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    15 January 2019, Volume 39 Issue 1
    Comparative Structural Observation of Stems of 15 Species in Pottiaceae from the Glacier Retreat
    AIFEIRE Abuduaini, CHEN Qiu-Yan, WANG Hong, GENG Ruo-Nan, WU Yu-Huan
    2019, 39(1):  1-9.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.001
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    We used paraffin sections and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) to observe the structure and surface micromorphological characteristics of the stems of 15 species of Pottiaceae that grown from the retreat of Glacier No.1. The stem of Pottiaceae was divided into two types with central axis and no central axes. The cell walls were thickened to different degrees. The stems of central axis were divided into three parts of epidermal, cortex and central axis. Stem epidermis cells are short with one layer, most of the cell wall protrudes outward, the surface is rough, and the surface decoration is mostly granular. The cortex is the largest area, most of which have differentiation of the inner and outer skin. The cell walls of most species gradually become thinner from the outside to the inside, and the cells are orderly arranged from small to large. The area of the central axis is also different, the cell wall corner is thickened. For no central axes, the cell walls were thickened to the same extent.
    Photosynthetic Characteristics and Leaf Anatomical Structure of Eight Tree Species
    GANG Hui-Xin, WANG Jia-Qi, HUANG Chun-Yan, WANG Xiu-Wei
    2019, 39(1):  10-16.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.002
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    Urban greening not only includes the beautification of landscaping, but also has important ecological functions, and its ecological function is realized through the physiological activities of plants. Photosynthetic capacity often varies appreciably among species and genotypes. Such variations are usually related to basic differences in metabolism and/or leaf anatomy. The experiment was conducted to study the influence of leaf anatomical structure on photosynthetic characteristics in eight tree species in Harbin. Photosynthetic rate(Pn), respiratory rate(Rd), transpiration rate(Tr), stomatal conductance(Gs) and intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci) were measured by a portable photosynthesis system(Model Li-Cor 6400). The leaf anatomical structure, including leaf thickness, epidermal thickness, palisade tissue thickness and sponge tissue thickness were measured by micrometer microscope. The maximum photosynthetic rate, Gs, Ci, Tr and light saturation point(LSP) were significantly different(P<0.05) in the eight species. The difference of epidermal thickness, palisade tissue thickness, upper epidermal stomatal density and lower epidermal stomatal density was significant in the eight trees(P<0.05). Although there was significant difference in photosynthetic characteristics and leaf anatomical structure among the eight species, we found that there was a correlation between them. There was a significant positive correlation between light saturation point and leaf epidermal thickness in the eight species(P<0.01), and the correlation coefficient was 0.78. The intercellular CO2 concentration was significantly negatively correlated with the upper epidermal stomata density(P<0.05), and the correlation coefficient was -0.65. The maximum photosynthetic rate, Rd, Tr and LSP were not significantly correlated with epidermal thickness, palisade tissue thickness, sponge tissue thickness, upper epidermal stomatal density and epidermis stomatal density(P>0.05). There was no significant correlation between intercellular CO2 concentration and epidermal thickness, palisade tissue thickness, sponge tissue thickness and epidermis stomatal density(P>0.05). There was no significant correlation between light saturation point and palisade tissue thickness, sponge tissue thickness, upper epidermal stomatal density and epidermis stomatal density(P>0.05). Although there is still a great deal to learn how the leaf anatomical structure effect on physiological process, the measurements of leaf anatomical structure have great potential to provide a better understanding of physiological process.
