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    05 May 2019, Volume 39 Issue 3
    A Study on Breeding Characteristics and Ecological Adaptability of the Ferula ferulaeoides
    ZHAO Xiao-Yi, WANG Zhong-Ke, LI Gui-Fang, LÜ Xin-Hua, ZHAO Wen-Qin, ZHUANG Li
    2019, 39(3):  321-328.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.001
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    Ferula ferulaeoides is a endemic species of ephemeroid plant in Xinjiang. It has great ecological function and potential economic value. In this experiment, we studied the floral morphological characteristics, breeding system and pollination insects of F.ferulaeoides. To explain the mechanism about the adaptation of environment. The results showed that:(1)The F.ferulaeoides inflorescence anthesis lasted for 10-15 d and the single flower florescence was 7 days. Herkogamy and dichogamy were found in the hermaphroditic flower; (2)The type of breeding system was out-crossing mixed with self-pollination and the fruiting rate was 72.24% under natural conditions; (3)Many species of insects visited the flowers and most of them were Diptera and Hymenoptera; (4)The pollen viability on the first day of anthesis was highest at 12:00, the stigma receptivity was strongest after the second day of completely disseminating pollen.
    Floral Morphology and Flowering Process of Acer yangjuechi, the Extremely Endangered Plant
    CHEN Xiang-Bo, LÜ Xiu-Li, LIU Yang, ZHAO Ming-Shui, CUI Xin-Hong, ZHANG Dong-Mei
    2019, 39(3):  329-337.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.002
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    To reveal the reproduction mechanism of low embryo development rate, the floral morphology and flowering process of Acer yangjuechi Fang et P.L.Chiu, the extremely endangered plants in Chinawas determined by testing trees cultivated in National Nature Reserve of Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province.The results show that:(1)Bisexual flowers and maleflowers are inserted on a same apical inflorescence, and the bisexual flowers are always on the top of rachis while maleflowers on lateral rachis top or bottom. The quantity ratio of maleflowers to bisexual flowers is 6.89 of 2.6 times exceeding to A.buergerianum, which indicates less bisexual flowers of A.yangjuechi than A.buergerianum. (2)Two type of maleflowers were observed. Type Ⅰmaleflowers have tiny ovary, the stigma shortened extremely to a black spot and with flat flower disc while Type Ⅱmaleflowers have biforked stigma outstanding upon ovary degenerated into white fluff and with thick and radial sunken flower disc. Bisexual flowers possess of outstanding oblate spheroid and shorter filament compared with maleflowers. (3)The flowering process of individual tree is of bisexual flowers flowering within 3 days previous to maleflowers while only under seven percent of maleflowers were on pollination stage at the same time. (4)For population flowering process, the flowering stage between bisexual flowers and maleflowers present an obvious interval and bisexual flowers flowering intensively previous to maleflowers. Therefore, the main cause of the high embryo abortion, which leads to endangered situation of A.yangjuechi, was discussed.
    Embryonic Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration of Lilium leucanthum
    ZHANG Lu, PAN Yuan-Zhi, LIU Shi-Liang, CHEN Yuan, SHEN Li-Jia
    2019, 39(3):  338-346.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.003
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    With Lilium leucanthum Bakeri bulbs as explants, L9(34) orthogonal test was used to study the effects of different hormones and their concentrations on its callus induction, bulblet differentiation and rooting culture. Histological observation of embryogenic callus was carried out by paraffin sectioning technique. The optimal medium combinations for inducing callus of L.leucanthum under light and dark conditions were MS+TDZ 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA 1.0 mg·L-1+2, 4-D 0.05 mg·L-1 and MS+TDZ 0.5 mg·L-1+NAA 1.5 mg·L-1+2, 4-D 0.1 mg·L-1, with the induction rates of 62.690 and 59.423, respectively. The medium suitable for bulblet rooting was 1/2MS+NAA 0.2 mg·L-1+1 g AC. After 60-day culture, the seedlings were transferred to peat:vermiculite:perlite=1:1:1 in a medium and cultured in a light incubator for 35 days with the survival rate of 90%. Our experiment successfully established the regeneration system of squamous callus in L.leucanthum, which laid a foundation for the research of tissue culture transgenic seedling and the innovation of germplasm resources.
