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    15 May 2017, Volume 37 Issue 3
    Elatostema kimhyense(Urticaceae),A New Species from Vietnam
    DO Van, LIN Yun, TRAN Ngoc, WEI Yi-Gang
    2017, 37(3):  321-324.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.001
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    A new species of Elatostema(Urticaceae), namely Elatostema kimhyense Y.G.Wei & V.T.Do, was described and illustrated. E.kimhyense was found out in forests on limestone hills at 350-1 200 m asl.. The new species is related to E.vietnamense Q.Lin & L.D.Duan, but differs from the latter by carnose stems, penninerved leaves, abaxial leaf surface hirtellous, hirtellous bracts and bracteoles.
    Drought-resistance of Sophora moorcroftiana from Different Population from Leaf Anatomical Structure
    LIU Bin, MA Wen-Jun, WANG Jun-Hui, PUBU Ci-Ren, XIANG Yan
    2017, 37(3):  325-333.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.002
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    With Sophora moorcroftiana samples collected from 11 populations in Tibet, we processed them with paraffin section methods and measured 11 leaf anatomical structure indexes. Variance analysis, correlation analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis by SPSS were performed to screen for the most representative leaf anatomical structure indexes. The S.moorcroftiana from different population was evaluated by subordinate function. The Results showed:(1)S.moorcroftiana leaves were typical isolateral leaf in which spongy tissue exists in the middle of palisade tissue. Among the 11 populations, the thickness of leaf, the thickness of palisade tissue, the diameter of vein vascular bundle, and the tightness of cell structure showed extremely significant difference(P<0.01), P/S ratio showed significant difference(P<0.05), while other indexes showed no significant difference; (2)From data analysis, the thickness of leaf, upper epidermis and upper cuticle could be used as main drought analyze resistance index, other indexes can be used as subsidiary Index; (3)LS1 and NY1 populations showed stronger drought resistance than NC1 and YL1 populations. For S.moorcroftiana, the thickness of leaf, upper epidermis and upper cuticle are the main anatomical factors that affect the drought resistance and can be used as major indexes for the evaluation of drought resistance. However, other factors, including physiological and biochemical parameters in the period of seed germination and seedling, should be taken into consideration for more accurate and comprehensive evaluation of drought resistance in S.moorcroftiana.
    Characteristics of Stigma in Six Clematis Species and Its Adaptation to Pollination
    WANG Si-Yuan, WU Hai-Yan, CAI Zheng-Wang, SU Xue, HOU Qin-Zheng, SUN Kun
    2017, 37(3):  334-339.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.003
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    An unusual developmental pattern of stigma was observed in six Clematis species(Clematis tangutica(Maxim.) Korsh., Clematis fruticosa Turcz., Clematis glauca Willd., Clematis gracilifolia Rehd. et Wils., Clematis argenfilucida(Levl. et Vant.) W.T.Wang, Clematis brevicaudata DC.) by scanning electron microscopy. The stigmas of Clematis flowers were on the ventral sides of the styles, and developed into stigmatic papillae by cells along the ventral slits. The shape of papillae change along with the development of stigma. During anthesis, the receptive surfaces matured in a sequence from the apical towards the basal ends of the styles. Stigma development pattern is functionally concerted with other floral design. Our study will be a new field of vision to understand the evolution of stigma in pollen capture with a reference value in breeding and cultivation of ornamental Clematis species.
    Response Differences of Radial Growth of Picea schrenkiana to Climate Warming in Midwestern Tianshan Mountains
    ZHANG Yan-Jing, ZHENG Hong-Wei, YU Rui-De, YANG Mei-Lin, SHI Bing-Bing, WANG Lei
    2017, 37(3):  340-350.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.004
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    The experiment was conducted to study the response differences of radial growth of Picea schrenkiana to climate warming in Wusu and Shihezi regions. Dendrochronological methods including response function and evolutionary intervals analysis method were applied to study the relationships between radial growth and climatic factors of P.schrenkiana at the lower forest border of the two regions. The radial growth of P.schrenkiana at two regions was significantly correlated to the local climatic factors in the growing season, but the differences in response were statistically significant. In Wusu, the radial growth of P.schrenkiana was significantly negatively correlated to the average temperature in previous July and September but significantly positively correlated to precipitation in current August, the average relative humidity in previous September and current August, and scPDSI from July to October last year. In Shihezi, the radial growth of P.schrenkiana was significantly positively correlated to the average relative humidity in current January, and scPDSI in current January and February. The tree ring width index in Wusu showed a decreasing trend namely "separation phenomenon" with the increasing of temperature, while that in Shihezi was increased with the increasing temperature. For P.schrenkiana in Wusu, water stress caused by temperature rising was the main factor causing the opposite tendency between radial growth and temperature change. The increase of temperature and precipitation in the growing season mutually enhanced the P.schrenkiana growth in Shihezi. The sensitivity of radial growth of P.schrenkiana to average temperature and precipitation from May to July was increasing in Wusu. The sensitivity of radial growth of P.schrenkiana to precipitation from May to July was increased in Shihezi, while the sensitivity to average temperature was decreased from May to July. Therefore, the regional differences in climate change were the main factor in the radial growth difference at two regions and the sensitivity change to temperature and precipitation in chronological series.
