rehd—Rhododendron simsii Planch in High-mountain Timberline of Southern Gansu Province
    WANG Fei, HUO Huai-Cheng, ZHAO Yang, CAO Xiu-Wen, LIU Jin-Qian, YANG Yong-Hong, ZHANG Tao, QI Hao, WANG Ruo-Jian
    2019, 39(5):  664-672.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.004
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    Alpine forest line is a typical ecotone and one of the most sensitive areas to reflect the climate. The dominant species of the alpine forest line area are firs and Rhododendrons in southern Gansu Province. In order to predict the future development trend, the static life table of the fir and Rhododendron populations were established to analyze the structural characteristics and the population dynamics prediction time series. The results showed that:(1)The seedlings of Mingjiang fir were relatively abundant and could maintain the self-thinning death of individuals, the survival curve was Deevey-Ⅲ type; the amount of seedlings of Rhododendron were relatively small, and the survival curve tended to Deevey-Ⅰ type; the death curve and the risk curve increased with the age class, and the death curve of Rhododendron population was always greater than that of Mingjiang fir population. The risk rate of Rhododendron population was always larger than Minjiang fir population after the second age class. (2)The dynamic index Vpi of population structure of Minjiang fir was larger than the revised dynamic index V'pi and greater than 0, while the dynamic index Vpi of Rhododendron population structure was smaller than the revised dynamic index Vpi and less than 0. The Minjiang fir population belonged to the growth type, the Rhododendron population belonged to the recession type. The maximum value of random interference of Minjiang fir and Rhododendron population were 0.027 and 0.011, respectively, indicating both of them were sensitive to external interference. (3)The time series of rhododendron population was predicted dynamic characteristics of seedling shortage, stability in the middle stage and decline in the late stage, meanwhile, Minjiang fir population was small change in time at different age levels, a large number of seedlings and a stable growth type. Minjiang fir population can adapt to the current environment in the alpine forest line region of southern Gansu Province better.
    Fruit and Seed Morphology of 8 Genera of Trib. Lepidieae(Cruciferae)
    CAO Dong-Ling, ZHANG Xue-Jie, LIU Mei
    2019, 39(5):  673-682.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.005
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    The GMA semi-thin section method and comparative was used to analyze the fruits and seeds microstructure of 8 genus 25 races of Trib. Lepidieae. The forming process of the pseudoseptum was described in detail by taking the example of Thlaspi arvense. The fruits and seeds of the Trib. Lepidieae have obviously micromorphological characteristics that are silicle, except the types of fruit flattening of Pachypterygium and Pugionium are dorsal others are both sides; The edge of the fruit with wings is typical characteristics of Trib. Lepidieae. It can be divided into four types:surround wing, tiny wing, wide wing and lance shaped wing. Some pericarp cells have fibrous layer and occasionally lignification, and the others have pseudoseptum except Isatis, Pachypterygium and Pugionium. The seeds size are (0.8-10) mm×(0.5-2.8) mm which coats ornamentation is abundant, and generally, sticky seeds can be formed when exposed to water or damp environment. Testa is usually composed of parenchyma cells with occasional lignification and often contains inclusions. Arrangement of cotyledons and radicals are incumbent except Megacarpaea and Thlaspi. The pseudoseptum is formed by connecting endocarp cells to extend inward. The information of the fruits and seeds microstructure of Trib. Lepidieae are perfected, which will provide basic information for other related researches such as molecular systematics.
    Leaf Epidermal Micromorphological Characters of 11 Species of Sanicula L.
    YAO Xue-Ying, CHEN Zhi-Xiang, WANG Qi-Zhi
    2019, 39(5):  683-691.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.006
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    In order to explore the systematic and taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal micromorphological characteristics in Sanicula, the leaf epidermal micromorphological characteristics of 11 species(13 populations) of Sanicula were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphological characteristics of leaf epidermis of 11 species of Sanicula were stable, the adaxial epidermal cell comour were mostly unclear, dense stripes or sparse stripes in primary waxy ornamentation, and the granula were adhered to the epidermis. All the abaxial epidermis have stomata, the ornamentation is uniformly distributed around stomata, and almost stomatal outside ornamentation have granular. There are some differences in the micromorphological characteristics of the leaf epidermis such as the secondary ornamentation, the stomatal ornamentation, and the inside ornamentation of the stomata. The above research results can provide important data for exploring the definition and interspecific relationship of Sanicula.