    Seasonal Variations of Clonal Propagation Characteristics of Populus pruinosa Schrenk,Organ Nutrient and Soil Fertility, and Their Coupling Associations in the Forest and Forest Edges
    ZHENG Ya-Qiong, ZHAI Jun-Tuan, CHEN Jia-Li, HAN Zhan-Jiang, JIAO Pei-Pei, LI Zhi-Jun
    2019, 39(3):  347-357.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.004
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    Propagation features elucidation is important for improving ecological service of poplar forests in arid regions. We studied the relationship between the occurrence of clonal organs of Populus pruinosa Schrenk and soil nutrient content during the clonal propagation, and their variations affected by the forest edge. The sample plot was set up vertical to channel of Tarim River upper reaches in Xinjiang, China, in the riparian forest(400 m away from the river channel) and forest edge(200 m away from the river channel) separately. The number of adventitious buds, underground ramets and unearthed ramets in two habitats was investigated every 20 days from April to October in 2014, and the nutrient contents of lateral roots and soil were also measured. The results show that:(1)The content of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and organic carbon of lateral roots increased gradually from April to June, and decreased gradually from July to October, which is consistent with the trend of number variation of the adventitious buds and underground ramets during this period, and also show a spontaneously trend with gradually increased soil organic matter content, available nitrogen content, available phosphorus content and available potassium content or maintain at a high level from April to June, and decreased gradually thereafter from July to October. Whereas, the C/N ratio of lateral roots decreased gradually from April to June, after a slightly increasing and decreasing again, the N/P ratio also decreased gradually from April to June, but show an increasing trend in the forest edge or remain unchanging in the forest after a significant decrease in July. (2)The number of adventitious buds was affected by total nitrogen and nitrogen-phosphorus ratio of lateral roots, the number of underground ramets was affected by the content of total nitrogen, organic carbon and carbon-nitrogen ratio of lateral roots both in the forest and forest edge. In the forest edge, the number of adventitious buds was close related to the content of soil organic matter, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium, and there was also a significant correlation between the underground ramets and the content of soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available phosphorus, as well as a significant correlation between the soil nutrients and the total nitrogen, C/N ratio and N/P ratio of lateral roots, while, the main factors affected by soil nutrients in the forest were total nitrogen and N/P ratio of lateral roots. (3)The number of adventitious buds, underground ramets and unearthed ramets in the forest was significantly lower than that in the forest edge. Soil nutrient content affected the number of adventitious buds, underground ramets and unearthed ramets by influencing the nutrient content of lateral roots. P.pruinosa is one of the few national protected plants in P.pruinosa forest play an important role on ecological services in local area, our results provide a basic data support for the conservation strategy formulation based on the clonal propagation of P.pruinosa forest.
    Key Technology of Micropropagation of Osmanthus fragrans var. thunbergii
    YE Tian-Yi, ZHOU Xin, HUANG Yan, WANG Xiao-Hong
    2019, 39(3):  358-364.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.005
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    We studied the effects of different rooting media, pre-treatment of seedling cultivation, transplanting matrix and leaf surface fertilization on the seedling cultivation of micro-propagation of Osmanthus fragrans to provide technical support for the rapid propagation of strong seedlings of target varieties, and the key technology of rapid propagation of O.fragrans. The optimal combination of rooting rate and rooting number of micro-propagated O.fragrans seedlings was A3B2C3, the rooting rate and average rooting number of B5 basic medium+2 mg·L-1 NAA+0.10 mg·L-1 6-BA were 91.11% and 3.83 pieces/plant, respectively. A3B2C3 is the optimal combination for seedling refining, that is, when the nursery soil:perlite:humus=2:3:7 was used as the seedling refining matrix, the survival rate and growth rate of micropropagation seedlings of O.fragrans reached 82.2% and 42.2%, respectively.
