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    15 March 2017, Volume 37 Issue 2
    Correction of A Typographical Error in the Protologue of Clematis chaohuensis
    LIN Yun, SHAO Qing, YANG Zhi-Rong
    2017, 37(2):  161-163.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.001
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    In the course of the normalized compilation of type specimens which deposited at China National Herbarium(PE), Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, we discovered an error in the citation of type collection of Clematis chaohuensis W.T.Wang & L.Q.Huang(Ranunculaceae). The holotype of C.chaohuensis W.T.Wang & L.Q.Huang was incorrectly cited as D.Q.Wang 70543 in the protologue, but is actually D.Q.Wang 95043.
    Geographical Distribution Pattern of Macromitrium in the World and Its Biogeographical Significance
    GUO Shui-Liang, WU Qian-Qian, YU Jing, CAO Tong
    2017, 37(2):  164-173.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.002
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    The genus Macromitrium(Orthotrichaceae, Bryophyta) is an important taxon in bryological systematics, ecology and biological conservation. On the basis of our taxonomical revision of the genus, we got the distribution data of 274 species of the genus in 14 geographical unites(suggested by "Index Muscorum") in the world.By using Clustering Analysis and Detrended Correspondence Analysis(DCA), we got a dendrogram and a three-dimensional scatter plots to reveal the distribution pattern of the genus visually. The results showed a distinctive floristic differentiation of Macromitrium among As2, Oc, As3-4, Afr2-3-4, Am2-3-4-5, and Austr1-2, with highest diversity in Tropical Asia and Tropical America. Except M.microstomum(Hook.& Grev.) Schwägr., all other species were recorded from a single or a few geographical unites. Among different global regions, Macromitrium differentiated not only in its floristic elements, but also in their morphological characters. We discussed the systematic and biogeographical significances of the genus according its global distribution pattern.
    Reduction on Orinus longiglumis with Generalized Morphological Characters and nrDNA ITS Sequence
    LIU Yu-Ping, LÜ Ting, ZHOU Yong-Hui, ZHANG Xiao-Yu, SU Xu
    2017, 37(2):  174-180.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.003
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    Orinus is an alpine genus with important economic values in the grass family(Poaceae). There are six species in it and all of them have stronger adverse-resistant characteristics, and they are the important resources for improving and applying agricultural breeding and animal husbandry. Meanwhile, the discriminative characters are obscure among these species. We compared and analyzed the main morphological characters and molecular sequence differences among nearest related Orinus longiglumis, O.thoroldii and O.anomala by generalized morphological observation and nuclear ITS region research. There is very slight disparity between O.longiglumis and O.thoroldii in generalized morphological characters, the classification of the two species is very difficult, the differences between O.longiglumis and O.anomala are distinct, and the two taxa are two different species. We further used the ITS sequence variation to tentatively delimit the previously acknowledged species and found that there is no distinct boundary between species and only two distinct lineages were recognized for all three species. A branch is composed of O.longiglumis and O.thoroldii, while another is only made up of O.anomala. The bootstrap support rates of two branches reach as high as 100%. Therefore, O.longiglumis and O.thoroldii should belong to the same species, and O.longiglumis can be reduced to synonymy of O.thoroldii.
    Microsporogenesis,Male Gametogenesis and Pollen Morphology of Gonocaryum lobbianum
    KONG Dong-Rui, LI Lu
    2017, 37(2):  181-184.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.004
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    We studied the microsporogenesis, male gametogenesis and pollen morphology of Gonocaryum lobbianum using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to enrich the embryological and palynological data of Cardiopteridaceae s.l. The main results are as follows:(1) The anther is tetrasporangiate; (2) The anther wall comprises the epidermis, fibrous endothecium, ephemeral middle layer and secretory tapetum with 2-4 nuclei in each cell; (3) The microspore mother cell undergo meiosis, cytokinesis is simultaneous and the tetrads are tetrahedral; (4) The mature pollen grains are two-celled; (5) The pollen grains are cryptoaperturate with three pores and the extin is reticulate. The characters of microsporogenesis and male gametogenesis of Gonocaryum are similar to those of Cardiopteris with a little difference. G.lobbianum is almost the same as the other species in the pollen morphological characters.