    Pollen Morphology of 15 Cultivars of Freesia hybrida
    SUN Yi, DING Su-Qin, SHI Yi-Min, TANG Dong-Qin
    2019, 39(1):  17-26.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.003
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    Pollen morphology of 15 cultivars of Freesia hybrida was measured using scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and then the similarity and differences among cultivars were evaluated by the shape, size, exine ornamentation and aperture of pollen. The pollens of the 15 cultivars of F.hybrida are all single and zygomorphic with far polar single germinal furrow. All pollen grains are elliptical in shape and boat-like or heart-like in polar view while long spheroidal shape in equatorial view of all investigated cultivars except Castor. The exine of Freesia was interspersed with spininess, and the pollen surface of most cultivars has circular holes and circular markings. Furthermore, the 15 cultivars of Freesia were classed into three groups based on these pollen characteristics by cluster analysis. Taken all together, pollen morphology of Freesia plants was studied in the present study at the first time, and we also found the moderate differences of pollen morphology possessed among cultivars, especially in the characters of exine ornamentation and aperture of pollen, which demonstrated the genetic diversity and divergence in Freesia. Our findings will be valuable to analyze the phylogenetic relationship among the Freesia accessions in future.
    Cytological Features of Gametophyte Development and Zygotic Formation in Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don(Compositae)
    XIE Xin, QIAN Qiu-Bo-Yan, WANG Lei, WANG Qian-Xing, PING Jun-Jiao, HE Li-Fang, QIAN Gang
    2019, 39(1):  27-34.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.004
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    Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don(Compositae) is a crucial plant source of Chinese traditional medicine with antibacterial properties. To obtain basic knowledge for an insight into its cytology mechanism and further practical breeding application in this species, we focus on characterizing progress on gametophyte developments and zygote formation in this paper. Based on a chronological description of the male gametic development, two dimorphic sperm cells release from their separate position in the male germ unit. Moreover, mature embryo sac exhibits an ovoid to pyriform shape locating at wider micropylar extreme, by following the monosporic pattern on development of embryo sac in the current species. It is therefore reasonable to deduce that the origin of apico-basal polarity of zygotic embryo may be related to an unevenly spaced distribution of cytoplasm in zygotic embryo which results from fertilization between the dimorphic sperm cells and the polar ovule. As the distinguishable characteristics, these morphological features will be usefulness for the taxonomy studies in other Compositae species, including dimorphic sperm cells, polar embryo sac and zygotic polarity.
    Component Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Released by Branch and Leaf of Quercus variabilis and Response to Mechanical Injury in Beijing Pinggu
    ZHANG Yu-Ting, WANG Xiao-Fei, NI Yan-Yan, LIU Jian-Feng, JIANG Ze-Ping
    2019, 39(1):  35-44.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.005
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    The experiment was conducted to study the component of VOCs released by branch and leaf of Quercus variabilis and response to mechanical injury in Beijing Pinggu. The plant volatile organic compounds(BVOCs) from branches and leaves of Q.variabilis were collected and analyzed with GC-MS. Eight kinds of volatile components, such as esters, alkanes, terpenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones, alcohols, alkenes, as well as other N-containing, S-containing and Cl-containing compound were detected. Esters and alkanes were the main components of Q.variabilis, and account for 30.32%-41.60% and 30.02%-33.14% of the total plant volatile organic compounds content. The comparison of undamaged and mechanically-damaged leaves of Q.variabilis indicated that they had similar VOCs, while the components and contents of volatile substances changed. Dibutyl phthalate, 1-Hexanol, 2-ethyl-, Tetradecane, 2,6,10-trimethyl-, Cyclohexane, 2-ethenyl-1, 1-dimethyl-3-methylene-, Tetradecane, Nonadecane, 9-Octadecenamide,(Z)-, Nonanal, Decanal, etc. were the main components. Mechanical damage brings different degree effects on components and relative content of volatile organic compounds of Q.variabilis branches and leaves. Naphthalene, d-Limonene, 1,3,6-Octatriene, 3,7-dimethyl-,(Z)-,4-Hexen-1-ol, acetate, Dibutyl phthalate, Acetic acid, hexyl ester, Benzoic acid, butyl ester, Cyclohexane, 2-ethenyl-1,1-dimethyl-3-methylene-could be induced and their content increased obviously after mechanical damage. Esters and alkanes were the main VOCs components of Q.variabilis. The contents of naphthalene, d-Limonene, 4-Hexen-1-ol, acetate, Dibutyl phthalate were increased obviously after mechanical damage and these substances had certain ecological function and effect on the anti-herbivory. This may be a chemical defense strategy of Q.variabilis in response to herbivory or against external stress. In addition, many components also changed at different degree or small amplitude after mechanical damage. It's to be further studied on their change mechanism and ecological function.