    UPLC-Q-TOF-MS Analysis of Flavonoids in Flowers and Leaves of Camellia chuangtsoensis
    LI Xin-Lei, WANG Jia-Tong, SUN Zhen-Yuan, WANG Jie, YIN Heng-Fu, FAN Zheng-Qi, LI Ji-Yuan
    2019, 39(3):  365-371.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.006
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    The components and contents of flavonoids in flowers including petals and stamens and leaves including old leaves and new leaves of Camellia chuangtsoensis were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results showed that fourteen flavonoids were detected in C.chuangtsoensis. The flavonoids in cluding luteolin, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3, 7-O-diglucoside, narirutin, eriodictyol and genistin were identified in section Chrysantha Chang of Camellia for the first time, and quercetin-3, 7-O-diglucoside, narirutin, eriodictyol and genistinwere mainly found in the flowers. The contents of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-rutinosidein flowers were higher than thosein leaves, and the content of them in stamens were higher thanthose in petals. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside were identified in leaves of section Chrysantha of Camellia for the first time, and the contents of them in leaves were far lower than that in flowers. The contents of the four flavonoids in old leaves were far lower than that in new leaves, and the contents of them in stamens were far lower than that in petals. The contents of catechin and epicatechin in flowers were higher than those in leaves, and the content of them in stamens were higher than that in petals. The contents of quercetin and kaempferol in flowers and leaves were very low. The flavonoids with higher contents in petals and stamens of C.chuangtsoensis were catechins, luteolins and quercetins, which mainly included catechin, luteolin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The flavonoids with higher contents in leaves were catechins and luteolins, which mainly includedcatechin, luteolin and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside. The contents of catechins, luteolins and total flavonoids in petals and stamens were higher than that in leaves, and the content of them in stamens were higher than that in petals. The contents of quercetins in petals and stamens were far higher than that in leaves, and the contents of them in petals were higher than that in stamens.
    Morphological Variations and Physiological Characteristics of Phragmites australis in Three Habitats in Yellow River Delta
    XIE Zhi-Yu, ZHANG Wen-Hui, WEI Yong-Tao
    2019, 39(3):  372-379.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.007
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    An experiment was conducted to study the adaptive strategies of Phragmites australis by designing the differentexperiment habitats. The results showed that:(1)For the maximum height and the average height, the highest crown and the average crown, and the coverage of P.australis, aquatic was the biggest, next was hygrophilous, the xeromorph was smallest, and the abundance in the xeromorph environment was similar to the aquatic condition. (2)Different caulis length appeared in different habitats, and with water content descending, the number of sucher increased, the height of sucher reduced.There was a gradual reduction in leaf area and diameter of sucher, with water stress increasing, the node number reduced, the length of node became shorter, the root lengh reduced, and thetotal of roots increased. (3)In the xeromorphic condition, the activities of SOD, POD of enzymes of roots and leaves and the activities of CAT were significantly higher than those of the aquaticand hygrophiloushabitats.In three different habitats, the MDA content of the xeromorph and hygrophilous habitats were significantly higher than those of the aquatichabitats. The morphological variations and physiological characteristics of these traits might have resulted from adaptability of P.australis in three habitats.
    Effects of Growth Substrate and Hormones on Cutting Rooting of Chukrasia tabularis Young Shoots
    ZHANG Jie, WANG Qing, ZHONG Chong-Lu, ZHANG Yong, WEI Yong-Cheng, MENG Jing-Xiang
    2019, 39(3):  380-386.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.008
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    We studiedthe effects of substrate, hormonetype, concentration and treating time on cutting rooting of Chukrasia tabularis with young shoots as test materials. The substrate treatments include peat soil, yellowsoil, river sand and vermiculite, adopting with a randomized complete block design. The hormone treatments adopted L9(33)orthogonal design with different hormone kinds(NAA, IBA and ABT), concentrations(500, 1 000 and 1 500 mg·L-1), and treating time(10 s, 1 min and 30 min). The results showed that:(1)The mixed substrate of peat soil+vermiculite(1:1, volume ratio) was the best, with the rooting rate of 81.81%, mean rooting number of 20.33 per plant, the average root length of 4.80 cm, and the root effective index of 3.05; (2)The hormone kinds had the greatest influence on cutting effectiveness of C.tabularis young shoots among the three main factors, followed by hormone concentrations, and the treating time had the least influence. In cutting, under the mixed substrate of peat soil+vermiculite(1:1), treated ewith ABT1 of 1 000 mg·L-1 for 10 s, the rooting effective was the best.