    Megaspores and Development of Female Gametophyte in Dodonaea viscosa
    LU Xue-Jia, LIU Fang-Yan, GAO Cheng-Jie, LI Kun
    2019, 39(5):  692-698.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.007
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    In order to know the reason of low natural seed setting rate and the characteristics of embryonic development of Dodonaea viscosa, the megasporogenesis and the development of female gametophyte were observed by using the method of paraffin section. The results were as follows:(1)D.viscosa had style canal and placentation is axial; the he ovary had 3 locules with two ovules per locule; the ovule was amphitropous, bitegmic, crassinucellate and without hypostase. (2)The sporogenous cells located under the epidermis of the nucellus produced sporogenous cells through the pericentric division. The sporoblasts developed into megaspore mother cells, and the megaspore mother cells formed a linear tetrad after meiosis, and 3 megaspore degeneration disappeared near the microspore end. The megaspore developed into functional megaspore and the type of megasporogenesis was monosporogenesis. (3)The mature embryo sac of 7 cells and 8 nuclei was formed by 3 mitosis of uninucleate embryo sac, and the development type of embryo sac was polygonum type. (4)The morphological changes of flower organs were related to the development of megaspore, and the development period of megaspore could be roughly judged according to the morphological characteristics of female flower. The results suggesting that a few abnormal phenomena such as the embryo sac was not empty and the no cellularization of the free nucleus in the development of female gametophyte may be one of the reasons leading to the low natural seed setting rate of D.viscosa.
    Effects of Water Table Level Increase and Sphagnum Propagule Transplantation on Vegetation Restoration
    YANG Pan-Pan, LIU Yu, BU Zhao-Jun, MA Jin-Ze, WANG Sheng-Zhong, CHEN Xu, YANG Yun-He
    2019, 39(5):  699-706.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.008
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    Propagule transplantation of Sphagnum is one of the important factors affecting restoration of peatland vegetation, but the effect of transplantation modes on restoration success has lack of comparative research. The degraded peatland of Baijianghe in Changbai Mountains area was selected as the research site, and a hollow species S.flexuosum and a hummock species S.magellanicum(the latter with strong relatively drought tolerance) collected from natural habitats were chosen as experimental materials. We tried to study the effect of water table level increase and different transplant modes of Sphagnum propagule on vegetation restoration of the degraded peatland by field transplant experiment. Our data analyses showed that water table level significantly affected the establishment of S.flexuosum and S.magellanicum, and their cover increased obviously with water table level increase; transplantation mode had no effect on establishment of both Sphagnum after one month, but did have on that of S.flexusoum after two months meanwhile S.flexusoum gained greatest cover when it being transplanted first and covered by drought-tolerance species S.magellanicum; no interaction between water table level and transplantation mode was observed, namely the transplantation mode in which S.flexusoum was covered by S.magellanicum did not facilitate S.flexusoum establishment. Therefore, water table level increase is a very effective means of vegetation restoration in degraded peatlands and reasonable transplantation mode will promote restoration efficiency due to species-specific drought tolerance.