    The Research of Key Influence Factors of Rapid Culture of the Protonema of Didymodon ditrichoides
    ZHAO Yang, LI Xiao-Ming, LI Ru-Xue, WANG Chun, BU Chong-Feng
    2017, 37(2):  185-193.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.005
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    In order to provide a rich source of mass vaccination for the field restoration of moss crust, we used two kinds of disinfection method, 0.1% NaClO(10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 120 s) and 0.1% HgCl2(10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 120 s), with Knop, MS and Hoagland as culture media, and set the pH values(5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, 7.5, 8, 8.5), through the single factor experiment design method, we determined the survival rate of the cormus of[Didymodon ditrichoides(Broth.)], protonema length and number of branches, thereby exploring key factors that affect the propagation of the protonema of D.ditrichoides. The results are as follows:(1) The disinfection method, culture medium and pH value have significant influence upon the survival rate of the cormus of D.ditrichoides, length of protonema and number of branches(P<0.05), in a descending order of disinfection method, culture medium, and pH value; (2) The most suitable disinfection method is 0.1% NaClO with a duration of 15-20 s; (3) The most suitable culture medium for the growth of the protonema of D.ditrichoides is Knop and Hoagland; (4) The most suitable pH value for the growth of protonema of D.ditrichoides is 7.5. Therefore, the best combination of factors for rapid cultivation of the protonema of D.ditrichoides is 0.1% NaClO disinfection 15-20 s+Hoagland/Knop+pH=7.5. Our experiment can be determined to shorten the growth cycle of D.ditrichoides and realize rapid propagation, thereby providing experience for the rapid culture and engineering application of moss crust.
    Construction and Expression of mCherry Expression Vector Used in Plant
    YU Ying, LIU Jia-Xin, ZHOU Mei-Qi, ZHAO Lei-Fei, WANG Chao
    2017, 37(2):  194-199.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.006
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    Fluorescent proteins were widely used and played important roles in the biological research. The red fluorescent protein mCherry is valuable to the plant research because of its color and stability. The mCherry gene was inserted into pBI121 plant expression vector, and the pBI121MCS-mCherry vector was constructed. The vector were transferred into onion epidermis by particle bombardment, and the whole onion cells showed red fluorescence under the microscope, which suggested that the vector could express red fluorescent protein in plant cells. The transcription factor BpMYB4 gene was constructed in this vector using double enzyme digestion, and the fusion expression vector pBI121MCS-mCherry-BpMYB4 was obtained and expressed in onion epidermis. Only the nucleus showed red fluorescence, which indicated that the vector can be used to express the fusion protein and used in the subcellular localization accurately. While the fusion expression vector can be constructed simply, and the intermediate vectors are no longer required. The KpnⅠ sites was introduced which can help the fusion of more genes. Therefore, mCherry vector can be used in cell localization of plant genes and screening of transgenic plants. This study would provide materials for genomics research of birch in future.