    Variation and Probability Grading of Main Quantitative Traits of Fruits for Eucommia ulmoides Germplasm
    DU Qing-Xin, QING Jun, WANG Lu, LIU Pan-Feng, HE Feng, ZHU Li-Li, DU Hong-Yan
    2019, 39(3):  387-394.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.009
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    To make better evaluation of Eucommia ulmoides fruits, enrich the content of quantitative and normalized E.ulmoides germplasm descriptor system, we collected 331 samples of Eucommia germplasm and studied 18 fruits quantitative traits by statistical analysis and probability grading. The large variation present in E.ulmoides fruit quantitative characters, and the highest occurred in stearic acid content(17.88%), followed by seed size index(17.17%), and the smallest occurred in linolenic acid content(4.64%). K-S test showed that 16 fruit quantitative traits conformed to the normal distribution with the significance value higher than 0.05, except seed horizontal diameter and seed size index. Seed horizontal diameter and seed size index that followed skewed distribution could be regarded and treated as those conforming to normal distribution. Eighteen quantitative traits that conformed to the normal distribution could be divided into 5 grades by 4 dividing points including X-1.2818S, X-0.5246S, X+0.5246S and X+1.2818S. An index system of probability grading for 18 quantitative traits was built, which could provide reference for evaluation, utilization and breeding programm of E.ulmoides resources, and it could provide a reference for specification and data standardization of E.ulmoides fruits descriptor system.
    Predicting Potential Distribution of Two Species of Spruce in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau under Climate Change
    LI Ning-Ning, ZHANG Ai-Ping, ZHANG Lin, WANG Ke-Qing, LUO Hong-Yan, PAN Kai-Wen
    2019, 39(3):  395-406.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.010
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    We predicted the potential distribution of spruce under the future climate change with Picea likiangensis and P.purpurea in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. MaxEnt model was used to predict the potential distribution of the two species under two future climatic scenarios-2050s and 2070s. Further, we used ArcGIS software to determine the distribution area and spatial pattern of both species. The results indicatedthat:(1)Southwestern Sichuan and eastern Tibet regions were the potential distribution areas of P.likiangensis, while northwestern Sichuan, southern Gansu, southeastern Qinghai and eastern Tibet were the areas that would favor the potential distribution for P.purpurea. (2)In two future climatic periods, distribution areas of P.likiangensis generally increase, whereas, in case of P.purpurea, the distribution areas first increase and then decrease. However, the area of the total suitable distribution increase toso me extent, compared with the area of current distribution. (3)The potential distribution of P.likiangensis was likely to disperse towards north while P.purpurea to the west. (4)Moreover, the precipitation of warmest quarter and the mean temperature of warmest quarter were the primary climatic factors affecting the distribution of P.likiangensis and P.purpurea. This study can provide a theoretical basis and reference value for the sustainable management and conservation of P.likiangensis and P.purpurea under climate change scenarios.
    Response of Ecological Stoichiometric Characteristics and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Plant Leaves to Long-term N Deposition in Natural Secondary Forest
    WAN Xue-Bing, WANG Qing-Gui, YAN Guo-Yong, XING Ya-Juan
    2019, 39(3):  407-420.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.011
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    Three nitrogen(N) concentration gradients were set up in Experimental Forest Farm of Lushuihe Forestry Bureau in Fusong County, Jilin Province, including control(CK 0 g·N·m-2·a-1), low nitrogen(LN 2.5 g·N·m-2·a-1) and high nitrogen(HN 5.0 g·N·m-2·a-1), to study the effects of N deposition on the stoichiometric characteristics, nutrient reuptake and changes of photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of birch(Betula platyphylla) and poplar(Populus davidiana), a pioneer tree in natural secondary forest, and the relationship between the characters. The results showed that:(1)Under the simulated N deposition, the C content of the fresh leaves of birch and poplar showed no significant influence compared with that of the control group, and the N and P contents of the fresh leaves of poplar were significantly reduced by LN treatment(P<0.05), and C:N, C:P and N:P were significantly increased(P<0.05). HN treatment significantly increased N content and N:P in birch leaf and significantly decreased C:N(P<0.05). (2)The resorption efficiency of leaves N and P of birch and poplar decreased significantly in the treatment of LN(P<0.05) and were all negative. There was a significant positive correlation between N and P resorption efficiency(P<0.05), and a significant negative correlation between C:N and N resorption efficiency(P<0.05). (3)N addition can improve the nitrogen photosynthetic efficiency(PNUE) and net photosynthetic rate(Pn) of two kinds of trees(P<0.05), leaf dry matter to leaf area(LMA) of birch and poplar showed a significant negative correlation with N content(P<0.05), and there was significant positive correlation between Pn and PNUE(P<0.05). The N content of birch leaf was significantly positively correlated with Pn and PNUE(P<0.05). The results showed that N and P in birch and poplar leaves were enriched in the growing season, and soil nutrient and exogenous N could be used to absorb and promote the growth of trees quickly, without the need to absorb nutrients from litters leaves. N addition can enhance the photosynthetic performance of the leaves of birch and poplar, thus promoting the plant nutrient absorption and leaf development. HN deposition can promote the growth of natural secondary forest in Changbai Mountains.