    Vertical Distribution of Hypopterygiaceae and Their Relationship with Environmental Factors in Karst Tiankeng
    WU Jin, LI Cheng-Yi, LI Xiao-Fang, ZHANG Zhao-Hui
    2019, 39(1):  45-53.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.006
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    The karst Tiankeng is an unique negative landform with a huge and enclosed space, which forms a special habitat suitable for bryophyte growth and development. In order to study the relationship between environmental factors and distribution of Hypopterygiaceae, and their vertical distribution characteristics in Monkey-Ear Tiankeng(diameter of 300 m, and depth of 280 m) in Guizhou Province, 12 sampling sites in the Tiankeng were investigated in our fieldwork, and laboratory analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis(CCA) were used, and compared with the bryoflora of other sampling sites like karst rocky desertificated zone and Tiankeng marginal zone. The results showed that:(1)There were three genera and nine species of Hypopterygiaceae in the Tiankeng, accounting for 47.37% of the total species of this family in China, and accounting for 69.23% of the total species of this family in Guizhou, of which the Hypopterygiumflavo-limbatum C.Muell was more common species in six spots with a frequency of occurrence 50%; (2)Air humidity, light, canopy density, and human disturbance were the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of Hypopterygiaceae in the Monkey-Ear Tiankeng. The descending order in the influence of environmental factors was soil water content, soil pH, gradient, and air temperature; (3)The descending order in species richness of Hypopterygiaceae was karst Tiankeng,Tiankeng marginal zone,and desertification area; (4)In the vertical distribution pattern, the Hypopterygiaceae showed that the bottom of the Tiankengwas the center of biodiversity, and the distribution from the crater to the bottom was gradually increasing. It is a natural refuge for karst rocky desertification.
    Effects of Different Nitrogen Level on Growths of Moringa oleifera Seedling under Northern Facilities of China
    XU Hai-Jun, CHENG Xin-Yu, WANG Xiao-Fei, GUAN Xiang-Jun
    2019, 39(1):  54-60.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.007
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    In order to clarify the rule of Moringa oleifera for nitrogen demand on fast-growing period, the experiment was carried out under five nitrogen level gradients applied on Moringa seedling, and to study the difference of characteristics on the growth of height, ground diameter, the contents of N, P, K in leaf, the contents of blade pigment and photosynthetic characteristics. The result showed that the height, ground diameter, N, P, chla, total pigment, carotenoid in leaf and photo-quantum efficiency rose first and descended later accompanied with nitrogen level increasing, while the light compensation point showed the contrary. Plant height growth was significantly correlated with leaf P and chla, and ground diameter was significantly correlated with dark respiration rate and leaf K content. When the nitrogen level was in 30 g·ind.-1(N3), M.oleifera seedling growth was the fastest, the plant nutrient status was better, and the utilization rate of light was the best.