    Phylogenetic Relationship of Several Species from Iris L. Based on rbcL Sequences
    JIANG Yu-Lin, LIU Yu-Jing, FENG Yi-Mei, TAN Miao, JIANG Tian-Yi, YU Xiao-Fang
    2017, 37(3):  351-359.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.005
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    The phylogenesis of Iris L. was analyzed using the chloroplast genes rbcL. Classification was performed with maximum parsimony method and the gene tree were constructed with Crocosmia crocosmiflora as outgroup, 21 wild populations of Iris L. from China and download 49 sequences from GenBank. As for disputed species, clustering trees results showed Iris lactea var. chinensis(Fisch.) Koidz. had close relationship with Iris lactea Pall.. Iris confusa Sealy had more close relationship with Iris japonica Thunb. than that with Iris wattii Baker. Iris goniocarpa var. tenella Y.T. Zhao was very relevant to Iris goniocarpa Baker, but Iris goniocarpa var. grossa Y.T. Zhao was distant. Iris sichuanensis Y.T. Zhao and Iris leptophylla Lingelsh. were closely related. Clustering relationships of Series Sibirica were very complexed, and genetic relationgships were not clear.
    Impact of Precipitation Intensity on the Decomposition of Floor Litter and the Fine Roots of Picea schrenkiana
    LI Ji-Mei, ZHANG Yu-Yao, LI Xiang, HAN Yan-Liang
    2017, 37(3):  360-369.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.006
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    To study the characteristics of litter decomposition of the dominant tree species of mountain forests in arid areas under different precipitation conditions, a field simulation experiment was performed with three precipitation treatments of ZP(zero precipitation), CK(natural precipitation), and DP(double precipitation). The impact of precipitation intensity on the decomposition of litter(leaves and branches) and the fine roots of Picea schrenkiana was investigated. Compared with decomposition rates of leaf, branch and fine root under CK treatment, those of under ZP treatment were 24.79%,2.54% and 23.09% lower, whereas, those of under DP treatment were 7.04%, 0.68% and 10.70% higher, respectively. ZP treatment significantly inhibited the decomposition of leaf litters and fine roots(P<0.05) and weakly inhibited the decomposition of branch litters(P>0.05). DP treatment only significantly promoted the decomposition of fine roots(P<0.05). For the CK and DP treatments, the monthly average decomposition rates of leaf litters and fine roots and branch litters showed single-peak curves, respectively, whereas the monthly average decomposition rates of litters and fine roots were relatively stable for ZP treatment. The remaining rates of the lignin and cellulose from different organs showed that ZP>CK>DP. With the different precipitation treatments, the release patterns of N were different, whereas the release patterns of C were essentially the same. By correlation analysis, the monthly decomposition rate of litter was not significantly correlated with soil temperature at depths in 0 10 cm(P>0.05) but showed a significant positive linear correlation with the soil water content(P<0.05). Our findings highlight that future climatic change effects should fully consider the organ-dependent differences of litter and root decomposition in arid mountain forests.
    Transformation of EaDREB2B Gene into Sugarcane Using pmi Gene as Selectable Marker
    WU Yang, HE Li, HUANG Yong, ZHANG Mu-Qing
    2017, 37(3):  370-376.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.007
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    The plant expression vector of pDREB-PMI was constructed successfully with expression vector of prd29a-dreb-hyg and pZMLR14 by restriction-ligase reaction. Sugarcane callus were transformed with pDREB-PMI expression vector by bombardment. After mannose selection, 51 regenerated plants were obtained with the transformation rate of 4.25%. All of these 51 seedlings were detected with molecular detection, and the 8 seedlings were positive transgenic sugarcane. Chlorophenol red assay of transgenic sugarcane leaf showed that the pmi gene was expressed in transgenic plants. T1-generation transgenic sugarcane were detected by PCR and RT-PCR, and the exogenous gene EaDREB2B was stably inherited. The results laid the foundation of further research on the effect of EaDREB2B gene in improving sugarcane resistance to drought stress.
