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    05 November 2019, Volume 39 Issue 6
    Study on the Flower Morphology and Structure of Fargesia fungosa
    DENG Lin, HUANG Ling, CHU Cai-Hua, WANG Qian, ZHAN Hui, WANG Shu-Guang
    2019, 39(6):  801-807.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.001
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    Fargesia fungosa was an important economic bamboo species in the genera Fargeisa.The studies on the morphology and anatomical structure of their organs were lack.In this paper, the morphology and anatomical characteristics of F.fungosa flowers were observed and analyzed. The results showed that the flowers of F.fungosa belong tothemixed inflorescence and the base of spikelets had resting bud, besides several spikelets were wrapped by the "floral bud" was formed of singal leaf. The mean length of spikelets was 3.05±0.390 cm, containing 3-7 small flowers per spikelet. The mean length of florets was 1.85±0.167 cm, with 2 glumes,1 lemma and palea, 3 lodicules, 3 stamens, and 1 pistil. The young anther wall contained epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum from outside to inside. The matureanthers were splited longitudinally for pollen releasing.The mature pollen grainsweretwo- or three-celledand with 1 germination aperture. The ovary was unilocular, superior andand lateral membranous placenta with a anatropous ovule. The stigma of pistils has two feather-liking stigmas. The anther developed abnormally, resulting abortion phenomenonin the majority of anthers.
    Floral Traits and Reproductive Characters of Different Large-flowered Taxa Epimedium(Berberidaceae)
    CHEN Lan-Ying, XIAO Xiao, XIAO Juan
    2019, 39(6):  808-816.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.002
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    Epimedium is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb plant that plays important roles in traditional Chinese medicine, functional foods and landscaping design. Caused by regional differences, Epimedium plants had different plant morphology, flower traits, flowering phenology and reproductive characteristics. Three Epimedium(E.wushanense, E.acuminatum and E.davidii) breeding systems were researched through flowering dynamics, floral characteristics, and flower visiting insect observation of the wild natural populations of from different habitats in Sichuan. The results show that:(1)The flowering period of three Epimedium populations are concentrated:E.wushanense flowering period is from the late March to late April, solitary flower mostly is 3-4 d. E.acuminatum from the late March to late April, solitary flower mostly is 3-4 d, E.davidii from Mid-April, solitary flower mostly is 5-6 d. With the elevation of Epimedium habitat, the initial flowering period of Epimedium was gradually delayed, and the flowering period gradually increased; (2)From the observation of flowers and the frequency of visiting flower, Hymenoptera and Diptera were effective visitors to three species of Epimedium, and there was a significant correlation between the floral characteristics and the floral characteristics of the effective floral visitors; (3)The number of inflorescences, flowers and fruits of the three species of Epimedium is greatly influenced by the environment of temperature and illumination factors. Under natural conditions, the seed setting rate under natural conditions is quite different for different species of plants with the order of E.wushanense>E.davidii>E.acuminatum.
    Ecological Adaption of Leaf Costa of Bryophyte from Alpine Periglacial Region
    YUAN Zhen-Yan, WANG Hong, WANG Kai
    2019, 39(6):  817-825.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.003
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    Thirty-five species of bryophyte were gathered from different habitats of Tianshan No.1 Glacier of Xinjiang. They were isolated and analyzed by nitric acid-chromic acid segregation in lab. Based on the observation, It is deduced that the cell length, cell width and cell wall thickness were relatively larger and larger, the number of pit field were higher associated with the habitats from wet to dry. The end tails have various forms, the leaf costa of bryophyte, especially lived in damp soil and in rock, have a few end tails. It assumed that end tails was active in strengthening cell connection and coordinating the exchange of water and nutrients between cells. There is no significant difference on the number of pit fields of bryophyte from four habitats respectively. The result indicates the adaptive strategies of bryophyte how to survive in alpine environment. This study provides a basis for further researches of the conductivity and ecological adaption of bryophytes in alpine environment.