    Research on Understory Vegetation and Soil Physical-chemical Properties of Teak Plantation with Difference Stand Densities
    ZHOU Shu-Ping, LIANG Kun-Nan, DU Jiang, LI Bi-Jun, ZHOU Zai-Zhi, HUANG Gui-Hua
    2017, 37(2):  200-210.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.007
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    We studied the effect of teak(Tectona grandis L.f) plantations with different densities on understory vegetation and soil physical-chemical properties for providing theoretical basis for establishment and sustainable management of teak plantations. We used teak plantations at age of 14-16 with different stand densities(650, 900, 1 050, 1 200 and 1 450 tree·hm-2) in Jieyang City of Guangdong Province in the experiment. We recorded the species name, quantity, height and coverage of understory vegetation by plant quadrate, and measured soil physical-chemical properties by collecting soil samples from 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths, respectively. We investigated the diversity index of understory vegetation and soil physical-chemical property to evaluate site quality of teak plantation under different densities by principal component analysis. The coverage of understory vegetation was decreased with the increase of stand density. The dominant species of herbs were changed from sun species to shade-tolerant species with the increase of stand density, and the Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, Richness index, and Evenness index jointly showed a tendency that falls after increases first along with the raise of stand density. The physical-chemical properties in the upper layer of soil were superior to these in the deeper layer of soil at the same density. With the increase of stand density, the soil physical-chemical properties presented a change process from first improvement to degradation. The capillary porosity, non-capillary porosity, available K, available P, total P, exchangeable acid and exchangeable aluminum of soil showed significant difference among the different stand densities(P<0.05). By biodiversity indexes and physical-chemical properties of principal component analysis, the order of the composite score of different stand densities on species diversity and soil physical-chemical properties from high to low was:1 050 tree·hm-2(4.82), 900 tree·hm-2(1.58), 650 tree·hm-2(-1.30), 1 200 tree·hm-2(-1.81) and 1 450 tree·hm-2(-3.29). By principal component analysis, the stand density(1 050 tree·hm-2) was more favorable to maintaining better undergrowth species diversity and soil physical-chemical properties. Stand density would be adjusted reasonably according to the actual situation in the management process of teak plantation.
    Expression Analysis of Rev1 and Rev3 of Halostachys caspica under Salt Stress
    DU Chi, ZHANG Ji, ZHANG Fu-Chun
    2017, 37(2):  211-215.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.008
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    According to the transcriptome of Halostachys caspica under salt stress, the real-time PCR primers designed about Rev1 and Rev3 were referred to the ESTs of transcriptome sequencing. We established a method for detecting of mRNA transcription of Revs by Real-time PCR, and the transcription level of Revs in different concentration of NaCl present. Two genes have similar expression pattern, the expression levels remain stable under 100 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatment. As the concentration of NaCl was increased and the stress time was prolonged, the genes relative expression levels were also gradually increased. HcRev1 gene in 700 mmol·L-1 NaCl stress for 14 d was rapidly up-regulated and reached the peak level, which was 4.63-fold of the control. HcRev3 gene in 300 mmol·L-1 NaCl stress for 14 d was 15.55-fold of the control with significant differences. Both HcRev1 and HcRev3 genes were induced by salt stress, although there were different expression levels of HcRev1 and HcRev3 genes, which were involved in the DNA damage repair during salt stress.Our study could be used to clarify the regulatory function of HcRev1 and HcRev3 genes between DNA damage-repair and salt resistance in plants.
    C,N and P Stoichiometry at Different Stages of Litter Decomposition in Subalpine Forest of Western Sichuan Province and Interspecies Comparison
    SHEN Xian, LIU Yang, DENG Jing, SHI Jia-Qi
    2017, 37(2):  216-226.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.009
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    We used spatial sequence instead of time successional sequence to study the stoichiometry of litter decomposition in subalpine forest of Western Sichuan. Three litter layers including Fresh litter layer(L), Fermentative layer(F) and Humus layer(H) under natural conditions were taken to simulate different litter decomposition stages, studied on Carbon(C), nitrogen(N), phosphorus(P) and dissolved organic carbon(DOC), soluble nitrogen(SN) and phosphorus(SP) contents of three litter layers of Picea asperata(Pa), Abies faxoniana(Af), Betula platyphylla Suk(Bp) and Rhododendron lapponicum(Rl) in four subalpine forests. The forest type and decomposition stages significantly affected C, N, P contents and its stoichiometric ratio in the process of litter decomposition. For all the forest litter, DOC and SP contents reduced and leached quickly at the early decomposition stage whereas slowly in the later periods of decomposition. SN, SP and DOC contents of hardwood species were generally higher than those of conifer species, which in the order of Bp > Rl > Af > Pa, especially at the early decomposition stages. There was significant difference between conifer species and hardwood species, and SN content of Pa and Af reduced with the ongoing of decomposition process while Bp and Rl got highest in the F layer. C content reduced with the ongoing of decomposition process, and N content of Af, Bp and Rl got highest when they were in the Fermentative layer(F > L > H). Litter decomposition stages had no significant effect on P content of Pa and Bp. Overall, litter C/P and N/P of subalpine forest were significantly lower than the global average, C/N, C/P, N/P, DOC/C, SN/N, SP/P also reduced with the ongoing of decomposition process. For DOC/C, Bp and Rl significant decreased at early decomposition stages, and Af significantly decreased at late decomposition stages. N:P of Af increased at first and then decreased, but for Rl showed a trend of rising in the decomposition. These results provided a comprehensive understanding of the litter decomposition process and nutrient cycling in the subalpine forest.