    Seed Rain,Soil Seed Bank and Quantitative Dynamics of Seedlings of Emmenopterys henryi Populations in Different Altitude Regions
    GUO Lian-Jin, CAO Hao-Wei, XU Wei-Hong, TIAN Yu-Qing, XIAO Zhi-Peng
    2017, 37(3):  377-386.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.008
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    Emmenopterys henryi Oliv., the only species of the genus Emmenopterys belonging to the family Rubiaceae, is one of the most rare trees endemic to China. The size of the wild population of E.henryi has been noted to be very small and to be endangered now. In Wuyishan Natural Reserve, the seed rain, seed banks and the dynamics of seedlings of E.henryi were observed continuously. We demonstrated the dynamic processes of natural regeneration of E.henryi populations to find out the most weak stages as well as their impacting factors, and ultimately to provide scientific basis for the recovery of E.henryi populations. Five E.henryi trees were selected and labeled as the research objects in each plot with different altitudes. In the directions of east, west, south and north of every E.henryi tree labeled, five sampling points was arranged, and on each point one 0.5 m×0.5 m×0.2 m collection box was set to estimate the seed rain, nine 0.5 m×0.5 m mini-plots were set to study the dynamic of the soil seed bank, and the seed germination and growth dynamic of seedlings were observed in each plot. The seed rain lasted for about two months, and the maximum intensity of seed rain emerged from the late November to mid of December, which was the peak of seed rain. With the altitude increasing, both of the total seed density and predated seed density were decreased significantly, by contrast, the thousand seed weight and intact seed density were both increased. The seed bank of E.henryi populations was transient soil seed bank. The seed densities on the southern and eastern sides of the mother tree were more than those of other directions, and most of the seeds were distributed in litter and moss layers. In March, the proportion of intact seeds in soil seed bank was only 1.80% of all dispersed seeds and the survival rate of one-year E.henryi seedlings was 6.18%. The loss of seeds in soil seed bank is the main reason resulting in the difficulty of the natural regeneration of E.henryi population. Different ground surface types had a significant effect on the survival of the seedlings, since the mortality rate of seedlings growing in litter and moss layers was 88%, which was significantly higher than that in soil(64%). The litter and moss layers in the forest should be cleared up to release more space for soil and also reduce the coverage of the herbaceous, thus the probability of the seeds to go bad or be destroyed decreased and therefore the radicle of the seedlings could be better reach the soil. The light condition should also be improved, and therefore the natural regeneration of E.henryi population could be improved.
    Cloning,Construction of Expression Vector and Expression Analysis of NtCBL1 in Nicotiana tabacum
    ZHANG Xue-Wei, LIU Lun, LU Li-Ming, LI Li-Qin
    2017, 37(3):  387-394.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.009
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    CBL is a kind of Ca2+ sensor, which plays a pivotal role in adaptation or resistance to stress in plants. A CBL1 homologous gene was cloned from the tobacco cultivar K326, which contained a 642 bp ORF encoding 213 amino acid. The predictedmolecular weight was 24.5 kDa and the isoelectric point(pI) was 5.03. By the homology analysis, the gene had high homology with calcineurin B-like protein 1 of the Nicotiana sylvestris(NsCBL1) and Arabidopsis thaliana(AtCBL1), so named as NtCBL1. By bioinformatics analysis, NtCBL1 had the conserved EF-hand calcium binding domain of the CBL family. Expression patterns showed that the gene was expressed in roots, stems, leaves and flowers in mature stage, and the highest expression level in roots.Expression patterns under adversity stress indicated that the gene expression was induced by low-potassium, high-salt,anddrought, ABA and low-temperature, and participated in the response to biological and abiotic stress in Nicotiana tabacum. The research constructed NtCBL1-pBI121 overexpression vector.The results will provide some basis for the function analysis of NtCBL1 in response to stress.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of ThPP2C Gene from Tamarix hispida
    WANG Pei-Long, LIU Zhong-Yuan, ZHANG Teng-Qian, TANG Fei-Fei, QU Guan-Zheng, GAO Cai-Qiu
    2017, 37(3):  395-401.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.010