    Geographical Elements of Bryophytes Recorded from Zhoushan Archipelago——Discussion on Methods of Geographical Element Division of Bryophytes
    SHEN Lin, YU Jing, LI Dan-Dan, GUO Shui-Liang
    2019, 39(6):  826-834.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.004
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    Global geographical coordinates of 284 bryophytes, which had been recorded from the Zhoushan archipelago, were obtained based on the data of GBIF(Global Biodiversity Information Facility), Tropicos.org and other published literature. The world were divided into 576 geographical units(GUs), each with a size of 15°E×7.5°N. Their presence/absence data in these GUs were recorded by using ArcGis 10.2. Eleven geographical elements were identified for these bryophytes based on a clustering analysis with the above data and their actual geographical distribution. The eleven elements include cosmopolitan(26, 9.15%), North temperate(36, 12.68%), North temperate-South temperate(30, 10.56%), Palaeotemperate(16, 5.63%), Eastern Asian-Northern American(11, 3.87%), Eastern Asian(84, 29.58%), Pantropical(28, 9.86%), Palaeotropical(6,2.11%), Tropical Asian-Papua New Guinea(11, 3.87%), Eastern Asian-Tropical Asian-Papua New Guinea(6, 2.11%), Eastern-tropical Asian-Australian-Ocean(11, 3.87%) and other unknown(19, 6.69%). Among these eleven elements, eight accord with the concepts proposed by Wu ZY. However, tropical Asian element was special, cover larger regions than spermatophytes of the same element. Therefore, the tropical Asian element of the bryophytes recorded in the Zhoushan archipelago was further divided into three groups.
    Individual Traits and Their Interrelationships of Gametophyte and Sporophyte of a Moss Pogonatum inflexum in the Dalongshan National Forest Park in Anhui Province
    QIU Dong, ZHANG Jing, WU Nan, TAO Ye
    2019, 39(6):  835-845.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.005
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    Plant functional traits are the comprehensive expression of plants responding and adapting to the changing environments. So far, studies on individual functional traits of bryophytes are still rare. In this study, the female plants of Pogonatum inflexum distributed in the Dalongshan National Forest Park in Anhui Province was chosen as the target, the morphological features and biomass of sporophytes and gametophytes were determined in the period that the sporophytes are mature; and then, the variation characteristics, allometric relationship and covariation(integration) pattern of individual plant traits were analyzed systematically. The results indicated that, the variation coefficient of morphological traits of gametophytes was higher than that of sporophytes, and meanwhile the biomass both of gametophyte and sporophyte showed the highest variation. The height(length) of sporophytes was two times greater than that of gametophytes, while the biomass of the former only accounted 23% of the total aboveground biomass(total sporophyte and gametophyte biomass). The functional traits of sporophytes and gametophytes represented correlations to a certain extent; the allometric relationships with scaling exponent <1.0 were detected mostly between morphological traits(Y-axis) and biomass(X-axis), whereas an isometric relationship(the scaling exponent is 1.135±0.158) was found between biomasses of sporophytes and gametophytes. The biomass allocation ratio of sporophytes decreased with the increasing of gametophyte size, indicating significant negative size-dependent reproductive allocation. The principal component analysis indicated that the main functional traits of sporophytes and gametophytes of P.inflexum represented different covariation directions(i.e., two different trait groups), among them, the sporophyte biomass was the key linkage of the two trait groups. In conclusion, the plant traits at individual level of P.inflexum showed a similar covariation relationship with vascular plants.
    Cytogenetic Identification on Interspecific Hybrids in Genus Elymus L. of Qinghai Plateau
    LU Xing-Wang, LIU Bo, LIU Rui-Juan, DOU Quan-Wen
    2019, 39(6):  846-852.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.006
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    Cytogenetic identification was conducted on interspecific hybrids in genus Elymus L. spontaneously occurred in Qinghai plateau by using a technique of Fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) and Genomic hybridization(GISH). Combined with information of the morphology and ecology distribution of the sympatric species, the hybrids were identified as six types:Ⅰ is a hybrid between Elymus nutans Griseb. and a Roegneria C.Koch species with a chromosome number of 35 and genome constitution of StStYYH; Ⅱ is a hybrid between E.nutans and E.dahuricus Turcz. ex Griseb. with a chromosome number of 42 and genome constitution of StStYYHH. Ⅲ is a hybrid between E.sibiricus L. and E.dahuricus with a chromosome number of 35 and genome constitution of StStHHY; Ⅳ is a hybrid between E.nutans and Kengilia hirsuta Keng with a chromosome number of 42 and genome constitution of StStYYHP; Ⅴ is a hybrid between E.nutans and K.grandiglumis Keng with a chromosome number of 42 and genome constitution of StStYYHP; Ⅵ is a hybrid between K.hirsuta and Leymus secalinus(Georgi) Tzvel. with a chromosome number of 35 and genome constitution of StYPNsXm. The results provide the basic evidence for further studying the introgression hybridizations in Elymus species. The identified hybrids are also valuable germplasms for grass forage improvement in this region.