    Characteristics of Biomass and Stoichiometry of Four Desert Herbaceous Plants In the Gurbantunggut Desert
    GUO Hao, ZHUANG Wei-Wei, LI Jin
    2019, 39(3):  421-430.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.012
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    The study on the biomass allocation and stoichiometric ratio of desert plants in different growth periods can help to understand the functional structure of desert plants and better grasp the influence of environment on the survival of plants. In this study, four annual desert herbs Agriophyllum sqarrosum(L.) Moq., Bassssia dasyphylla(Fisch. Et Mey.) O.Kuntze, Ceratocarpus arenarius L. and Suaeda glauca(Bge.) Bge. were selected. The changes of the distribution of biomass, N and P stoichiometry with plant growth were compared. The results showed that:(1)During the process of biomass accumulation and distribution of four kinds of desert plants, the root crown ratio decreased gradually with the extension of growing season. The growth relation of aboveground and aboveground biomass showed that the change process of the quinoa was isokinetic to isokinetic, while the change process from the initial stage to the final stage of the sample was isokinetic to isokinetic, while the correlation growth index of the apsarum and the apsarum was opposite, which was the change pattern of isokinetic to isokinetic, isokinetic to isokinetic to isokinetic. (2)The N and P contents of the four plants decreased gradually with the extension of growth period.The variation trend of N and P content of the four plants was similar throughout the growing season. (3)The contents of plant N and P reached a significant positive correlation, and the other indexes except N:P of desiccant and fog ice quinoa showed a significant negative correlation with the aboveground and underground biomass and total biomass of plants, while the root crown ratio, correlation growth index and stoichiometric characteristics did not reach a significant level, indicating a relatively weak correlation between them.Study shows that the four kinds of desert plant biomass little correlation with characteristics of chemical measurement and explain stoichiometric ratio is not the main factors influencing the plant biomass and life strategy, but more is affected by the plant's own genetic traits, but also embodies the desert herbaceous plants under the condition of lack of nutrients, formed its own unique physiological and ecological characteristics, and has a relatively stable adaptive traits. Research shows, There was little correlation between biomass and stoichiometric characteristics of the four desert herbaceous plants, indicating that stoichiometric ratio was not the main factor affecting biomass and living strategies of plants, but was more influenced by the genetic characteristics of plants themselves. At the same time, it also reflects that desert herbaceous plants have formed their own unique physiological and ecological characteristics under the condition of nutrient deficiency, and have relatively stable adaptation characteristics.
    Cloning, Bioinformatics and Expression of SmSLS2 Gene in Swertia mussotii
    LI Wen-Jing, FENG Yu, HOU Xiao-Qiang, Sun Yan-Xiang, Han Mei-Ling, LI Xiao-Xue, WANG Yong, XIANG Bei-Bei
    2019, 39(3):  431-440.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.013
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    Secologanin synthase(SLS) is the key enzyme of secoiridoid pathway. We obtained the SmSLS2 gene full-length sequence according to the transcriptome of Swertia mussotii. We cloned the gene, analyzed the bioinformation of SmSLS2, constructed the vectors and performed the gene expression. The results showed that SmSLS2 cDNA complete sequence had a length of 1 566 bp(GenBank:MH535904), encoding 521 amino acid residues, and the pI of SmSLS2 was 8.92. Domain analysis results showed that SmSLS2 had one transmembrane domain, and the protein secondary and tertiary structures were analyzed and forecasted. The gDNA sequence of SmSLS2 was 2 576 bp, contained five exons and four introns. The SmSLS2 protein shared high identity with other SLS proteins of plants. Prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a-sumo-SmSLS2 was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for expression under 37℃, and induced by 0.5 mmol·L-1 IPTG. The SDS-PAGE results showed that the expressed proteins were consistent with the anticipated size. SmSLS2 gene was successfully cloned from S.mussotii, and it will provide a foundation for further functional research on SmSLS2 protein and increasing the product of iridoid compound by genetic engineering in S.mussotii.