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    Protein phosphatase 2C(PP2C) is a kind of serine/threonine protein phosphatase, which is present in the body as monomer. The reversible phosphorylation by PP2C catalytic is an important component of the cell signal transduction, which is involved almost all the physiological and pathological processes. A novel PP2C gene(ThPP2C) was isolated from Tamarix hispida by RT-PCR. The opening reading frame(ORF)length of ThPP2C was 869 bp, encoding 282 amino acid. The relative molecular weight of ThPP2C protein was 30.54 kD, with isoelectric point 7.13. By the real-time RT-PCR, the expressions of ThPP2C were obviously difference in roots and leaves of T.hispida under the treatments(0.4 mol·L-1 NaCl, 20%(w/v) PEG6000, 150 μmol·L-1 ABA or 100 μmol·L-1 JA) compared to the control. The expression patterns of ThPP2C were not exactly similarity among these treatments. Particularly, the expression of ThPP2C in leaves of T.hispida after the treatments of NaCl, ABA and JA all were down-regulated. However, it was mainly up-regulated in roots under the treatments of NaCl and JA. With the treatment of ABA, the ThPP2C expression was down-regulated at the early stage and then gradually increased. Different with other three stress, under the treatment of PEG6000, the expressions of ThPP2C were obviously down-regulated in roots. It was not obviously different at the early stress stage in leaves until 48 h, when it was highly induced. Therefore, ThPP2C may play an important role in T.hispida to response the high salt, drought stress and hormones.
    Drought Response in Overexpression of Maize Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Rice Seedlings Treated by Inhibitors of ABA and HXK Pathway
    WU Min-Yi, LI Xia, HE Ya-Fei, ZHANG Chen, YAN Ting
    2017, 37(3):  402-415.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.011
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    The experiment was conducted to study the mechanism of drought tolerance in C4- phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase(PEPC) gene(C4-PEPC) transgenic rice(PC), PC and its untransformed wild-type rice lines, Kitaake(WT) as materials. Pretreated by light(light intensity:600 μmol·m-2·s-1) and dark on two rice lines with 4 leaves for 24 h, the pretreated rice lines were then conducted by 15% polyethylene glycol-6000(PEG-6000) simulated drought stress conditions for 4 h. Two inhibitors(one for Abscisic acid:100 μmol·L-1 nordihydroguaiaretic acid(NDGA) and the other for hexokinase(HXK):10 mmol·L-1 glucosamine(Gluc) were also added by root during the PEG-6000 treatment. Compared with WT rice lines, there were higher relative water content, lower malondialdehyde content and pro content in PC rice lines after drought treatment for 4 h involved in ABA and HXK pathways, conferring drought tolerance. But pre-dark treatment reduced the advantage of PC for drought tolerance. Soluble sugar content in two rice lines were increased in pre-light treatment and decreased in pre-dark treatment, which were regulated by ABA and HXK pathway. Among them, the Gluc inhibition of soluble sugar content in PC pre-light treated was the largest after the PEG treatment. There was no difference in soluble protein content of two rice lines either pretreated by light and dark during the PEG treatment. Similarly, pre-dark treatment reversed or eliminated the changes in two rice lines, which trends changed synchronously as those of sucrose, glucose and fructose contents. PEPC activities in PC lines did not change by pre-light or pre-dark treatments, showed PC belongs to constitutive expression. ABA and HXK pathways regulated negatively PEPC activity, which was synchronous with its low level of glucose in PC lines. Therefore, PC rice lines alleviated the damages of drought stress by sugar involved in ABA and HXK pathways, exhibiting stable photosynthetic ability and drought tolerance.
    Cloning of PhalPI Gene from Phalaenopsis and Its Expression in Floral Organ Mutants
    YUAN Xiu-Yun, XU Shen-Ping, WANG Ying-Bo, CUI Bo
    2017, 37(3):  416-423.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.012
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    For the regulatory mechanism of floral organ development in orchid, PhalPI gene(GenBank accession number:KY020416) was cloned from Phalaenopsis petals. By the sequence analysis, the cDNA full-length of this gene was 944 bp encoding 210 amino acid residues. The gene belongs to the GLO/PI group of the B class MADS-box transcription factor, which was highly identified with PhPI10 and PeMADS6 from Phalaenopsis. The PhalPI was expressed in reproductive organs and not in vegetative organs, the expression level was reduced in ovary after pollination. In 5 floral organ mutants, the expression level of the PhalPI gene was higher significantly in sepal and column of lip-like sepal mutants than that of the normal. The expression of this gene was decreased in sepals and petals in petal-like stamens mutant, and it was increased significantly in lip and column in this mutant. In column of Lateral petals pillared mutants, the expression of PhalPI gene was also increased significantly. The changes of expression level of the PhalPI gene in 3 floral organ mutants were associated with morphological mutations of floral organ. However, the expression levels of PhalPI gene were not changed in lip-like Lateral petals and anther-like Lateral petals mutants. Therefore, the PhalPI gene plays a crucial role in regulating Lateral petal and lip development in Phalaenopsis.