    Altitude Differences in Reproductive Characteristics and Resource Allocation of Saussurea wellbyi
    MA Wen-Mei, WANG Yi-Feng, ZHAO Xia-Wei, LI Lei
    2019, 39(5):  707-715.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.009
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    The reproductive characteristics and resource allocation strategy of plant population are one of the important contents in the plant life history. It is very important to understand and predict the vegetation structure and adaptation strategies in the process of global change. With Saueeurea wellbyi, a common plant distributing in the southern margin of the Qinghai-tibet Plateau, ANOVA was used to analyze the flowering characteristics and resource allocation of 18 populations in 6 altitudes, and the size-dependent relationship between resource input and resource allocation was analyzed by allometric growth model. The results showed that:(1)The size of the individual, the reproductive organs, the biomass of the vegetative organs, tubular loret number, the weight of stamen, the length of anther and the number of pollen were negatively correlated with the altitude. However, tubular loret mass, the weight of pistil, the length of filament and the length of style were positively correlated with the altitude. (2)There was a negative correlation between vegetative allocation and altitude, and reproductive allocation was positively correlated with altitude. (3)There is a trade-off between the number and mass of tubular loret, the weight of pistil and stamen,the length of filament and anther, the length of filament and the number of pollen. (4)There was a significant positive correlation between individual size of S.wellbyi and resource input and resource allocation at different altitudes. The intercepts are significantly different at altitude. Comprehensively, this series of results was the result of long-term evolution and adaptation to the stressful environment of alpine.
    Effect of different NaCl contents on Seed Germination and Seeding Growth of Chenopodium glaucum L.
    REN Jia-Bo, WEN Zhi-Bin
    2019, 39(5):  716-721.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.010
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    Chenopodium glaucum L. is an annual economic halophyte widely distributed in middle and low saline-alkali land. In order to elucidate the response of C.glaucum L. to different contents of NaCl treatment, we studied the effect of seed germination and seeding growth and Na+ content in roots, stems and leaves of the plants under different NaCl contents. With the increase of NaCl, the seed germination rate and the number of seed germination per unit time were declining, and the germination time of the seeds were prolonging compared with the control group. The seeds did not germinate under 500 mmol·L-1 NaCl and the optimum content for germination was 50 mmol·L-1, followed by control and 100 mmol·L-1 NaCl. The plants treated with high bloom(fructify) sooner than the untreated or low concentration treatment. With the increase of the NaCl in substrate, the amount of Na+ secreted in plants showed an upward trend and reached the highest value when the treatment concentration increased to 200 mmol·L-1, evidently in leaves.
    Effects of Drought Stress on Photosynthetic and Physiological Characteristics of Juglans mandshurica Seedlings in Different Soil Substrates
    JI Li, HAN Jiao, WANG Fang, WANG Jun, SONG Di, ZHANG Li-Jie, QI Yong-Hui, YANG Yu-Chun
    2019, 39(5):  722-732.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.011
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    To investigate the response of photosynthetic physiological characteristics in seedlings of Juglans mandshurica under water stress in different soil substrates, In this study, two-year seedlings of J.mandshurica were used as research objects, and an experiment was conducted to set four water gradients(normal water supply CK, mild stress T1, moderate stress T2 and severe stress T3, and 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% field water capacity, respectively) in three soil substrates(humus, loam, sandy-loam) by pot controlled water method respectively. The chlorophyll, malondialdehyde(MDA), proline(Pro), antioxidant enzymes(POD, SOD, CAT)and photosynthesis indicators were determined in all treatments. The results showed that the chlorophyll content and Chl a/b were significantly decreased with increase of stress intensity(P<0.05). After 60 d of persistent water stress, the Chl a and Chl b content were 65.41% and 51.57% lower than those of CK, respectively. The order of chlorophyll content in the three matrices was:humus>loam>sandy-loam. With the increase of stress intensity, the proline(Pro) and malondialdehyde(MDA) content of seedlings were significantly increased, and Pro content in T3 in sandy-loam soil was 83.37 mg·g-1, which was highest among all treatment, and was 86.32% higher than CK. The activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD), peroxidase(POD) and catalase(CAT) of seedlings significantly increased with increase of stress intensity in humus soil. However, the SOD activity in loam soil increased first and then decreased. In general, the net photosynthetic rate(Pn), transpiration rate(Tr) and stomatal conductance(Gs) of seedlings decreased with increase of the stress intensity in three soil substrates. However, the stomatal limitation and non-stomatal limitation of seedling leaves in different soil substrates were different. The intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci) of T3 treated leaves was lowest in humus at 12:00, while in loam and sandy loam were 10:00. There was a significant positive correlation between soil total nitrogen, total phosphorus, permeation rate and transpiration rate and chlorophyll content(P<0.05), and reach a significant negative correlation between soil bulk density and chlorophyll content(P<0.05). Soil substrate and water stress had significant effects on the physiological characteristics and photosynthesis of J.mandshurica seedlings. Severe stress caused serious damage to the chlorophyll, osmotic substances and enzyme system of seedlings, and decreased the photosynthetic productivity of J.mandshurica seedlings. The seedlings in humus and loam have better drought resistance.
