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    05 March 2019, Volume 39 Issue 2
    Characteristics of Leaf Epidermis of Meconopsis integrifolia under Different Altitudes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    TANG Nan, LI Miao-Miao, TANG Dao-Cheng
    2019, 39(2):  161-168.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.001
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    Characteristics of leaf epidermis of Meconopsis integrifolia were observed under optical microscope, including trichome, stomata and epidermis cell. The relationship between epidermis trichome, stomata, epidermis cell of leaf and altitude was discussed. The trichome density, stomata density and epidermis cell density of both upper and lower leaf epidermis increased gradually as the altitude increased. While the length, width and area of both stomata and epidermis cell decreased. Morphology of epidermis cell changed from irregular to polygonal. The shape of anticlinal wall altered from corrugated to arched or straight. These variation of characteristics probably be a general response of plants which living under plateau environment in a long-term, providing theoretical support for further study on alpine plant adaptation.
    Cuticle Micromorphology of Podocarpus from China and Its Taxonomic Significance
    SUN Tong-Xing, DONG Yun-Qiu, HOU Xue-Liang
    2019, 39(2):  169-180.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.002
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    We studied the cuticle micromorphology of leaves from 8 species and 2 varieties of Podocarpus with scanning electron microscopy. The leaf epidermal structures of Podocarpus revealed remarkable consistency. Epidermal cells are rectangular or irregular in shape, the outlines of epidermal cells are slightly undulating with prominent butresses. The stomata are oriented parallel to the long axis of the leaf. Floring rings and stomatal plugs are usually present. The guard cells have prominent polar extension and stomata usually have two to four subsidiary cells, often with polar subsidiary cells lacking. However, there are more or less discrepancies in the arrangement of stomatal apparatus, the shape of epidermal cells within these species. In P.falcatus and P.gracilior, stomatal apparatus distributes on both surfaces, cuticle flanges on epidermal cells are straight and without buttress. In other taxa, stomatal apparatus is only restricted to abaxial surfaces. On both adaxial and abaxial surfaces, the cuticle flanges on epidermal cells in P.henkelii are thick and with prominent buttresses. In P.wangii, the epidermal cells of adaxial surfaces are fairly regular, most cells are tetragonum and perpendicular to the long axis of leaf vein, the cuticle flanges are more prominent and extending to the hypodermis. In P.costalis, the adaxial epidermal cells are irregular and polygonous. In P.forrestii, the stomatal intervals are less and the adaxial epidermal cells are shorter, the cuticle flanges are less pronounced. In P.annamiensis, the stomatal intervals are relatively wide, the stomata exhibit broad elliptic, the epidermal cells of adaxial surfaces are thin rectangle in outline. In addition, the shape of epidermal cells on both surfaces and buttress characteristics in P.macrophyllus var. maki and P.macrophyllus var. angustifolius are distinctly different from those in P.macrophyllus. The epidermal cells of adaxial surfaces in P.macrophyllus var. maki are irregular and sinuate in outline, the flange between epidermal cells are fairly thick. In P.macrophyllus var. angustifolius, the epidermal cells of adaxial surfaces are square to rectangular, in outline, often shorter than those in P.macrophyllus, and the flange between epidermal cells are thicker than that in P.macrophyllus. Therefore, these differences of cuticle micromorphology may be used to distinguish species or variety in Podocarpus.