    Morphological Variations, Genetics and Geographic Background of Echinochloa crus-galli in China
    ZOU Man-Yu, LU Yong-Liang, YIN Li-Ping, GUO Shui-Liang
    2017, 37(2):  227-235.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.010
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    Thirty-three seeds of Echinochloa crus-galli(L.) P. Beauv. from paddy regions of nine provinces(Autonomous Region) of China were sampled and sown in the same environment. Their offspring were obtained. Sixteen morphological traits of their offspring were measured. Nine ISSR primers with good repeatability were selected and 109 ISSR loci were amplified from thirty-three E.crus-galli samples. Based on morphological traits and locus information, cluster analysis and principal component analysis on these thirty-three populations were conducted. The main results are as follows:(1)Four morphological groups were identified from these populations, among them are E.crus-galli var. zelayensis(Kunth) Farw., E.crus-galli var. mitis(Pursh) Peterm. and E.crus-galli var. praticola Ohwi; (2)Six groups were also identified from these samples by using cluster analysis based on ISSR locus data, which corresponds well with the morphological groups, especially for E.crus-galli var. praticola; (3) Obvious genetic differentiation existed among these thirty-three populations, which is obviously influenced by the geographical locations(r=0.684, n=33, P<0.001). Their morphological variation, however, is weakly affected by the geographical locations(r=0.245, n=33, P<0.2); (4) Both the morphological data and the ISSR data separated the populations of E.crus-galli var. praticola from the other populations. Therefore, the variety was suggested to elevate to species level:Echinochloa praticola(Ohwi) Guo S L, Lu Y L, Yin L P & Zou M Y.
    Flowering Biological Characteristics of Olea europaea(Chenggu 32) in the North Subtropical of China
    WU Wen-Jun, LU Juan, ZHAO Meng-Jiong, SHI Yan-Hu, JIANG Cheng-Ying
    2017, 37(2):  236-241.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.011
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    We studied the flowering phenology, sexual system and flowering characters of Olea europaea L.(Chenggu 32) grown in the north subtropical areas of China to explore the characteristics of its sexual reproduction system. We analyzed the flowering biology including the florescence process, flower shape, the position and quantity of male and hermaphrodite flower as well as the pollen morphology of chenggu32 located in the southern slope of West Qinling region. These results indicated that:(1) O.europaea L. flowering phase is concentrated in May under the climatic conditions of tropical inland North. Plant flowering individuals last 15-20 days, while full-blossom period within 4-6 days; (2) O.europaea L. has an andromonoecy sexual system and the flower organ is small. Both the male flower and hermaphrodite flower have normal developing stamens. Based on the morphological observation conventional paraffin sectioning method, the pistil of hermaphrodite flower grow normally, while the pistil of male flowers has the smaller ovary and abortive stigma; (3) The pistil is the major organ for influencing biomass between the two flower types. Compared with male flowers, biomass of hermaphrodite flower is significantly larger than male flower(P<0.01), which needs fewer resources during tree differentiation; (4)There is no significant difference of pollen amount and pollen grains between male and hermaphrodite flower. The hermaphrodite flowers developed on the top of rachis, while male flowers mainly distributed at the base and center of rachis at the ratio of 21.13% and 30.77% respectively. Therefore, Chenggu 32 has typical andromonoecy. As for male flowers of Chenggu32, the location of inflorescence has no advantage for his male function. It also has no superiority about the pollen grain quantity and vitality of male flowers. However, the appearance of male flowers increased the pollen quantity and P/O, and improved the male fitness. It reduced the plant resource waste for the reason of hermaphrodite flowers fallen, thus guaranteeing the maximum breeding in limited environmental resources.