    Relationship between Soil Moisture Dynamics and Vegetation Community in the Loess Area of Western Shanxi Province
    QIANG Fang-Fang, WEI Tian-Xing, LIU Wei
    2019, 39(1):  61-68.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.008
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    Water availability is the most limiting factor for plants in forest ecosystems of semi-arid regions. To determine the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil moisture under different vegetation community in loess hilly region, by the field test, three typical vegetation communities(Pinus tabuliformis forest, Robinia pseudoacacia forest, and natural secondary forest) were investigated. By analyzing the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of soil water and the relationship between soil moisture and precipitation, temperature and soil nutrient, the results showed that:(1)In the past ten years, the rainfall distribution in the study area was extremely uneven, and characterized by insufficient pre-rainfall period and concentrated in the later stage. The natural secondary forest soil had the largest soil moisture, and R.pseudoacacia forest was the smallest, and there were significant differences between them, both of them were not significant difference with P.tabuliformis forest; (2)There were differences in the distribution of roots in the 0-60 cm soil layer of the three vegetation communities in the study area. Among them, the distribution of roots in different soil layers of the same planting community was significantly different. In different vegetation communities, the root distribution of natural secondary forests was significantly different with P.tabuliformis and R.pseudoacacia forests in the 20-60 cm soil layer; (3)The soil moisture of the vegetation community in the study area had obvious stratification, the soil moisture in the topsoil(0-40 cm) varies greatly, while the 40-100 cm soil layer had less fluctuation and basically maintained at 10%-15%. The soil moisture change in topsoil(0-40 cm) was related to the distribution of vegetation roots, and significantly negatively correlated with soil moisture; (4)Through analyzing the relationship of soil moisture and rainfall, temperature, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium in topsoil, soil moisture is significantly positively correlated with rainfall, and the correlation coefficient of P.tabuliformis forest is the highest. Temperature is only positively correlated with the soil moisture of the secondary forest. Soil moisture is positively correlated with organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium, and the correlation with total phosphorus is the highest.
    Genetic Diversity of Ampelocalamus luodianensis in Different Microhabitats
    LIU Ji-Ming, GUAN Rui-Ting, WANG Min, CHEN Jing-Zhong, TONG Bing-Li, WU Meng-Yao
    2019, 39(1):  69-77.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.009
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    By random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) markers analysis, 5 kinds of karst microhabitats of Ampelocalamus luodianensis was conducted to study genetic diversity and genetic structure. Through 8 RAPD primers, 87 discernible DNA fragments in all weighted from 200-3 000 bp were cloned, and 68 in those were polymorphic loci, with percentage of polymorphic loci at the species level, PPL=78.16%, Nei's index H=0.291 3, and Shannon's Information Index I=0.431 0. The A.luodianensis grew on soil surface(TM) possessed the highest level of genetic diversity(PPL=47.13%, H=0.195 3 and I=0.283 4), while the A.luodianensis in stone crevice exhibited the lowest levels of genetic diversity(PPL=39.08%, H=0.147 4 and I=0.219 2). Coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst) was 0.415 1(from the POPGENE32), and the gene flows(Nm) was 0.704 5. Among the 5 microhabitats, genetic identity varied from 0.777 3-0.999 4, genetic distance was different from 0.000 6-0.251 9, and the mean of them were 0.865 6-0.148 3 severally. Genetic diversity in niches at mean value was with PPL of 43.91%. Coefficient of genetic variation in niches was with Gst of 0.4054. The results indicated that differences of microhabitats increased the genetic diversity of A.luodianensis.
    Effects of Human Disturbance on Species Diversity and Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Revetment Forest in Wenjiang Section of the Jinma River
    ZHANG Xiao-Yue, QI Jin-Qiu, ZHANG Liu-Hua, WANG Mei-Zhen, LI Ting-Ting, YU Shun-Yao, HAO Jian-Feng
    2019, 39(1):  78-86.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.010
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    By the typical plot method, the interference theory and species diversity analysis method, and redundant analysis(RDA), we studied the relationship between 11 environmental factors and the diversity of revetment forest species, and explored the different disturbances of human disturbance to the Wenjiang section of the Jinma River. The impact of species diversity and soil physical and chemical properties on revetment forests. The results showed that:(1)Among the 264 different levels, 122 species of plants were recorded, belonging to 65 families and 102 genera, of which the herbaceous layer had the largest number of species, with 89 species, accounting for 73% of the total records, with the increase of human disturbance intensity. The number of species is gradually decreasing; (2)Human disturbance has a negative impact on the species diversity level of the Jinma River revetment community. With the increase of disturbance intensity, the Shannon-Wiener diversity index(H) and species richness index(D) of the community are gradually reduced, and on the arbor layer the species composition is single, resulting in a decline in community environmental function and stability; (3)The pH value of the soil in the community was alkaline, and the soil organic matter content was high. The physical and chemical properties of the soil under different disturbance intensity were significantly different(P<0.05); (4)Soil water content, available potassium and organic matter content are the most important factors affecting the species diversity of revetment forests.