    Effects of Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide on Growth and Resistance Physiology of Naked Oat Seedlings under Saline-alkali Mixed Stress
    LIU Jian-Xin, OU Xiao-Bin, WANG Jin-Cheng
    2019, 39(2):  181-191.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.003
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    The experiment was conducted to study whether exogenous hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) could improve the saline-alkali tolerance of naked oat(Avena nuda) seedlings and its physiological mechanism. Seedlings of naked oat(‘Dingyou No.6’) at three-leaf period cultured with perlite in a solar greenhouse were irrigated with the Hoagland nutrient solution containing 75 mmol·L-1 saline-alkali mixed solution(NaCl∶Na2SO4∶NaHCO3∶Na2CO3=12∶8∶9∶1) combination with dimethylthiourea(DMTU, a quencher of H2O2), and the leaves were sprayed with 0.01 mmol·L-1 H2O2. Seedlings were irrigated with Hoagland nutrient solution, and the leaves were sprayed with water served as the control. Seedlings growth, photosynthetic pigment content, active oxygen metabolism, and osmotic regulatory substance accumulation in leaves were measured. The results showed that exogenous H2O2 could alleviate the inhibition effects of saline-alkali mixed stress on seedlings growth of naked oat. Spraying H2O2 significantly increased root length, plant height, dry weight, the leaf chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, and the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase activities of naked oat seedlings under saline-alkali mixed stress, but decreased the contents of superoxide anion, H2O2, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, glutathione, and free amino acids. Treatments with spraying H2O2 also increased the contents of antioxidants(such as flavonoids, total phenols, procyanidins) and osmotic regulatory substance(such as soluble protein, soluble sugars, and proline) in leaves. The above effects of exogenous H2O2 were partially or completely reversed by DMTU. A comprehensive evaluation based on subordinate function analyses revealed that foliar spraying with H2O2 could improve the saline-alkali resistance of naked oat seedlings, and the promoting effect of H2O2 could be completely reversed by DMTU. Therefore, the exogenous H2O2 supply can increase saline-alkali adaptability in naked oat seedlings by regulating active oxygen metabolism and osmotic regulatory substance accumulation in leaves of naked oat plants under saline-alkali mixed stress.
    Nutritional Effect and Rhythm of Spring and Summer Flowering in Magnolia soulangeana‘Changchun’
    JIANG Zheng, SUN Li-Yong, LIU Xu, LIU Chen-Ni, YIN Zeng-Fang
    2019, 39(2):  192-199.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.004
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    In order to systematically master the phenological rhythm of spring and summer flowering, and discuss its relationship with nutrients in Magnolia soulangeana ‘Changchun’, a six-year-old M.soulangeana ‘Changchun’ tree was taken as material, the annual growth and developmental rhythm, phenological characteristic of spring and summer flowering were observed, and the changes of nutrient content in the stem were tested. The results were: (1)The dormant period of M.soulangeana ‘Changchun’ was from December of this year to late February of the next year, and then its flower buds began to burst in the late February. The spring flowering lasted for 20 days in March. The vegetation growth began in April. The flower bud differentiation completed in May, and burst again at the end of May partly, followed by the summer flowering in June. The summer flowering period lasted for nearly 20 days. The developmental lag period of unexpanded flower buds was from July to September. In addition, a small amount of lateral buds at the base of flowers bloomed in summer were differentiated into flower buds. From October to December, as the leaves fallen off, the tree entered the dormant period gradually. (2)The flower buds of M.soulangeana ‘Changchun’ that differentiated after vegetative growth had ability to flowering twice in spring and summer. The spring flowering was characterized by anthesis posterior leaf, and the rate of flowering synchronization was high. The flowering rate of spring flowering was about 100%. Furthermore, the flowers were fertile with normal pistils and stamens. The summer flowering had the characteristic of flowering and leafing at the same time, but flowering synchronism was lower. The flowering rate of summer flowering was about 30%. Expressly, the flowers were sterile with abnormal pistils and stamens. (3)Soluble sugar and soluble protein were shown with a trend of descending among spring flowering, while starch content was decreased at the late flowering stage. And the contents of soluble sugar and starch were shown with a trend of first descending then rising, while the soluble protein content continued to decline during the summer flowering. Therefore, there were some differences in the spring and summer flowering pattern of M.soulangeana ‘Changchun’, which was related to changes of nutrients content. It was suggested that low levels of soluble sugar and high levels of starch and soluble protein were beneficial to the initiation of spring flowering, while low levels of soluble protein and high levels of soluble sugar and starch were contributed to the realization of summer flowering.