    Correlation and Path Analysis on Growth Traits and Biomass of Pinus yunnanensis Seedlings
    CAI Nian-Hui, WANG Da-Wei, HUANG Wen-Xue, WU Jun-Wen, WANG Jun-Min, CHEN Shi, XU Yu-Lan, DUAN An-An
    2019, 39(6):  853-862.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.007
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    To study the relationship between growth traits and biomass of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. seedlings, 2-year seedling in the greenhouse of Southwest Forestry University were cultivated whose seeds were collected from Lufeng, Yiliang and Kunming, Yunnan Province. The growth traits (seedling height, ground line diameter, major root length, lateral root length, needle length and number of lateral root) and biomass were measured and analyzed. Correlation and path analysis were used in the relationship between them. The growth traits and biomass of P.yunnanensis seedlings were significantly positively correlated with each other. By path analysis, there was the positive direct path coefficient to the biomass of each component for the each growth traits. The most effect on the biomass of each component were the ground line diameter and seedling height. Needle length, lateral root length and major root length had the positive direct path coefficient to the biomass of each component. The direct path coefficient to the biomass of each component were obviously bigger than indirect path coefficient. The lateral root length has the biggest indirect effect on the biomass of each component through other traits. According to the correlation and path analysis, the biomass model were set up by using growth traits, which can be used in estimating the biomass for P.yunnanensis seedlings.
    Effects of Different Planting Densities on Cultivating Quality of Padus maackii Seedlings
    LIU Ting-Yan, HAO Long-Fei, WANG Qing-Cheng, BAI Shu-Lan
    2019, 39(6):  863-868.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.008
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    We studied the growth and nutrient content of the one-year-old Padus maackii seedlings, which provided a theoretical basis for the field cultivation. The morphology, biomass, photosynthetic rate and nutrient content of the seedlings were determined under four planting densities, including 60, 80, 100 and 120 ind.·m-2. (1)The biomass was affected significantly in different planting densities. The order of leaf, stem and root biomass of P.maackii seedlings in different planting densities were 80 > 60 > 100 > 120 ind.·m-2, respectively. The quality index of P.maackii seedlings at the density of 60 and 80 ind·m-2 were significantly higher than that at the density of 100 and 120 ind.·m-2. (2)The number of lateral roots were affected significantly under different density treatments, which was maximum at the density of 80 ind.·m-2. (3)The nutrient content of N, P, K were highest under 80 ind.·m-2 density treatment, and were significantly higher than that in other treatments. (4)The seedling quality indexes were significantly positively correlated with the leaf biomass, root biomass and lateral root number(P<0.1), but were not correlated with the taproot length and photosynthetic rate(P>0.1). Thus the optimal seedling density of one-year-old P.maackii was 80 ind.·m-2, and the leaf biomass, lateral root number and root biomass of P.maackii were affected significantly by planting densities, then affected the seedling quality.