    amiRNA-mediated PL Gene Silencing Driven by the Fruit-specific Promoter P119 in Strawberry and Its Effect on Fruit Firmness
    ZHOU Min, JIANG Dan, LIU Yue-Xiu, WANG Xiao-Rong, TANG Hao-Ru, CHEN Qing
    2019, 39(3):  441-449.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.014
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    Pectate lyase(PL) is one of the most profitable candidate enzymes for improving the fruit firmness and delaying the softening process in strawberry(Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) by molecular modifying. The role of PL in strawberry fruit softening was studied by amiRNA-mediated silencing. The changes of pectate lyase activity and fruit firmness were determined across the fruit development of cultivated strawberry ‘Benihoppe’. Candidate PLs were submitted toWMD3(http://wmd3.weigelword.org) for miRNA target site screening(target Fragaria×ananassa PUT v183, minimum number of included targets:one). Those candidate miRNA target sites were then manually checked, ensuring that the target loci exist in all PL transcripts. This target sequence was introduced into the Arabidopsis thaliana miR390a precursor sequence as the backbone. The validated construct was transformed into the Agrobacterium GV3101. Transient expression in strawberry fruits was conducted by agroinfilltration. Expression level of the PL genes was monitored by RT-PCR. Fruit firmness was examined too. With the development of strawberry fruit, the PL activity gradually increased, especially the stages after turning red. The PL activity increased sharply and reached the maximum in the full red period. In contrast, fruit firmness gradually decreased during fruit development especially during the process from big green to color transition, and then the rate of hardness reduction slowed. The P119 promoter from tomato was able to drive amiRNA gene expression, which can reduce the expression of PL gene in strawberry fruit by 34.5%. The knock down of PL gene does not interfere with the accumulation of anthocyanins in strawberry, and the silencing group had higher fruit hardness than the control group. In a comprehensive analysis, PL regulates the dissociation of cell wall mainly in the late fruit developmental stage. Obviously, from our results, there are also other factors that affect the softening of strawberry. The p119 fruit-specific promoter has transcriptional activity in silencing PL gene of strawberry in the fruit, which lays a foundation with the application in future molecular modification. To this end, stable transformation is underway. Therefore, PL regulates plants cell wall dissociation at the late development stages of strawberry. Silencing the gene with P119 using amiRNA can delay fruit softening process.
    Antitumor Activity of Artemisinin Microspheres Loaded with Porous Starch
    ZHAO Xue, YANG Feng-Jian, ZHONG Chen, ZHANG Yuan-Yuan, GE Yun-Long, DENG Yi-Ping, SUI Guang-Chao
    2019, 39(3):  450-457.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.015
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    To investigate the antitumor activity of porous starch loaded artemisinin microspheres(ART-PS) and artemisinin active drugs(ART) at different concentrations, and the growth inhibition of tumor cells after combined with total ferritin, respectively, in the in vitro experiments, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and normal hepatocytes at logarithmic growth stage were inoculated to 96-well plates at different contents(0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μmol·L-1). Concentrations determined by MTT, according to the results of equal treatment, porous starch load on tumor cell HepG2 artemisinin microspheres and the inhibition effect of SMMC-7721 were higher than that of artemisinin technical, but compared with doxorubicin hydrochloride, has low cytotoxicity, on the side effects of normal cells HL7702 is very low, the results associated with respectively after full iron transferrin inhibition for the growth of tumor cells. The porous starch loaded artemisinin microspheres had obvious inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, the effect was better than the original artemisinin drugs, and the toxic and side effects on normal hepatocytes were very low, it provides an important reference for the application and research of artemisinin in the treatment of cancer.