    Effects of Clonal Integration on Biomass Allocation and Leaf Structure of Glechoma longituba(Nakai) Kupr in Different Water Availability
    XIANG Yun-Rong, ZHANG Fang, DUAN Jing, HUANG Hui-Min, HE Dan-Ni, LIU Yuan, TAO Jian-Ping
    2019, 39(2):  200-207.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.005
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    Because of discontinuous soil coverage, poor soil fertility and soil water scarcity, the high heterogeneity of karst habitats seriously restricts the growth and distribution of local plants. To clarify the adaptive strategies of clonal plants in karst area, two connected ramets with a single internode of Glechoma longituba were planted in yellow calcareous soil. Then, we cut off the half of the internode and made the ramets disconnected, supplied different amounts of water to clarify the effects of the clonal integration on biomass accumulation, distribution, stomata and tissue characteristics of leaves under different treatments. The results showed that clonal integration significantly promoted the biomass accumulation of G.longituba, and increased biomass allocation to roots and leaves. The stomatal conductance were increased and the stomatal index were decreased by clonal integration of leaves. There was less affected on leaves sponge tissue, but the palisade tissue and the ratio of palisade to spongy tissue showed that the non-clonal integration ramets were higher than the integrated ramets. The clonal integration could increase the investment of roots and leaves of G.longituba, and further promoted clonal plant survival and adaptation in karst habitats with better leaves stomata and tissue structure.
    Relationship between Anatomical Structures and Heat Resistance of Davidia involucrata Natural Populations in Sichuan Province
    ZHANG Teng-Ju, CHEN Xiao-Hong, LIU Jing, KANG Xi-Kun
    2019, 39(2):  208-221.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.006
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    In order to understand the heat resistance mechanism and the level of heat resistance of Dove tree(Davidia involucrata) populations in Sichuan Province, 16 anatomical structures of 15 representative natural populations in Sichuan Province were investigated by paraffin section and NaClO. Moreover, coefficient of variation, correlation analysis, and cluster analysis were used to screen representative structures. The 16 anatomical structure indexes all reached a significant level difference among 15 natural populations(P<0.01), thickness ratio of palisade and spongy tissue, thickness of palisade tissue, stoma density, cuticle thickness of lower epidermis, protuberant degree of main vein, cuticle thickness of upper epidermis, cuticle thickness of upper epidermis and thickness of lower epidermis were the main factors related to the heat resistance, while other indexes, such as leaf thickness, sponge tissue thickness, thickness of main vein, thickness of epidemic cell, thickness of vascular bundle in main vein stoma length, stoma width, tightness of leaf structure and looseness of leaf structures did not show much effect on heat resistance. There were some differences among 15 populations in heat resistance, and the descending order was Hanyuan, Junlian, Leibo, Muchuan, Pingshan, Yingjing, Tianquan, Meigu, Pingwu, Bifengxia, Beichuan, Hongya, Baoxing, Dayi, Qionglai. According to the heat hardiness, these populations could be divided into four groups, Hanyuan; Jun Lian, Leibo and Muchuan; Pingshan, Yingjing, Tianquan, Meigu, Pingwu, Bifengxia, Beichuan LR; and Hongya, Baoxing, Dayi, Qionglai.