    Expression Analysis of Poplar MYB Transcription Factor Gene Family in Response to Salt Stress
    LI Xi-Yan, ZHAO Kai, ZHANG Xue-Mei, ZHOU Bo-Ru
    2017, 37(3):  424-431.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.013
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    MYB transcription factor family is one of the most important transcription factors in plants, and plays an important role in the process of plant secondary metabolism regulation, signal transduction and stress resistance. According to the difference of domain structure of MYB transcription factor, it can be divided into 4 subfamilies:1R-MYB(MYB-relaed), R2R3-MYB, 3R-MYB and 4R-MYB. Among them, the R2R3-MYB sub family with the largest number of members can be further divided into 22 subgroups. Using bioinformatics, the characterizations of conserved domain of Poplar MYB transcription factors, genomic location, amino acid composition and physicochemical properties were analyzed. According to the Arabidopsis MYB transcription factor, the functions of Poplar MYB transcription factor were predicted. Based on the transcriptome sequencing and RT-qPCR, 69 salt-stress responding genes(P ≤ 0.05) were screened from 301 MYB genes, including 32 up-regulated genes and 37 down regulated genes. The study could provide a reference for further study on the function of MYB family genes in Poplar.
    Overexpression of DlNAC1 Gene Isolated from Dendranthema lavandulifolium in Enhancing Heat Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco
    ZHU Kai, WU Jian, YANG Yan-Fang, CHEN Fa-Di, YU De-Yue
    2017, 37(3):  432-439.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.014
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    We studied the amino sequenceof DlNAC1 gene(GenBank accession number EF602304) cloned from Dendranthema lavandulifolium by bioinformatics methods, and the DlNAC1 gene was transformed tobacco plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediation method. Thepredicted DlNAC1 proteinhad hydrophilicity, and the second structure of this protein was mainly random coil. The NAC protein had six motif models and one NAC domain. The 36 of 55 transgenic tobacco plants were positive by PCR analysis. The heat stress tolerance of PCR positive tobacco plants was increased comparing with the wild plants. With 45℃ treatment for 6 h, the transgenic plants looked much stronger, whereas the wild type looked very weak with wilting leaves. The water content of transgenic plants was more than wild plants. However, the low temperature tolerance of the transgenic plants was not improvedafter 4℃ stress. All these results indicated that DlNAC1 gene improved the tolerance ability to the high temperature stress of transgenic tobacco plants.
    Intraspecific and Interspecific Competition of Machilus thunbergii Forest in Zhoushan Islands
    GAO Hao-Jie, GAO Ping-Shi, WANG Guo-Ming
    2017, 37(3):  440-446.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.015
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    Machilus thunbergii forest is one of the typical forest type in coastal areas of Zhejiang. To protect and obtain sustainable utilization of evergreen broadleaved forest in Zhoushan islands, studying the rule of dynamic changes of competition intensities and the ecological adaptation mechanism of M.thunbergii is important and meaningful. By using Hegyi's single-tree competition index model, the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensities of M.thunbergii, one of the dominant species in secondary forest of Taohua Island were quantitatively analyzed. Three types of competition intensity of M.thunbergii were decreased gradually with the increase of objective trees diameter, which showed a stronger competition at a smaller diameter. The intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of M.thunbergii accounted for 44.55% and 55.45% in the total competition intensity, respectively. The intraspecific competition intensity in M.thunbergii and the interspecific competition intensity of accompanying species were approximately equal, which meant that the intraspecific and interspecific competition were in balance status. The average competition index of deciduous species were strong, while those of evergreen species were weak. The competition mainly came from two competitors:Celtis sinensis and Liquidambar formosana. The order of the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of M.thunbergii was:Machilus thunbergii > Celtis sinensis > Liquidambar formosana > Zanthoxylum ailanthoides > Maclura tricuspidata > Cornus macrophylla > Platycarya strobilacea > Styrax confusus > Dalbergia hupeana > Viburnum odoratissimum var. Awabuki > Ficus erecta. There was a significantly negative correlation between three types of competition intensity and the DBH of objective trees. The relationship between the competition intensity and the DBH of objective trees followed the equation CI=AD-B. The change in competition intensity was very small when the DBH of M.thunbergii reached 20 cm. The model could effectively simulate and predict the intraspecific and interspecific competition of M.thunbergii. The tending management should be actualized to improve the survival of M.thunbergii and promote vegetation restoration when the DBH of M.thunbergii were under 20 cm.