    An Efficient Gene Editing Research System of Arabidopsis
    OUYANG Le-Jun, MA Ming-Sai, CHEN Zi-Luo, HUANG Jia-Ling, BU Liang-Hao, CHEN Zi-Yin, LI Li-Mei
    2019, 39(6):  869-875.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.009
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    The CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system is easy to handle and has a high gene editing efficiency. However, how to quickly screen and obtain gene editing descendants without exogenous transformation elements is a key technical problem. In this study, two pairs of single-guide RNAs were designed to simultaneously recognize two different sites in the one target gene encoding as1 in Arabidopsis. The CRISPR construct also carried a gene for a fluorescent selection marker. By fluorescence screening, a transgene-free progeny was easily obtained in the T2 population. T1 seeds with red fluorescence in their coat were selected to verify that the proportion of as1 knockout mutants traits were obvious. Seeds with no fluorescence were selected among the T1 generation and screened for homozygous mutations. In the T2 generation plants, the Cas9 fragment was not detected by polymerase chain reaction. Thus, a highly efficient DNA-editing construct, with a gene for a fluorescence screening marker, was successfully constructed, and the transgenic element was successfully eliminated from the progeny by selecting or avoiding seeds with the fluorescent marker. This system can be used as a plant genome site-specific editing tool and may be useful for improving plant genetic resources.
    Difference in Morphology and Physiology from Male and Female Plant of Phellodendron amurense Rupr.
    ZHANG Ling, ZHANG Dong-Lai
    2019, 39(6):  876-882.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.010
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    The morphology, antioxidant enzyme activity and endogenous hormone content index were contrasted to study the differences of morphology and physiology of male and female plants of Phellodendron amurense. The results show that there were significant difference inmorphology of male and female plant, leaves width in females was large 1.66±0.148 cm than males(P<0.05), branch angle were 17.5±1.21 biggerthan that male strains(P<0.001). There was difference in leaf color between male and female, but no significant difference in chlorophyll content. The activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD), peroxidase(POD) and catalase(CAT) were significantly different between the male and female plant. POD enzyme activity was the highest in June, the male was higher than the female. The activity of SOD activitywas the highest in August. The content of GA3 was higher in male than that in female. The content of indoleacetic acid(IAA) was higher in female than that in male. The content of zein(ZA) was higher in male than that in female(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in abscisic acid(ABA) between genders. There were some differences in morphological and physiological between male and female of P.amurense indicating that female and male plants made adjust ments in morphological and physiological to adapt to the living environment for maintain their own growth.
    Fungal Community and Their Metal Accumulation Ability of Three Mycorrhizal Plants in Jinghu Wetland,Zhejing
    WANG Ye, LI Hang, TANG Yu, SHAN Meng-Le, ZHANG Fei-Yan, SUN Li-Fu, ZHANG Yan-Hua
    2019, 39(6):  883-889.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.011
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    The plant composition in urban wetland parks is rich, and plays an active role for the urban environment. In Jinghu City Wetland Park(JCWP) in Shaoxing,the contents of metal elements(Al, Cr, Cu, K and Zn) in the soil, which collected from artificial garden and Meishan secondary forests, were compared by ICP-AES. Metal enrichments by different mycorrhizal hosts——Lolium perenne L.(AM), Monochasma sauatieri Franch(AM) and Vaccinium bracteatum Thumb.(ERM) in the secondary forests were examined. Based on the high through-put sequencing, the composition and structure of root fungal communities of three plant species were determined, and the relationship between them and metal elements in soil was analyzed. The results showed that:(1)the contents of five metal elements in the soil from the artificial park were significantly higher than those in the soil under the secondary forest; (2)V.bracteatum had a stronger ability to enrich Al, L.perenne and M.sauatieri both were good at Cr enrichment; (3)The fungi associated with root of these plants were mainly composed of Ascomycota, while Basidiomycota was also prefer to stay with V.bracteatum hair roots. The putative AM fungi were less in fungal community structure together with their hosts, however the putative ERM fungi——Helotiales and Sebacinales were popular in V.bracteatum samples, and there was no significant correlation with these metal elements. The soil environment under the secondary forest in JCWP keeps well.