    Physiological Response of Suspension Cells of Helianthus tuberosus to NaCl Stress
    CAO Ming-Wu, LUO Rui, AN Hui, PANG Qiu-Ying
    2019, 39(2):  222-228.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.007
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    To investigate the physiological response of Helianthus tuberosus suspension cells to salt stress, biomass, viability, activity of antioxidant enzyme, the contents of hydrogen peroxide, malonaldehyde, proline, soluble sugar, soluble protein, total phenols were measured, and 14 phenolic compounds of suspension cells were analyzed under the treatments of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl. The salt stress markedly weakened the H.tuberosus suspension cell viability, and the growth of suspension cells was obviously inhibited. Under the condition of 200 mmol·L-1NaCl treatment, suspension cells almost stopped growing. Salt stress induced the oxidative stress, the content of malonaldehyde significantly increased, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, the content of total phenols and part phenolic compounds increased with the increasing concentration of NaCl. Both phenolic compounds and antioxidant enzyme system participated in antioxidative process. Proline played an important role in the osmoregulation of H.tuberosus suspension cells responding to NaCl osmotic stress, meanwhile, the soluble sugar had little effect.
    Species Diversity of Bryophytes in Miyagi Relics of Shangjing Longquanfu,Parhai State,China
    CONG Ming-Yang, TANG Lu-Yan, LI Jin-Jiang, ZHANG Mei-Ping, CHEN Bao-Zheng, XU Yue-Yue
    2019, 39(2):  229-238.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.008
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    Relics of Shangjing Longquanfu of Parhai State is the largest site in northeast region in medieval times, which demonstrate the style and features of Tang Dynasty. However, researches about bryophyte diversity in special relics habitats remain rare. The miyagi relics is the core of protection, and it has irreplaceable scientific value. In order to fully understand the diversity of bryophytes, a total of 216 specimens were collected from 45 quadrats at 9 sampling sites. Species composition, habitat types, similarity coefficient, α diversity indexes and water ecological types of bryophytes were analyzed by adopting Excel 2010 and R 3.5.1. Main results were as follows: (1)the 35 species were recorded in total, including 1 in Hepaticae and 34(17 genera, 7 families) in Musi. Dominant families were Brachytheciaceae, Pottiaceae, Bryaceae and Entodontaceae. Dominant species were Entodon dolichocucullatus S.Okam., Brachythecium coreanum Card. and Didymodon fallax Hedw. etc. (2)Habitat types were wall(40.00%) and rock(28.89%), with soil(17.78%) and tree(13.33%) habitats took second place. Similarity coefficient was the highest between wall and rock(38.71%), while the value was zero between tree and other 3 habitats. (3)Values of Patrick, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indexes were wall>rock>soil>tree. (4)Water ecological types were only xerophyte, mesophyte and phreatophyte, in which mesophyte(51.43%) was dominate. Above research findings have important significance and will provide basic data and scientific basis for effective protection of the miyagi site.
    Variation Analysis of Growth Traits in Different Growth Year of Half-sib Fraxinus mandshurica Families
    LUAN Ke-Quan, ZHANG Heng, TIAN Yong-Gang, YANG Shu-Cheng, WANG Hong-Wu, WANG Lian-Kui, LI Yan-Long, LU Zhi-Min, ZHAO Xi-Yang
    2019, 39(2):  239-245.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.009
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    In order to select high-quality germplasm resources of Fraxinus mandshurica, with 75 half-sib families of 16-years F.mandshurica at Sanchazi Forestry Bureau, tree height, basal diameter(diameter at breast height) and volume were investigated in the 4th, 11th and 16th growth years. By ANOVA analysis, there was significant differences among different variation source(P<0.01). The variation coefficients of phenotypic and heritabilities of different traits ranged in 22.20%-63.30% and 0.796-0.981, respectively. There was significant positive correlation among different traits. Based on 10% selected rate, according to volume to evaluate the families, eight families were selected as elite families. The average volumes of elite family were higher than average values of all the families by 0.003 m3, whose genetic gain were 36.03%. The elite families can supply basis materials for the improved variety register and the rebuilt seed orchard of F.mandshurica.