    Effects of Different Culture Medium on Moringa Seedling Growth and Correlation analysis in Northern China
    XU Hai-Jun, CHENG Xin-Yu, WANG Xiao-Fei, SUN Yu-Feng
    2017, 37(2):  242-248.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.012
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    We investigated the effects of different cultivation medium on seedling growth of Moringa oleifera Lam., PKM1 and PKM2 under the facilities in northern China, the plant height, base diameter, anatomical shape character, and analyzed relationship between cultivation medium and growth of Moringa seedling. The results showed that peat+sand+rotten mushrooms base material(3:1:1, T2) was better fit for Moringa seedling growth than the other three treatments which are perlite+garden soil+humus(1:2:1, T1), garden soil+humus+peat+sand(2:1:1:1, T3) and garden soil(CK). The contents of organic matter, porosity, and unit weight in T2 substrate are 49.97 g·kg-1, 76.84%, and 0.58 g·cm-3, respectively. The available N, P, K in T2 are significantly higher than other treatments(P<0.05). The growth speed of Moringa seedling in T2 substrate are significantly faster than other treatments. After 71-day planting, the plant height of M.oleifera, PKM1 and PKM2 are 80.2, 115.67, and 81.0 cm, respectively, increased by 38.3%, 25.7%, and 28.6% more than T4(CK), respectively, and the base diameter are 13.27, 17.47, and 15.08 mm, respectively, increased by 32.0%, 14.6%, and 39.0% more than T4(CK), respectively. The aboveground part of seedling grows rapidly under T2 treatment. After 60-day culture, the skin of seedling under T2 is completely dead and broken up. The phloem fiber and xylem are the most developed among four treatments. So relationship between eight vector factors of substrate and plant height, base diameter were analyzed, the result indicate that the cultivation medium which contain high content of organic matter, with capacity of permeability and water retention is more suitable for the growth of Moringa seedling. The factors which are significantly correlative to growth of Moringa seedling are organic matter, available potassium, moisture content, porosity, bulk density, N and P(P<0.05).
    Comparison between Betalain and Flavonol Accumulation in Tricolor Bougainvillea peruviana ‘Thimma’ Based on Transcriptome
    XU Su-Xia, HUANG Qing-Yun, LIN Chun-Song, HUANG Yi-Jin, HU Ou
    2017, 37(2):  249-258.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.013
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    Bougainvillea peruviana ‘Thimma’, accumulating betalains, not anthocyanins occurring in majority of plants. The cultivar was characterized with either white, magenta, and white-magenta(variegated) bracts in the same branches. We first used magenta(Yp), bicolor(Ym) and white(Yw) open inflorescences for transcriptome analysis by sequencing. Candidate genes involving in pigment metablisms were validated by real-time PCR. We obtained 73,325 genes with average length of 616 bp. Out of DEGs, 327 candidate genes of betalain-biosynthesis, 308 flavonoid-biosynthesis genes and 466 anthocyanin-accumulation genes were detected. Eight candidate pigment-related genes were verified, four were responsible for betalain production(PPO, CYP76AD1, cDOPA-5-GT, DODA), and four responsible for flavonoids production(FLS, DFR, LDOX, 3-GT). Expression strength of four betalain production genes was well consistent with betalain-accumulation in Yp, Ym and Yw. Full later three anthocyanidin-producing genes(DFR, LDOX, 3-GT) were first verified and the expression varied in three samples. Expression of all eight candidate genes was well consistent with RNA-sequencing data. B.peruviana could provide a good tool to study physiological, phytochemical and molecular mechanisms in Bougainvillea, effectively eliminating the interference of some factors.