    Effect of Sample Size on the Precision of Biomass Model of Pinus yunnanensis Seedlings
    LI Ya-Qi, XU Yu-Lan, LI Wei, SUN Ji-Wei, WANG Meng-Ting, CAI Nian-Hui
    2019, 39(6):  890-898.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.012
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    A total of 615 Pinus yunnanensis seedlings from 20 families were selected to study the influence of different sample sizes on biomass model construction and modelling accuracy. Different sampling sizes of 20 families of P.yunnanensis were used to establish the allometric equation of each organ and individual biomass of P.yunnanensis seedlings, after a sampling frame was established. The goodness of fit and accuracy of the optimal models were compared by the coefficient determination(R2), standard error of estimated value(SEE), root mean square error(RMSE), total relative error(RS) and mean absolute error(MAB). The allometric equation displayed a good biomass estimate of P.yunnanensis seedlings. With the increase of the sample size, the model precision evaluation index MAB decreases gradually in the form of power function. When the sample size is less than 200, MAB is more sensitive and the modeling accuracy is poor. If the sample size reaches about 200, the accuracy reaches a stable state.
    Population Genetic Analysis of Nyssa yunnanensis by Reduced-representation Sequencing Technique
    ZHANG Shan-Shan, KANG Hong-Mei, YANG Wen-Zhong
    2019, 39(6):  899-907.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.013
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    Nyssa yunnananesis, a plant species with extremely small populations(PSESP), has become the flagship species in national and provincial conservation programs of PSESP. For effectively preserving the existing genetic resources, the recently developed technology restriction-site associated DNA sequencing(RAD-seq), which is based on next-generation sequencing(NGS), was used to develop a batch of highly specific single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) markers and analyze genetic structure and genetic diversity of existing populations. After detection of genetic variation, a total of 98 498 SNPs were got. Under these conditions, the minimum sequencing depth of samples>2, sample missing rate < 0.5 and MAF > 0.05 screening from all 98 498 SNPs, 6 309 effective SNPs were obtained. Population genetics analysis of N.yunnananesis was analyzed using bioinformatic method with screening SNPs. Results demonstrated that the phylogenetic tree was divided into three clusters, in which the genetic diversity parameters, such as private, the nucleotide diversity(π), observed heterozygosity(Ho), expected heterozygosity(He) and inbreeding coefficient(FIS) were elucidated. Population structure and PCA analysis further proved that N.yunnananesis had far relationships and quite different genetic diversity between the existing plants. Therefore, preserving genetic resources was of very high value. This study will give scientific evidences to protection engineering in particular the in-situ conservation, genetic resource preservation and population reestablishment with genetic management related methods and techniques.
    Rabdosinate Regulates Polar Auxin Carriers PIN1,PIN3 and PIN4 and Inhibits Root Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings
    LI Peng, HUAN Zhao-Wei, DING Lan
    2019, 39(6):  908-916.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.014
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    This paper studied the mechanism of inhibition of primary root growth and lateral root development regulated by rabdosinate using polar auxin carriers reporter lines(PIN1::PIN1:GFP,PIN3::PIN3:GFP,PIN4::PIN4:GFP) and auxin reporters line(DR5::DR5:GFP). The results showed that the length of primary root and the number of lateral root in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were significantly reduced by 60~80 μmol·L-1 rabdosinate. However, the mutants pin1, pin3 and pin4 showed a lower level of sensitivity to rabdosinate in terms of the inhibition of root elongation and lateral root formation compared with the WT seedlings.Rabdosinate(60~80 μmol·L-1)induced a dose-dependent increase in DR5 activity and the abundance of PIN1-GFP fusion proteins in the root tips of A.thaliana, and significantly decreased the abundance of PIN3-GFP and PIN4-GFP at their respective cellular locations. These results suggest that rabdosinate may promote acropetal auxin transport activities by increasing the abundance of PIN1 and block transverse auxin transport activities by decreasing the abundance of PIN3-GFP and PIN4-GFP, resulting in auxin accumulation in the root meristematic cells and the inhibition of root growth and lateral root development.
    Cloning and Functional Analysis of BpZFP4 Promoter from Birch(Betula platyphylla)
    QIN Lin-Lin, ZHANG Xi, JIANG Cheng, LI Li
    2019, 39(6):  917-926.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.015
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    The BpZFP4 plays significant roles in abiotic stress responses. To better understand the regulatory mechanisms of BpZFP4 gene expression, we cloned a 1360 bp long promoter fragment of BpZFP4 using genome walking technique. Computational analysis affirmed the existence of multiple abiotic stress responsive cis-elements as well as phytohormone, light, pathogen and wound responsive motifs. Deletion analysis of the BpZFP4 gene promoter in transgenic tobacco plants revealed the key regions and the possible cis-element regulating the BpZFP4 response to stresses such as drought, salt and ABA stress. This result may provide an important contribution for elucidating the regulation mechanisms of BpZFP4 expression in responding to abiotic stress and signalling molecule.