    Effects of EMS on Seed Germination of Anemarrhena asphodeloides in the Simulated Environment
    YANG Nan, NIE Jiang-Li, XIN Wei, XIA Xu, LANG Yu-Jie, PEI Yi
    2019, 39(2):  246-251.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.010
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    The seeds of Anemarrhena asphodeloides were treated with different contents and treatment times of EMS at 1%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 6, 8, 12, 24 h, respectively, in the constant temperature incubator in this experiment.We studied the effects of the different concentrations and treatment time of EMS on the seed germination characteristics of A.asphodeloides. The results of seed germination showed that the seed germination of A.asphodeloides reduced with theincreasings of the contents and the treatment time of EMS. With the relative germination rate reaching the semi-lethal concentration as the standard, the suitable condition for EMS treatment of A.asphodeloides seeds are the concentration of 6% and soaking seeds for 12 and 24 hours.
    Physiological Analysis of Three Anti-Browning Agents Affecting Somatic Embryogenesis in Fraxinus mandshurica
    PENG Chun-Xue, CUI Xue-Mei, LIU Chun-Ping, YANG Ling, WANG Qiu-Shui, SHEN Hai-Long
    2019, 39(2):  252-258.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.011
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    The somatic embryogenesis of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. is often accompanied by browning, and most somatic embryos grow on browning explants.We analyzed the relationship between explant browning and somatic embryogenesis, by adding PVP(polyvinylpyrrolidone), L-Glu(L-glutamic acid) and AgNO3(silver nitrate) to the culture medium, and studied its effects on browning, somatic embryogenesis and physiological and biochemical characteristics of explants.The results showed that: (1)Low concentration(0.1 and 0.5 g·L-1) PVP, and 100 mg·L-1 L-Glu treatment exacerbated browning of explants, but significantly promoted somatic embryogenesis, somatic embryogenesis rate exceeded 60%(increased by 6.59%, 24.08% and 22.88% compared to the control,respectively). (2)The 200 mg·L-1 L-Glu treatment effectively reduced the browning of explants, the browning rate was 68.11%(down 5.83% compared with the control), but the somatic embryogenesis rate was reduced to 46.32%(down 22.8%compared with the control). (3)The activities of polyphenol oxidase(PPO) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) in explants were lower than those of control after treatment with three anti-browning agents, peroxidase(POD) activity and malondialdehyde(MDA) content were higher than the control.Therefore, it is believed that a low concentration of anti-browning agent can promote somatic embryogenesis, and in this process, an increase in POD activity and an increase in MDA content are involved. We analyzed the biological mechanism of somatic embryogenesis with explants browning and got the frequency of somatic embryogenesis of F.mandshurica.
    Phenotypic Genetic Diversity of Pinus elliottii×P.caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis Clones
    GUO Wen-Li, LI Yi-Liang, ZHAO Fen-Cheng, TIE Jun, LIAO Fang-Yan, ZHONG Sui-Ying, LIN Chang-Ming, YE Wei-Fang
    2019, 39(2):  259-266.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.012
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    Thirty-five Pinus elliottii×P.caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis clones were used as experimental materials, and correlation analysis, cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed on eight phenotypic traits to explore genetic diversity level. The level of genetic diversity was discussed to provide scientific basis for the utilization of P.elliottii×P.caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis clones and breeding of improved varieties. The results showed that: (1)The coefficient of variation of growth traits ranged from 12.31%-29.28%, the mean value was 22.90%, and the diversity index ranged from 1.61-1.80 with an average of 1.69. The coefficient of variation of shape traits was between 13.34% and 47.25%, the mean value was 26.86, and the diversity index was between 1.50 and 1.94, with a mean value of 1.77. The P.elliottii×P.caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis clones was rich in genetic variation and high in genetic diversity. (2)Among the eight pairs of phenotypic traits, eleven pairs of trait correlations were extremely positively significant, and five pairs of them were positively significant. The selected volume was the main index for breeding selection of the material, followed by tree height. (3)When the Euclidean distance was 12, thirty-five clones were divided into six groups, and some of them come from the same source or the same male parent. (4)Three principal components were extracted from the principal component analysis of eight phenotypic traits, and the cumulative contribution rate reached 86.00%, which mainly represented six traits, so as to express the comprehensive variation of all the tested materials.