    Genetic Diversity and Fingerprints with SCoT Markers in Actinidia
    ZHANG An-Shi, ZHANG Zhong-Hai, QI Xiu-Juan, LIU Ying, LUO Yang
    2017, 37(2):  259-265.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.014
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    SCoT were used to analysis genetic diversity of the samples of 32 Actinidia varieties. The 11 primers were screened from 47 SCoT primers and 185 SCoT bands were obtained, including 180 polymorphic bands, with a polymorphism rate of 97.30%. The average Nei's gene diversity(H) and Shannon's information index(I) were 0.2384 and 0.3778. The cluster analysis conducted with UPGMA showed that 32 Actinidia varieties were divided into 5 groups at the genetic similarity coefficient of 0.78, and the constructed phylogenetic trees based on SCoT were consistent with the morphology results. The DNA fingerprints for 32 Actinidia varieties were established with 16 sites from 4 SCoT primers, and 32 Actinidia varieties could be identified by SCoT fringerprints.
    Variation and Selection of Growth Character on the Young Third Generation of Pinus massoniana
    ZHANG Zhen, YU Qi-Xin, TENG Guo-Xin, JIN Guo-Qing, FENG Zhong-Ping, ZHOU Zhi-Chun
    2017, 37(2):  266-273.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.015
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    We analyzed the genetic parameters, breeding value, accumulation and distribution of 2-year raw biomass with a half diallel cross among 6×6 on three generation young growth period of forest on Laoshan farm in Zhejiang Province. There were significant genetic differences among the tree height, ground diameter, crown breadth and number of living branch in the young period of Pinus massoniana. There were also significant genetic differences in the period of 2-year biomass between different hybrid combinations. The ground biomass accounted for 87.17% of the total plant biomass in 2-year hybrid combination. The height growth was the largest in the young period of tree growth trait. The height growth was increased by 4.23 times from 5 to 2 years. According to method of comprehensive breeding value, the tree height(H) breeding value combined with conjointly diameter(D0), and 2 a raw stem biomass index(Bs) to choose higher survival rate of hybrid combinations. The higher survival rate combinations were 22×44, 33×22 and 40×44 based on 20% year old open pollination progenies. Based on the value of tree height and ground diameter of plant breeding, 16 number of plant were chosen accounting for 2%. The average gain were 1.07 m(tree height), 1.58 cm(ground diameter), 0.32 m(crown breadth) and 4.67(living branch number), respectively.
    Growth Traits Variation Analysis and Family Selection of 3-year-old Various Ploidy Betula platyphylla
    HUANG Hai-Jiao, PENG Ru-Sheng, LIU Yu, JIANG Jing
    2017, 37(2):  274-280.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.016
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    The growth traits analysis and family selection of tree progeny are important links in the tree breeding. To select excellent birch hybrid progeny, 21 Betula platyphylla families were employed to determine the height(H), diameter at breast height(DBH) and volume(V) of 3-year-old seedlings. Results of variance analysis showed that differences of all growth traits among different families were highly significant(P<0.01). Family heritability of H, DBH and V were all higher than 0.75, belonging to highly inheritance. The family 311-15 was excellent at H, DBH and V, and 9.09%, 11.25%, 40.46% higher than other families, respectively. Moreover, there were not significant differences between triploid families 311-9, 311-25, diploid families 211-7, 211-2, 211-3, 211-6, 211-1 and triploid family 311-15 at H, DBH and V. Based on the analysis of subordinate function, triploid families 311-15, 311-9 and diploid families 211-7, 211-2 were selected as excellent clones when the selection rate was 20.00%. The genetic gains of four clones on H, DBH and V were 5.24%, 7.18% and 19.72%, respectively. Taking the average volume+2S as standard, 52 superior individuals were screened out. These results provide a reference for the popularization of birch excellent family and superior individual selection at southwest of liaoning, also form an important basis for alterations of high generation triploid seed orchards.