    Effects of Different Improvement Measures on Soil Structure and Element Composition,Photosynthesis and Growth of Poplar Leaves in Severe Saline-alkali Soils of Songnen Plain
    LI Zhan-Jun, ZHANG Hou-Liang, GUO Xing, FAN Rui-Hong, MA Ke, LIU Ji-Yun, YANG Feng-Jian
    2019, 39(5):  733-739.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.012
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    The long-term effect of the improvement of severe saline-alkali soil was still controversial, in this research, in order to improve soil, poplar plantations were planted in different ways in Songnen Plain. The soil environment, photosynthetic process and growth status of poplar were systematically studied. The internal structure of soil structure in severe saline-alkali soil was more uniform, and the looseness, barrier, void, ventilation, permeability and specific surface area were all improved. The elements content of C and Fe in the soil increased by 29.7% and 13.9%, respectively, and the content of Na decreased by 82.4% on average. Therefore, soil colloid cohesion soil fertility was enhanced, and soil salinization was slowed down. The growth rates of photosynthetic rate, respiratory rate, height, DBH, branch number, branch length and crown diameter of poplar were 328%-381%, 98%-153%, 23.8%, 35.3%, 160%, 100%, and 73.5%, and the root growth of the improved Bar foraging ditch was the best. This research has a positive significance for basic data support for biological improvement of degraded saline-alkali soil in Songnen Plain.
    Genetic Diversity of Critically Endangered Plants Petrocalamus luodianensis from Different Natural Populations
    GUAN Rui-Ting, LIU Ji-Ming, WANG Min, CHEN Jing-Zhong, WU Meng-Yao, TONG Bing-Li
    2019, 39(5):  740-751.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.013
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    To reveal the endangered reasons of Petrocalamus luodianensis, and provide theoretical support for the protection and utilization of this species, and then form the best protecting strategy for the critically endangered species, we explored the genetic diversity of different natural populations of P.luodianensis and the correlation with environmental factors at the molecular level. The genetic diversity and heritable variation of sixteen natural populations were studied by POPGENE 32 and the technology marked by random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD). The results showed that 105 high reproducible, stable and discernible DNA fragments weight from 200-3 000 bp were generated from 8 RAPD primers and 98 polymorphic locis are included, and the PPL is 93.33%. At the species level, the effective number of alleles(Ne) is 1.494 2, the Nei's gene diversity(H) is 0.300 5, and the Shannon's information index(I) is 0.458 6. The Luowan(ZY1) population possessed the highest level of genetic diversity(PPL=60.95%, H=0.232 9 and I=0.345 1), while the Taopo(PT1) population showed the lowest level of genetic diversity(PPL=44.76%, H=0.170 0 and I=0.252 3). In the 16 natural populations, the coefficient of genetic differentiation(Gst) is 0.323 1, the gene flows(Nm) is 1.0478 and the(HSP-HPOP)/HSP based on Shannon's Information Index(I) is 0.342 9, a little higher than Gst. Therefore, there is a significant variation and abundant diversity of the P.luodianensis, the intra-population variation is greater than the inter-population, and the genetic variation exists mainly within the intra-population.