    Differential Expression of PodaPIN9 Gene in Tissues of Populus davidiana×P.alba var. pyramidlis Induced by Trichoderma
    LI Shu-Hang, MIAO Rui, CHANG Yuan, LI Jun-Nan, YAN Xiao-Jie, LIU Zhao-Ying, ZHANG Rong-Shu
    2019, 39(2):  267-275.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.013
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    The PIN proteins contain multiple transmembrane domains, and are involved in the efflux of auxin, affecting many growth and development-related processes in higher plants. Trichoderma is a biocontrol agent that promotes the growth and improves the defense mechanisms of plants against various diseases. Therefore, it is important to study the effects of Trichoderma on the distribution of auxin in the woody species Populus davidiana×P.alba var. pyramidlis(Shanxin poplar). In this study, the gene PodaPIN9 was cloned from Shanxin poplar, and its nucleotide and protein sequences were analyzed. The constructed phylogenetic tree showed that PodaPIN9 has a high identity with 9 PIN genes from 6 species(>80%). By the qRT-PCR analysis, PodaPIN9 was expressed in the stem tips, mature leaves, and roots of the plant. The expression of PodaPIN9 was significantly low in the roots, but was significantly high in the stem tips and leaves(503 and 346 times higher than that in the roots, respectively). Following inoculation with Trichoderma, the expression of PodaPIN9 was significantly downregulated in the stem tips and leaves, whereas its expression was significantly upregulated in the roots. The expression of PodaPIN9 in the roots was 32.01 times higher than the control group. Additionally, we found that the levels of auxin in the stem tips, leaves, and roots of the plant were decreased at 48 h after inoculating the Trichoderma. It demonstrated that Trichoderma can affect auxin levels and the expression of PodaPIN9 in the stem tips, leaves, and roots of poplar. Furthermore, by Pearson correlation analysis, the correlation between the expression of PodaPIN9 and auxin levels differed in the stem tips, leaves, and roots.
    Transcriptome Analysis for Rare and Endangered Plants of Semiliquidambar cathayensis
    YE Xing-Zhuang, LIU Dan, LUO Jia-Jia, FAN Hui-Hua, ZHANG Guo-Fang, LIU Bao, CHEN Shi-Pin
    2019, 39(2):  276-286.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.014
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    In order to strengthen the conservation and utilization of China's endangered plant, Semiliquidambar cathayensis, a high-throughput sequencing platform, Illumina HiSeq 2500, was used to sequence the transcriptome of the plants. The obtained data was filtered and assembled by de novo. Then, 77 629 unigenes were obtained through classification and redundancy removal. By comparison analysis, annotation of the 9 functional databases, 45 293 unigenes get annotation information, which was divided into 25 sub-categories by function in KOG with 25 253 functional annotation information obtained. The functional annotation of GO could be divided into such three parts as cell components, biological processes, and molecular functions, which is composed of 2 226, and 17 subclasses respectively (65 subclasses in total). With the comparison of KEGG database, 286 metabolic pathways are found, among which there are 177 pathways to biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, which may be related to the medicinal active components of S.cathayensis. Based on the assembling result, 1 547 unigenes encoding the transcription factors are predicted in 88 gene families. Thus, a family of transcription factors controlling pharmacokinetic synthesis are discovered. Based on the annotation results of S.cathayensis, 12 579 SNP polymorphic sites are detected and 57 671 CDS sites are predicted. This study is the first time to analyze the transcriptional sequences of S.cathayensis, providing a basic data for the in-depth study on molecular biology in S.cathayensis.