    Genetic Diversity Characteristics in Different Dominance Hierarchies of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. Trees
    CAI Nian-Hui, XU Yu-Lan, WANG Ya-Nan, CHEN Shi, WANG Meng-Ting, LI Gen-Qian
    2019, 39(1):  87-95.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.011
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    The trees were divided into the dominant trees, the intermediate trees and the suppressed trees according to the height and diameter(ground diameter) parameters. The variation of genetic diversity characteristics in different dominance hierarchies of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. population was studied by SSR molecular markers. In forest canopy layer, the mean number of effective alleles, Shannon's information index, observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity of dominant trees were 2.083, 0.762, 0.290 and 0.423, respectively, for the dominant trees, which slightly exceeded the intermediate and suppressed trees. In regeneration layer mean number of effective alleles, Shannon's information index, observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity were 2.063, 0.774, 0.272 and 0.410, respectively, for the dominant tree, which slightly exceeded the intermediate and suppressed trees except for observed heterozygosity. There were no significant differences among the different dominance hierarchy trees for the genetic diversity by the difference significance test of statistics method.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of BpSPL2 Promoter from Betula platyphylla
    WANG Sheng-Yu, ZHANG Qi, ZHANG Zheng-Yi, HU Xiao-Qing, TIAN Jing, ZHANG Yong, LIU Xue-Mei
    2019, 39(1):  96-103.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.012
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    The SPL(SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like) is a plant specific transcription factor, and the study showed that it plays an important role in the transformation of developmental stage, flower and fruit development. A 1 960 bp promoter sequence of BpSPL2 gene was cloned from Betula platyphylla genomic DNA using the method of PCR. The cis-regulatory elements were analyzed by PLACE and PlantCARE web tools. Multiple flowering elements, abiotic stress response elements and hormone-responsive elements were predicted in the promoter region. It indicated that it played an important role in plant growth and development and stress response.Further, the BpSPL2 promoter was inserted to pBI121 vector under control of the 35S promoter to generate the pBI121-BpSPL2 promoter::GUS recombinant construct, which was transient expressed in B.platyphylla and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated method, then investigated the expression pattern via histechemical GUS staining. BpSPL2 promoter could drive the expression of GUS gene in B.platyphylla and A.thaliana, and expressed in high level in leaves, buds, and roots of B.platyphylla while in high level in anthers, pistils, and leaves of A.thaliana. This study will provide a reference for further studies on the expression regulation and functional analysis of BpSPL2 gene in B.platyphylla.