    Genome-wide Identification and Expression Characteristics of LOX Gene Family in Eucommia ulmoides
    ZHU Li-Li, QING Jun, DU Qing-Xin, HE Feng, DU Hong-Yan
    2019, 39(6):  927-934.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.016
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    LOX(lipoxygenase) is a kind of oxygenase widely distributed in plants and animals, which are involved extensively in plant growth, development and abiotic and biotic stress. A genomed-wide search was carried out to identify LOX genes in Eucommia ulmoides, we also analyzed the LOX genes structure, localization, and chemicophysical properties, classification and function of protein by bioinformatics method. The E.ulmoides genome contained 23 putative LOX genes clustered into two groups, designated 9-LOX and 13-LOX, but only one LOX belonged to 9-LOX, and other 22 LOX belonged to 13-LOX, were targeted to cytoplasm or chloroplast. These LOX genes were located on the 12 scaffolds in non-random ways, mostly grouped together within single scaffold. RNA-Seq showed 6 13-LOX genes were not expressed in bark, fruit, leaf and kernel, while the expression of other 17 LOX genes were different in four organs from different developmental stages. The results of this investigation could definitely provide a significant foundation for further research on function analysis of E.ulmoides LOX gene family.
    Identification and Expression Analysis of Heavy Metal-associated Isoprenylated Plant Proteins(HIPPs) Genes in Populus
    WANG Qi, XU Zhi-Ru, CHEN Jin-Yuan, ZHANG Shuang, HUANG Jia-Huan, LIU Guan-Jun
    2019, 39(6):  935-946.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.017
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    Metal chaperones play key roles in plant physiological activities, and could bind metal ions and transport them to target proteins in order to maintain the metal ions homeostasis of cells. Currently, the properties and function analysis of the metal chaperones HIPP (heavy metal-associated isoprenylated plant protein) is mostly limited to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, 14 PtHIPPs were identified in Populus trichocarpa, all of which had two conserved metal ion binding motif MXCXXC, as well as the conserved isoprenylation motif in the carboxyl terminal. The amino terminal of PtHIPPs was form the βαββαβ secondary structure. Some PtHIPPs had lysine-rich and/or glycine-rich regions. PtHIPPs proteins could be divided into three subgroups according to gene structure, protein conservation motifs and phylogenetic analysis. The tissue-specific expression data of PlantGenIE and the results of fluorescence quantitative PCR identification showed that PtHIPPs genes of P.trichocarpa and PnHIPPs genes of Populus simonii×Populus nigra had tissue-specific expression characterizations and differences. In addition, the expression patterns of PnHIPPs in different tissues of P.simonii×P.nigra seedlings were changed after treated with copper deficiency or copper excess conditions for different times. This study provided theoretical groundwork for identifying the roles of HIPPs proteins in maintaining copper homeostasis in woody model plant Populus.
    SNP Sites Developed by Whole Genome Resequencing Analysis in Eucommia ulmoides ‘Hongye’
    YANG Yun, CHEN Meng-Jiao, DU Qing-Xin, ZHU Jing-Le, DU Hong-Yan, YANG Shao-Bin
    2019, 39(6):  947-954.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.018
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    We studied the SNP locus and candidate genes closely related to the red leaf traits of Eucommia ulmoides ‘Hongye’ for further revealing the genetic basis and molecular mechanism of red leaf traits. We used E.ulmoides ‘Hongye’ and the common green leaf E.ulmoides to perform whole genome sequencing with a depth of about 10x. With resequencing data and by using SnpEff software we predicted the effect of mutation sites on protein coding, selected the differential sites associated with the formation of E.ulmoides ‘Hongye’ leaf color, which were related to anthocyanin metabolic pathways and key enzyme genes. For fine mapping, 14.16 Gb clean data were generated from genome re-sequencing of E.ulmoides ‘Hongye’ and 14.29 Gb of clean data was produced by E.ulmoides ‘Xiaoye’. There are 1 516 SNPs in the E.ulmoides ‘Hongye’ which have serious effects on protein function, and 41 328 moderately affected. There are 1 640 SNPs in the E.ulmoides ‘Xiaoye’ that seriously affect protein function, and 47 192 SNPs that moderately affect function. Of the 26 722 genes, 228 were found to be involved in the synthesis of anthocyanin or flavonoids. After screening, 12 specific SNP loci were identified, all of which belonged to missense mutations in the exon region. Using a generation of sequencing verification, 7 pairs of primers were designed based on the SNP position, and the SNP accuracy rate reached 100%.