    Genetic Transformation and Resistance Analysis of BpBEE2 Gene from Betula platyphylla
    YAN Bin, WU Dan-Yang, LI Hui-Yu
    2019, 39(2):  287-293.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.015
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    Brassinolide Enhanced Expression2(BEE2) genes belong to bHLH transcription factors family,and were involved in Brassinolide signal pathway.In this study, BpBEE2 gene was cloned using RT-PCR, and plant over-expression and inhibiting expression vector were constructed. Genetic transformation was operated through agrobacterium mediated, then mass growths of transgenic lines and non-transgenic line were analyzed under natural conditions and salt, drought stress. The length of 1 080 bp cDNA sequence was obtained, over-expression and inhibiting expression vectors were constructed successfully, and transgenic lines were obtained. Seedlings height of over-expression transgenetic line was higher than that of the control line, however, that of inhibiting expression lines was lower than that of the control line. BEE2 gene can ffect fresh weight of plants after salt and drought stress, and BpBEE2 is involved in the process of plant growth and development and plays a key role in drought and salt resistance response.
    Characteristic Analysis of Microsatellites in the Transcriptome of Phyllanthus emblica,an Important Edible and Medicinal Plant
    LIU Xiong-Fang, LI Tai-Qiang, ZHANG Xu, LI Zheng-Hong, WAN You-Ming, AN Jing, LIU Xiu-Xian, MA Hong
    2019, 39(2):  294-302.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.016
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    In order to comprehensively understand the characteristics of distribution and variation of the SSR loci in the transcriptome of Phyllanthus emblica L., transcriptome sequencing was conducted on young leaves of P.emblica by using Illumina Hiseq 4000. The SSR loci were studied using MISA software from the obtained unigenes. A total of 9 991 SSRs distributed on 9 538 unigenes were detected, with an average density of one SSR per 5.49 kB. Mononucleotide and dinucleotide repeats were the main SSR types, accounting for 42.3% and 30.79% of all SSRs, respectively. There were 1 731 SSR loci distributed across the protein-coding regions, with an overall density of 0.039 SSRs/kB. The dominant repeat type was trinucleotide repeat type. Among all the 169 repeat motifs, A/T(42.10%) was the richest motif, followed in order by AG/CT(22.91%) and AAG/CTT(5.02%). The number of repeats ranged from 4 to 75, most of them were concentrated on four to 20. The SSRs with repeat fragment length ≥20 bp accounted for 21.20%. There was significant negative correlation(P<0.01) between the frequency of SSRs and the repeat fragment length, with correlation coefficient of -0.561. The SSR loci in the transcriptome of P.emblica showed high frequency and density of distribution, rich low-level repeat motifs, large repeat number and long fragments, most of which exhibited high potential of polymorphisms in our study. These SSR loci would lay an important foundation for further developing a large number of EST-SSRs and studying on population genetics of P.emblica, and they would also provide a reference for conservation and rational exploitation of genetic resources of the species.
    Effects of Different Growth Stages on Secondary Metabolites of Acanthopanax senticosus
    XU Ming-Yuan, WANG Qian-Bo, GUO Sheng-Lei, WANG Ying-Wei, LI Feng-Xia, LIU Jia, TANG Zhong-Hua, WANG Zhen-Yue
    2019, 39(2):  303-309.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.017
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    The common influence of different cultivation years on the accumulation of various active components in the root and stem of Acanthopanax senticosus was evaluated. It was important for raising the cultivation and high value utilization of A.senticosus. It provide a theoretical basis for standardized planting and rational exploitation and utilization of A.senticosus. The A.senticosus of different growth stage was collected from the same origin, and the Ultra-Performance LC(Waters, Japan) was used to analyze different growth stages of six secondary metabolites in the A.senticosus roots and stems. The total score of six main active components in root and stem of A.senticosus was the highest in five years. Among them, quercetin has the highest content in three-year rooting and the highest content in five-year stem; rutin has the highest content in five year roots and stems, the lowest in three-years in root and lowest in nine-year stem; Hyperoside is the highest in five-year root and three-year stem. The content of isofraxidin in three year root and stem is the highest, and the content of root and stem is the lowest in five years. The content of syringin is the highest in nine-year root and in five-year stem. The highest content of eleutheroside e in the five-year rooting is the highest in the three-year stem. Different medicinal ingredients accumulated differently in roots and stems of A.senticosus in different cultivation years and targeted cultivation could select suitable harvest years according to the active components.