    External Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract from Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica
    ZHANG Li-Fan, XUE Yu, WANG Yan, YANG Guang-Xin, YANG Guang, DI Xue-Ying
    2019, 39(3):  458-465.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.016
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    The ethanol extractantioxidant activity of cone, bark, leaf, xylem four parts of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was compared to provide theoretical basis for further exploitation and utilization of pine resources. P.sylvestris var. mongolica bark, leaves, cones, xylem four parts as raw material, the content of polyphenols and flavonoids in the ethanol extract of camphor was determined. Determination of the P.sylvestris var. mongolica ethanol extracts of polyphenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid(VC) is applied to make positive control evaluation of the extracts from different parts of total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power, diphenyl bitter acyl(DPPH·) cleaning ability, hydroxyl free radical(·OH) clear, super oxygen anion(O2·) remove the five indicators, evaluation of pine ethanol extractpolyphenols ofmongolica four parts in vitro antioxidant activity, draw standard curve. The results showed that:(1)mongolica polyphenols extracted from P.sylvestris var. mongolica bark showed strong antioxidant capacity, in relatively high concentrations and antioxidants(Vc) is smaller; The camphor pine polyphenols, extracted from camphor cones, also exhibit stronger restorative powers, even more than antioxidants(Vc); (2)P.sylvestris var. mongolica polyphenols extracted from which bark in diphenyl bitter acyl(DPPH·) cleaning ability, hydroxyl free radical(·OH) removal ability are the highest of the three, but no more than antioxidants(Vc) antioxidant capacity; (3)super oxygen anion(O2·) cleaning ability index, the clearance of all negative, shows that the method for determining the ultra oxygen anion(O2·) the clearance interference factors are unable to compare three size on this metric capability. Experimental results show that the polyphenols have strong antioxidant ability, which can be used as a natural antioxidant.
    Effects of Methyl Jasmonate on Genistein Content and Antioxidant System of Adventitious Roots of Cajanus cajan(L.) Millsp.
    DANG Shi-Kun, WANG Sheng-Fang, SHI Seng, HANG Shu-Lan, WANG Hui-Mei
    2019, 39(3):  466-470.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.017
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    We studied the effect of different concentrations and treatment time of Methyl jasmonate(MJ) ongenistein production in adventitious roots. The concentrations and treatment time of MJ had a significant effect on the content of genistein in pigeon pea adventitious roots. When the concentration of MJ was 100 μmol·L-1, and the treatment time was 48 h, the content of genistein was the highest(1.38 mg·g-1), which was 4.03 times higher than that of the control. We studied the effect of MJ(100 μmol·L-1) on the antioxidant system inpigeon pea adventitious roots.The adventitious roots treated with MJ appeared obvious oxidative stress, the contents of O2-, H2O2 and MDA increased significantly, and the activities of SOD and POD also increased significantly. However, the increase of antioxidant enzyme activity couldnot eliminate the oxidative stress inpigeon peaadventitious roots, leding to the improvement of secondary metabolites synthesis.
    Effect of Urban Greening on Air Quality ——Take 27 Provincial Capitals in China as an Example
    ZHANG Jing-Hua, TIAN Pan-Li, LIU Xiao, YANG Yang, WANG Ke, WANG Wen-Jie
    2019, 39(3):  471-480.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2019.03.018
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    The comparison of urban greening-viewing degree, air pollution and their and related differences analysis are important prerequisites for urban environmental management measures. We selected 27 provincial capital cities of China and measured street-view urban green viewing index based on the network street photo for comparing the main air quality indicators, including air quality index(AQI), fine particulate matter(PM2.5), respirable particulate matter(PM10), sulfur dioxide(SO2), nitrogen dioxide(NO2), ozone(O3) and carbon monoxide(CO). Based on these data, the related relationship is discussed between the urban green viewing index and air quality indicators. The aiming is to provide a basis for enhancing environmental quality and improving greening levels. Results showed that:(1)Jinan and Chongqing have the highest green index, reaching 11.70% and 11.55%, respectively. The green index of Hohhot and Lhasa city is the lowest, ranging in 4%-5%. (2)The city with the best air quality is located in Haikou, with AQI of 39.66. The air quality of Zhengzhou and Jinan is the worst. The average annual AQI values are 117.34 and 113.93, respectively. However, according to different air indicators, the order of these cities is quite different. For example, the lowest average annual cities of the lowest PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and SO2 are Haikou. Lhasa has the lowest annual average CO content(CO is 0.55 mg·m-3). While the lowest O3 content(77.08 μg·m-3) is in Harbin. (3)Correlation analysis found that the air quality of some cities is improved with increasing the green level, such as Shenyang, Nanning, Hefei, etc. On the other hand, but they also have a significant positive correlation for some cities, including Lanzhou, Kunming, and Guiyang, meaning that the greener level of is increasing air pollution in these cities. (4)Although many studies have shown that urban green vegetation can play the role of dust retention and pollution reduction, the current level of air pollution in major cities in China is far from enough to rely on urban greening improvement. Even green vegetation hinders air circulation in some cities. The above research results provide basic data support for scientific planning urban greening and improving air quality.