    Relationship between H2S and ABA Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana under Drought Stress
    ZHAO Min, WANG Yue-Xuan, XU Yun-Fei, ZHAO Qi-An, LIU Bo, YANG Ning
    2019, 39(1):  104-112.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.013
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    With the seedlings of wild type Arabidopsis thaliana(WT), hydrogen sulfide(H2S) synthase deletion mutant lcd, abscisic acid(ABA) deletion mutant aba1, 0.3 mol·L-1 mannitol simulated drought stress, we studied the effects of drought stress on ABA content and H2S content, analyzed their roles and signal relationships in drought tolerance. Drought stress significantly increased the LCD and ABA1 gene relative expressions, contents of H2S and ABA; Drought stress significantly inhibited the seed germination of lcd and aba1 mutants; Application of NaHS and ABA significantly increased the endogenous H2S content in WT under drought stress; Application of NaHS could promote the endogenous H2S production in WT, lcd and aba1, the relative expression of LCD and ABA1 also up-regulated under drought stress. While the application of ABA increased the H2S content and the LCD, ABA1 relative expressions in WT and aba1 under drought stress, but had no significant effect on the H2S content and LCD relative expression in lcd. The results showed that the signal molecules H2S and ABA played a vital role response to the drought stress in Arabidopsis, and H2S is located at downstream of ABA to participated in the regulation of signaling process.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Synthetase(ThSAMS) Gene from Tamarix hispida
    ZHANG Yue, ZHAO Xin, HOU Zheng, WANG Yan-Min, WANG Yu-Cheng, WANG Chao
    2019, 39(1):  113-122.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.014
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    A full length cDNA of a S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Synthetase gene(named ThSAMS) was isolated from the transcriptome cDNA librarys of Tamarix hispida. The open reading frame of ThSAMS cDNA was 1 185 bp encoding 394 amino acids. The relative molecular weight of ThSAMS protein was 97.85 kDa, with isoelectric point of 5.02. Multiple alignment analysis based on the amino acids indicated that ThSAMS had high homology to SAMS proteins from different species, and the highest similarity of 95% to the Ziziphus jujuba SAMS. Quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR) assay revealed that ThSAMS gene can respond to NaCl, PEG and ABA stress, suggesting that it may be involved in salt and drought stresses in T.hispida. This study provided theoretical groundwork for further exploration into the function of stress tolerance of SAMS gene in plants.
    Antisense CCoAOMT Gene Regulates Lignin Biosynthesis in Betula platyphylla
    YAO Lian-Mei, HU Xiao-Qing, ZHOU Fei, ZHENG Yao-Qiang, WANG Guo-Dong
    2019, 39(1):  123-130.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.015
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    Betula platyphylla is an important forestation tree species in northern China, but its high lignin content severely restricts its development and utilization as a papermaking resource plant. In this paper, the full-length ORF sequence of CCoAOMT(Caffeoyl-coenzyme A-3-O-methyltransferase) gene was obtained using RACE technology. The antisense CCoAOMT expression vector was constructed and transformed into B.platyphylla by Agrobacterium infection method. The molecular detection indicated that the CCoAOMT antisense gene had been successfully integrated into B.platyphylla. By semi-quantitative PCR analysis of the transgenic plants, the CCoAOMT gene expression of the transgenic lines was decreased. Compared to the wild type, by the Wiesner staining, the lignin content of the transgenic plants was decreased. Chemical compositions of seven-year-old transgenic and wild-type birch were analyzed. The phenyl alcohol extracts and Klason lignin of transgenic birch were significantly reduced, and the pentosan content was increased. The BpCCoAOMT gene plays an important role in the synthesis of lignin, which lays a foundation for the cultivation of a new species of birch with low lignin content.