    Correction of Typographical Errors in the Protologue of Eleven Taxa(Dicotyledon) in China
    LIN Yun, BI Hai-Yan, LI Chao, YUN Ying-Xia
    2019, 39(2):  310-320.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.02.018
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    We correct the typographical errors in the protologues of eleven taxa(Dicotyledon) in China. The type of Castanopsis yanshanensis Hu(Fagaceae), incorrectly cited as C.W.Wang 84116 in the protologue, is actually C.W.Wang 84416; the former collection belongs to Inuna helianthus-aquatica C.Y.Wu ex Ling(Asteraceae). The type of Pasania longinux Hu(Fagaceae), incorrectly cited as K.M.Feng 13012 in the protologue, is actually K.M.Feng 13102; the former collection belongs to Ilex triflora Bl.(Aquifoliaceae). The holotype of Laportea fujianensis C.J.Chen(Urticaceae), incorrectly cited as C.J.Chen & Z.Y.Li 109 in the protologue, is actually C.J.Chen & Z.Y.Li 103; the former collection belongs to a species of Oreocnide frutescens(Thunb.) Miq.(Urticaceae). The holotype of Oreocnide integrifolia(Gaudich.) Miq. subsp.subglabra C.J.Chen(Urticaceae), incorrectly cited as N.K.Chun 44099 in the protologue, is actually N.K.Chun 44033; the former collection belongs to Lyonia ovalifolia(Wallich) Drude var. rubrovenia(Merr.) Judd.(Ericaceae). The holotype of Clematis austrogansuensis W.T.Wang & L.Q.Li(Ranunculaceae), incorrectly cited as Baishuijiang Exped. 4490 in the protologue, is actually Baishuijiang Exped. 4990; the former collection belongs to Euonymus alatus(Thunb.) Sieb.(Celastraceae). The type of Delphinium pachycentrum Hemsl. var. humilius W.T.Wang(Ranunculaceae) was wrongly cited as Sichuan Veg. Exped. 3137in the protologue, but actually is Sichuan Veg. Exped. 3173; the former collection belongs to Gentiana conduplicata T.N.Ho(Gentianaceae).The holotype of Astragalus chengkangensis Podlech & L.R.Xu(Fabaceae), incorrectly cited as T.T.Yu 17255 in the protologue, is actually T.T.Yu 17225; the former collection belongs to Scirpus lushanensis Ohwi(Cyperaceae). The type of Oxytropis latialata P.C.Li(Fabaceae), incorrectly cited as Qinghai-Xizang Comp. Exped. 9484 in the protologue, is actually Qinghai-Xizang Comp. Exped. 9485; the former collection belongs to Arenaria kansuensis Maxim.(Caryophyllaceae). The type of Oxytropis reniformis P.C.Li(Fabaceae), incorrectly cited as Qinghai-Xizang Comp. Exped.3650 in the protologue, is actually Qinghai-Xizang Comp. Exped.3605; the former collection belongs to a species of Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Mey.(Ephedraceae). The type of Acer longipes Franch. ex Rehd. var. hunanense W.P.Fang & W.K.Hu(Aceraceae), incorrectly cited as Z.T.Lee 2944 in the protologue, is actually Z.T.Lee 2994; the former collection belongs to Pieris formosa D.Don(Ericaceae). The type of Berchemia omeiensis W.P.Fang ex Y.L.Chen & P.K.Chou(Rhamnaceae), incorrectly cited as G.H.Yang 54729 in the protologue, is actually G.H.Yang 54723; the former collection belongs to Helwingia chinensis Batalin.(Cornaceae).