    Distinct Expression Patterns of WRKY6 and PR1 in Arabidopsis Stress Memory Assays
    LI Shuang, XIONG Ying, RALF M;ller-Xing, XING Qian
    2019, 39(5):  752-759.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.014
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    Plants exposed to bacteria or other microbic pathogens can develop a whole body's defense, also known as systemic acquired resistance(SAR), which can inhibit the growth of pathogens during a secondary infection. Transcription factors WRKY and PATHOGENESIS-RELATED proteins play an important role in plant disease resistance regulation pathway. WRKY6 and PATHOGENESIS RELATED1(PR1) are well-known stress response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana both encoding transcription factors. In this study, we obtained the gene expression data of WRKY6 and PR1 from A.thaliana eFP database, followed by bioinformatics analysis and generated the expression heat map of WRKY6 and PR1 under the abiotic stress and biotic stress. We compared the expression levels of WRKY6 and PR1 after various stress treatments. The results showed that, after Pseudomonas syringae pv.tomato(Pst) DC3000 treatment WRKY6 and PR1 had similar expression patterns, but after the combination of BTH and mechanical stress WRKY6 and PR1 had different expression pattern. Our results indicate that WRKY6 and PR1 react differently after diverse treatments, indicating that both genes act synergistic and independent of each other. It provides a way to further study the mechanism of systemic acquired resistance response in the future.
    Functional Traits of Plant Leaves at Different Succession Stages in Alpine Meadow
    LIU Min-Xia, LI Li-Rong, CHE Ying-Di, JIAO Jiao
    2019, 39(5):  760-769.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.015
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    We studied the typical communities in five stages of alpine meadow succession in Gannan. The leaf functionaltraits of different succession stages in enclosed plots were compared, and the relationship between leaf characteristics of main species and environmental factors at community level in each succession stage were analyzed. The results showed that:(1)The enclosure formed a succession process from herbs to shrubs. As the succession progresses, Margalef index increased significantly and Shannon-Wiener index increased first and then decreased. (2)With the succession, soil organic carbon(SOC), soil total nitrogen(STN), soil water content(SWC) gradually increased, light intensity(LI), soil temperature(ST) gradually decreased, soil total phosphorus(STP) decreased first and then increased; leaf organic carbon(LCC), leaf total nitrogen(LNC), water content(LWC) gradually increased; specific leaf area(SLA), phosphorus utilization efficiency(PUPE) and stable carbon isotope(δ13C) decreased gradually, leaf total phosphorus(LPC) decreased first and then increased, while nitrogen use efficiency(PUNE) first increased and then decreased. (3)By RDA analysis, in the enclosed plot, leaf traits of plants communities in the early stage of succession were mainly restricted by LI and ST, and leaf traits of plants communities in the middle and late stages of succession were mainly restricted by SWC. The study of community succession and functional changes of plant leaves in enclosed areas will help us to understand the degradation of alpine meadow ecosystem and the decline of biodiversity, and to seek better methods of grassland restoration and reconstruction.
    Genetic Identification and Relationship Analysis of Main Southern-type Poplar Clones with EST-SSR
    YUAN Jia-Qiu, TIAN Ye, FU Xiang-Xiang
    2019, 39(5):  770-778.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.016
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    Twelve main southern-type poplar clones were selected to assess genetic polymorphism based on EST-SSR markers and to establish fingerprint for clone identification in the main planting region. The results could provide information and tools for the effective and protective extension of superior clones in this area. Thirty pairs of EST-SSR primers were obtained with stepwise approaches including EST sequences analysis from NCBI database by EST-trimmer, SSR loci screening by MISA, and primers design using primer 3. The obtained EST-SSR primers were then applied to PCR amplification for the 12 poplar clones. Eighteen pairs of polymorphic primers were selected and 88 alleles were obtained by sequence amplification of 12 poplar clones. The polymorphism ratio of the locus was 70.5%, the average number of the observed alleles was 2.1463, and the average shannon's diversity index was 0.529 7. The 12 clones could be effectively identified based on a combination of 5 pairs of SSR primers, which were EU147, EU43, EU11, EU164, and EU81. The genetic fingerprint map of the 12 clones was also constructed successfully using the same SSR primers. The genetic similarity coefficient of the 12 clones ranged from 0.602 0-0.904 0, with a mean value of 0.769 1. All the clones showed close genetic distance, which revealed their genetic background of the same origination. In a word, EST-SSR marker is an effective tool for the identification of the southern type poplar clones.