    Comprehensive Evaluation for Salinity Tolerance of Flax Resources During Germination
    ZHAO Wei, QI Yan-Ni, ZHANG Jian-Ping, ZHAO Li, WANG Li-Min, XIE Ya-Ping, WANG Bin, ZHANG Yan-Ping
    2019, 39(6):  955-963.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.019
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    It has important practical significance for flax to screen salt tolerant varieties to deal with salt stress in the sustainable development In this study, the seed of 28 flax resources were treated with 100 mmol·L-1 NaCl and the germination rate, total fresh weight, hypocotyl fresh weight, hypocotyl dry weight, hypocotyl length, radicle fresh weight, radicle dry weight, radicle length were measured on the seventh day. Through correlation analysis, factor and principal components analysis, clustering analysis and stepwise regression analysis, the 11 indicators were comprehensively analyzed in order to comprehensively evaluate the salinity tolerance of 28 flax materials during germination, and screen out the key indicators for the salt-tolerance identification of flax materials during germination. The results showed that during the correlation analysis, there were extremely significant or significant and positive relationships among multiple indicators; the factor and principal components analysis turned 11 single indicators into 3 comprehensive indicators. The principal component Ⅰ mainly reflected the growth situation of hypocotyl; The principal component Ⅱ mainly reflected the growth situation of radicle; The principal component Ⅲ mainly reflected the germination situation of seed. The 28 flax materials were divided into 4 categories by clustering analysis:salt tolerant, medium salt tolerant, salt sensitive, and strongly salt sensitive. Among 28 flax materials, Yanza 10 and Lunxuan 1 were strongly salt tolerant; Longya 4、R40 and DYMS were salt tolerant. We built a mathematical evaluation model for predicting the salinity tolerance of flax resources during germination, then screened out 4 key indicators for salt-tolerance identification of flax resources during germination, including total fresh weight, radicle dry weight, germination index and hypocotyl length. The predictive values of 4 key indicators had a significantly correlation with the comprehensive Z values(R2=0.991 8**), which showed that the results were high accuracy, so the 4 key indicators could evaluate the salinity tolerance of flax resources during germination by taking place of 11 indicators.
    Process Optimization of Sunflower Seeds Oil by Enzyme-assisted Pressing
    GUO Zi-Jing, ZHAO Xiu-Hua, ZU Yuan-Gang, WANG Si-Ying, LIU Pei-Yan
    2019, 39(6):  964-969.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.06.020
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    Sunflower seed is a kind of high quality oil resources and the fourth largest oil crop in the world. The sunflower seed oil contains 90% unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and carotene, which can delay aging, regulate metabolism and reduce cholesterol. Sunflower seeds oil is prepared by enzyme-assisted pressing method to enhance oil yield and retain the natural flavor of the oil. The effects of enzyme types, enzyme dose, pH, liquid-solid ratio, temperature and time on oil yield of sunflower seeds were studied by single factor experiment and finally the optimum technological conditions were determined. The test effect of cellulose was best and the results showed that the optimized conditions were cellulose dose of 0.7%, pH of 4.5, liquid-solid ratio of 25%, temperature of 55℃, and time of 2.5 h. Under the optimum condition, the oil yield of sunflower seed is 3.48 times higher than that by traditional cold pressing method with the oil extraction rate of 85%.
    My Personal Opinionon Plant Taxonomy in China
    HUANG Pu-Hua
    2019, 39(6):  970-971. 
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