    PSⅡ Function and Intrinsic Characteristics of Light-harvesting Pigment Molecules for Sun- and Shading-leaf in Magnolia grandiflora During Overwintering
    HU Wen-Hai, YE Zi-Piao, YAN Xiao-Hong, YANG Xu-Sheng
    2017, 37(2):  281-287.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.017
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    Light absorption and energy transfer are determined by intrinsic characteristics of light-harvesting pigment molecules, which also have impacts on distribution of excited energy for photochemical reaction, heat dissipation and chlorophyll fluorescence. We compared the differences of the PSⅡ function and intrinsic characteristics of light-harvesting pigment molecules of sun- and shading-leaves to study the photoprotective strategies in overwintering Magnolia grandiflora. The slight photoinhibition was caused in leaves of M.grandiflora by low temperature during overwintering. Natural sunlight enhanced photoinhibition in sunleaf, however, low light condition was propitious to the recovery of photoinhibition in shading-leaf. Sun-leaf had lower chlorophyll content and the numbers of light-harvesting pigment molecules(N0) to reduce light energy absorption. Sun-leaf also possessed higher photochemical function and thermal energy dissipation in PSⅡ, which would protect photosynthetic apparatus against damage by low temperature and high light. Shading-leaf exhibited lower capability of photochemical reaction, however, possessed greater thermal energy dissipation, which would alleviate photoinhibition of shadingleaf under temporal high light condition during overwintering.
    Phenotypic Diversity Analysis of Seedling Leaf Traits of Manglietia conifera Dandy
    WEN Shan-Na, ZHONG Chong-Lu, JIANG Qing-Bin, CHEN Yu, ZHANG Yong, LI Qing-Ying
    2017, 37(2):  288-297.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.018
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    It studied the phenotypic variation in the leaves of Manglietia conifera with 12 provenances seedlings from Vietnam, and measured the leaf morphological traits(length, width, area, perimeter, length-width ratio, petiole length) and micro morphological characteristics of stomata(density, length, width, area, length-width ratio) by the variance analysis, variable coefficient(CV), correlation analysis and principal components analysis(PCA). There were significant differences in leaf phenotypic traits among M.conifera provenances. The average CV of leaf morphological traits of provenance LC2 was the maximum(22.09%), and TQ2 was the minimum(12.76%), leaf area recorded the largest CV(28.60%) while stomata width recorded the smallest CV(5.19%). The result of correlation analysis showed that there was significant correlation between leaf phenotypic traits(P<0.05), leaf perimeter was significantly correlated with longitude, and leaf length-width ratio were significantly correlated with longitude and latitude(P<0.05), leaf phenotypic traits were not significantly correlated with longitude and altitude)(P<0.05). By PCA, the cumulative contribution rate of the first 3 principal components was 89.29%, basically represent all the information of the original character. By cluster analysis, the 12 provenances could be clustered into 4 groups at the Euclidean distance of 5. There is abundant variation of leaf phenotypic traits in M.conifera provenances, longitude and latitude have obvious influence on leaf morphological characteristics of M.conifera, and there is difference of variation degree among provenances and leaf phenotypic traits of M.conifera. Our study provides theoretical basis for genetic improvement of M.conifera.
    Influences of Fertilization on Growth and Fruiting of Fraxinus mandschurica
    WANG Xi-Gang, ZHAN Ya-Guang, ZHANG Gui-Qin, YAN Chao-Fu, LI Xiang, ZENG Fan-Suo
    2017, 37(2):  298-303.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.019
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    The experiment was conducted to study the effect of fertilization on growth and flowering of Fraxinus mandschurica. Fertilizers with the orthogonal test containing 3 factors and 3 levels of N, P and K were formulated. The study materials included 2-year-old grafting seedlings of F.mandschurica, 13-year-old juvenile F.mandschurica and 29-year-old adult F.mandschurica. Height and ground diameter of grafting seedlings, height and DBH(diameter at breast height) of juvenile, flowering rate and seed setting rate of adult were measured. The results showed that fertilization promoted the growth of F.mandschurica. For grafting seedlings, the order of effect of 3 fertilizers on height growth and ground diameter growth is N > P > K, and the optimal combination is with N of 0.006 kg, P of 0.012 kg and K of 0.008 kg. For the juvenile, the order of effect of 3 fertilizers on height growth and diameter growth is N > P > K, and the optimal combination is with N of 0.15 kg, P of 0.3 kg and K of 0.2 kg. For adult trees, the order of effect of 3 fertilizers on flowering rate and seed setting rate is N > K > P, and the optimal combination is with N of 0.3 kg, P of 0.6 kg, and K of 0.4 kg. Therefore, the fertilization could improve the growth of F.mandschurica.