    H2S as A Gasotransmitter for Communication between Plant Individuals
    LIU Zhi-Qiang, CAO Chun-Yu, LI Ya-Wen, QU Juan-Juan, JIA Yun-Qian, PEI Yan-Xi
    2019, 39(5):  779-787.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.017
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    Plant releases a variety of volatile substances into the environment when they suffered from insect feeding, wound or abiotic stress, to help plant combat the damage directly or indirectly. These volatile substances can also provide a precaution for the nearby plants to cope with the incoming threat. H2S has been reported as an intracellular gasotransmitter which can increase the tolerance of plant to multiple stresses. We explored the possibility of H2S to be a plant-to-plant signaling molecule in multiple plants. The H2S concentrations in air increased when the foxtail millet, Chinese cabbage, tomato or Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with 40% PEG 8000. When the Arabidopsis or the foxtail millet was treated with PEG 8000, the H2S content and the expression levels of the H2S response genes in the neighboring non-stressed plants were increased, and the stomatal closure of these plant was also induced. However, when the lcd/des1 was treated with PEG 8000, not a similar phenomenon could be observed in the neighboring plants of this mutant. Therefore, H2S not only functions as an intracellular signal molecule, but also serves as an information transfer molecule between plant individuals, that is, by releasing H2S into the surrounding environment, plants under stress can provide early warning information of stress to their neighboring plants, which may be of great significance to the survival of the population.
    Extraction Technology of Gutta-percha from Eucommia ulmoides Leaves Pretreated with Fungus and Dilute Alkali
    LIU Pei-Yan, WANG Si-Ying, GUO Zi-Jing, ZHAO Xiu-Hua
    2019, 39(5):  788-794.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.018
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    The experiment was conducted to study the extraction and purification of high purity gutta-percha from Eucommia ulmoides leaves. The dried leaves of E.ulmoides were treated with dilute alkali and trichoderma viridis to remove the cuticle covering the surface of E.ulmoides, and some soluble impurities were eluted and the cell wall and fiber structure of the leaves were destroyed. The 0.45% NaOH under 75℃ was used to remove the surface of the barks of E.ulmoides corneous layer, as well as some soluble active ingredients(such as polysaccharides, flavonoids, Beijing's flat glycosides, etc.), after drying barks of E.ulmoides, and used green trichoderma viride to destroy the cell walls of the barks of E.ulmoides and fiber structure, and under 85℃ E.ulmoides was extracted by petroleum ether as solvent extraction of gutta-percha. Finally, the content of gutta-percha in the leaves of E.ulmoides before treatment was determined to be 1.78%, the content of dilute alkali of 0.45% NaOH after pretreatment was 3.16%, and the content of green trichoderma after fermentation was 4.36%. Before pretreatment, the yield of primary extraction and purity of organic solvent were 0.73% and 83.7%, respectively. After combined pretreatment, the yield of primary extraction was 2.85% and the purity was 96.6%. This process combined with dilute alkali and green trichophylla reduced the amount of organic solvent, and compared with the traditional process, it was more green, safe and effective.
    Brief Report of How Evergreen Broad-leaved Plant Photinia serratifolia Escaped in Beijing
    XU Lian-Ying, MA Jian, JIN Heng
    2019, 39(5):  795-800.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.05.019
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    We reported an evergreen broad-leaved plant, Photiniaserratifoli, escaped in Beijing. The reasons to produce this phenomenon were also analyzed. Furthermore, we reviewed the current research situation of feral plant in China anddiscussed the special meaning of the escaping of an evergreen broad-leaved plant in Beijing.