    Variation Analysis of Phenotypic Traits in F1 Population of Rosa spp
    ZHOU Li-Jun, YU Chao, CHANG Xiao, WAN Hui-Hua, LUO Le, PAN Hui-Tang, ZHANG Qi-Xiang
    2019, 39(1):  131-138.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.016
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    Heredity of some characters of flower and leaf in F1 individuals of mother(Rosa ‘Yunzheng Xiawei’) and father(R. ‘Sun City’) were measured and analyzed with variance, coefficient of variation, inheritance and correlation. The coefficient of variation in the hybrid population was 7.33%-68.08%, indicating a significant phenotypic variation. Among them, the number of petals in the population showed the highest degree of variation. All the traits measured had high degree of dispersion and came out new phenotypic traits, different from parents. The analysis of the genetic characteristics and correlation of phenotypic traits will benefit for selecting breeding and assisting breeding for dominant genes in controlling phenotypic traits.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Two PLT Transcription Factors Genes in Fraxinus mandshurica
    DING Yi-Wei, ZHAN Ya-Guang, ZHANG Jia-Wei, HE Li-Ming
    2019, 39(1):  139-147.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.017
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    In order to investigate the function and mechanism of the PLT transcription factor in the root development of Fraxinus mandshurica, we cloned two PLT transcription factors from F.mandshurica, and named them FmPLT2 and FmPLT3 by homologous alignment, encoding 532 and 497 amino acid residues, respectively. By bioinformatics analysis, the relative molecular masses of FmPLT2 and FmPLT3 were 59 and 55 kDa, respectively, and the isoelectric points were 5.98 and 5.79, respectively. They were all hydrophilic unstable proteins, and both contained two AP2 conserved domains. By phylogenetic analysis, FmPLT2 and FmPLT3 had the highest homology with the OePLT2 and OeOLT3 genes of the Oleaceae, respectively. Subcellular localization predictions showed that both FmPLT2 and FmPLT3 proteins were mainly concentrated in the nucleus. The expression of FmPLT2 and FmPLT3 in different tissues and roots of different developmental stages was analyzed by qRT-PCR. The tissue-specific expression of FmPLT2 and FmPLT3 was similar and they all have the highest expression in roots and the lowest expression in leaves. The expression level of FmPLT2 in roots at different developmental stages is extremely significant. Especially, the expression level of FmPLT2 on the 21st day of root development is 32 times as high as that at the 0 day, but the expression of FmPLT3 was not significant, indicating that FmPLT2 not only plays an important role in root development, but also may participate in multiple developmental pathways such as cell proliferation and growth.
    Characteristics of Microsatellite in Camellia saluenensis by High-throughput Sequencing
    WANG Da-Wei, ZHOU Fan, SHEN Bing-Qi, WANG Lian-Chun
    2019, 39(1):  148-155.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.018
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    Leaves sample of Camellia saluenensis Stapf ex Bean was sequenced with high-throughput sequencing technology(Illumina Hiseq 2000). In total 140 996 transcripts of C.saluenensis were screened using MISA software. The 32 696 SSRs were identified, and the frequency of SSR was 23.2% and mean distribution density was dinucleotide 32.02 kB. The di-nucleotide repeats were the highest, followed by tri-nucleotide and mono-nucleotide repeat types. The tetra-nucleotide, penta-nucleotide and hexa-nucleotide were all less than 1%. Among the mononucleotide repeats, the A/T repeats motifs were the highest frequency(10.92%). AG/CT was the most frequent repeat motifs in di-nucleotide repeats(49.72%), followed by AT/AT and AC/GT. CG/CG were minimum. AAG/CTT repeats motifs was the highest in tri-nucleotide followed by ACC/GGT, ATC/ATG and AGG/CCT, while CCG/GGC, ACT/AGT and ACG/CGT were lowest(<1%). The repeat motifs were very few in tetra-nucleotide, petra-nucleotide and hexa-nucleotide and had no obvious differences. The microsatellite number in C.saluenensis decreased with the increased number of repeats and length of repeats.
    Sequencing and Assembly of Populus simonii×P.nigra Genome and SSR Analysis
    ZHOU Yu-Min, WANG Sui, LIU Yi, LI Kai-Long, YOU Xiang-Ling
    2019, 39(1):  156-160.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.01.019
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    Populus simonii×P.nigra, which is the hybrid crossed by P.simonii and P.nigra, inherits the advantages of fast growth and strong resistance from their parents. In this study, the genome sequence of Populus simonii×P.nigra was preliminarily sequenced and assembled by the next generation sequencing(NGS) technology. The SSR sequences were identified and analyzed. We hope this study can provide a reference for classification and phenotypic correlation of Populus simonii×P.nigra. The results show that we total assembled 368.96 Mbp genome sequence, which contain 366 876 contigs. SSR analysis was performed on 21 788 non-redundant contigs which were not less than 2 000 bp. In total, 18 111 SSR sequences were identified, and most of them are one, two or three nucleosides acid repeat motif. The primers were designed for the obtained SSR sequences, and a total of 12 838 primers were obtained for future experiments.