    Allocation Patterns and Allometric Relationships between Above- and Below-ground Biomass of Three Life-form Herbaceous Plants in the Gurbantünggüt Desert
    ZHAO Jing, WANG Xi-Yuan
    2017, 37(2):  304-311.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.020
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    We took biomass survey samples on herbaceous plants along the southern margin Gurbantünggüt desert to study the biomass allocation features of herbaceous plants of different life-forms in Gurbantünggüt Desert. Results showed that:(1) most of the total biomass of the sampled 34 species of herbaceous plants was less than 4 g, most of whose above-ground biomass(AGB) and below-ground biomass(BGB) was less than 2 and 0.5 g, respectively, and their root-shoot ratios(R/S) were less than 0.25; (2) Ephemeroids allocated more biomass to below ground parts and had a higher R/S, which distributed around 1.67 intensively; Ephemerals and annuals allocated much less biomass to belowground parts, both of which has smaller R/S around 0.15; (3)The growth speed of the biomass of up-ground and below-ground parts of ephemeral parts was equal, but that of the ephemeroids was unequal. The proportion of the ephemeroids biomass allocated to the below-ground parts was increased complying with the individual's enlargement, while annuals biomass was on contrast. Therefore, the biomass of up-ground and below-ground parts of ephemeral, ephemeroids and annuals has different allocation features, which is consistent with the special plant life story features.
    Comparative Study on the Soil Respiration and Component Characteristics of Primary Broad-leaved Korean Pine Forest and Betula costata Secondary Forest in Xiaoxing'an Mountatins,China
    GENG Zhao-Peng, MAO Zi-Jun, HUANG Wei, HAN Ying-Ying
    2017, 37(2):  312-320.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.02.021
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    Primary broad-leaved Korean pine forest is a typical zonal climax vegetation type in the temperate zone of China. Betula costata secondary forest is one of its typical secondary forests. The study on soil respiration and the characteristics of the components of the primitive broad-leaved Korean pine forest and B.costata secondary forest will be helpful in gaining insight into Xiaoxing'an Mountains spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of carbon source and sink as well as its main influence factors. The final end is to accurately evaluate the carbon balance of this region. We tested the soil respiration(RS) of Primary broad-leaved Korean pine forest and B.costata secondary forest in 2013 and 2014, adopted procedure of quantization in the test of soil respiration components(heterotrophic respiration RH, autotrophic respiration RA), and surveyed the soil temperature and soil moisture at 10 cm of the soil. The soil respiration and its main components feature obvious seasonal variation, which is mainly influenced by temperature. The temperature at the depth of 10 cm of the soil can explain the variation of RS of 64%-70%, RH of 56%-65%, and RA of 77%-79%. As for the temperature sensitivity, primary broad-leaved Korean pine forest's Q10 value of soil respiration>B.costata secondary forest Q10 value of soil respiration. While in the comparison of a single forest, Q10 of RA > Q10 of RS > Q10 of RH. The general Q10 value presents obvious seasonal changes and the value decreases with the rise in temperature. The average soil respiration of RS of the primitive broad-leaved Korean pine forest and the B.costata secondary forest are 3.92 and 4.06 μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively, the average soil respiration of RH are 2.97 and 2.85 μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively, while the average soil respiration of RA are 0.96 and 1.17 μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively. The average annual flux of RS of the primitive broad-leaved Korean pine forest and the B.costata secondary forest are 942 and 971 m-2·a-1 C, respectively; the average annual flux of RH are 709 and 677 m-2·a-1 C, respectively, while the average annual flux of RA are 215 and 276 m-2·a-1 C, respectively. The average annual flux of RS of Primary broad-leaved Korean pine forest is higher than that of B.costata secondary forest, but the differences are not significant. The area of Xiaoxing'an Mountains is in the succession process of B.costata secondary forest, vegetation succession influence on soil respiration and its components is not obvious, and compared with environmental factor the temperature and humidity is much smaller.