    Analysis on SSR in Sinoswertia tetraptera Base on RAD-seq
    WANG Jiu-Li, ZHU Ming-Xing, XU Ming-Hang, CHEN Shi-Long, ZHANG Fa-Qi
    2017, 37(3):  447-452.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.016
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    We used the restriction-site associated DNA sequencing(RAD-seq) technology to analyze simple sequence repeats(SSR) information of Sinoswertia tetraptera(Maxiowicz) T.N.Ho, S.W.Liu & J.Q.Liu. The 5844 SSR loci, with at least 100 bp at two ends, were identified using SR search software. The 5339(91.38%) loci's primers were designed successfully. Among which, amount of tri-nucleotide SSR loci is the most(3323); repeat sequence length type number is 17, while repeat motif type number is 227, and type number of penta-nucleotide motif is the most(106). We employed 32 individuals from 4 natural populations of S.tetraptera to estimate usability and polymorphism of 10 pairs of SSR primers selected randomly from the 5 339 pairs of primers. According to the result of PCR and Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, four pairs of primers(ST2, ST3, ST6 and ST10) amplified favorably and showed polymorphism. By the GENEPOP 4.4, the mean number of alleles of the four loci is 6; these loci do not link to each other(P<0.01); these loci deviate from HWE(P<0.01) in most populations and have many homozygotes(observed heterozygosity mean 0.023), which due to the cleistogamous pollination mode of S.tetraptera. ST2 and ST6 were successfully amplified in Halenia elliptica. Our study will offer a SSR dataset in the future based on SSR markers of S.tetraptera.
    Expression Patterns of FmABI5 Gene Induced by Abiotic Stress and Signal in Fraxinus mandshurica
    SUN Shuang, ZHAO Xing-Tang, LIANG Nan-Song, LIU Ying, YU Lei, LIU Chun-Hao, QIN Jun-Qi, ZHAN Ya-Guang
    2017, 37(3):  453-460.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.017
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    Abscisic acid-insensitive 5(ABI5) protein was a basic leucine zipper(bZIP) transcription factor containing a basic DNA-binding domain linked to a leucine zipper domain and ABI5 protein response abscisic acid. We studied the FmABI5 expression pattern in signal induction and regulation, and analyzed gene function in metabolic regulation of Fraxinus mandshurica. The ABI5 gene was cloned from F.mandshurica, named FmABI5. The molecular structure of FmABI5 was analyzed by bioinformatics software. Abiotic stress by polyethylene glycol(PEG), salt(NaCl) and low temperature(4℃), and signal induced by abscisic acid(ABA) and gibberellin(GA) were used in the study. The expression patterns of FmABI5 induced by abiotic and signal induction were analyzed. By bioinformatics analysis, FmABI5 is 1 455 bp, and contains the complete ORF, encoding 484 amino acids. FmABI5 is a hydrophobic protein without signal peptide but with one transmembrane ability. The alpha helix, extension chain and random coil are distributed throughout the protein. By molecular evolution analysis, the genetic distance of FmABI5 gene between F.mandshurica and Sesamum is relative close. The gene heredity distance is farther with Solanum tuberosum, S.pennellii, S.torvum and Capsicum annuum, explaining the far genetic relationship with them. After abiotic stress, FmABI5 gene expression levels varied with abiotic stress time with fluctuations, but after 6, 48 and 72 h treatment, FmABI5 gene for three abiotic stress treatments were up-regulated, indicating FmABI5 genes are responsive to abiotic stresses. Therefore, the signal induced by exogenous ABA and GA regulate transcription expression of FmABI5 together.
    Effects of Agricultural Activities on Niche of Main Wetland Plant Populations in Sanjiang Plain
    HAN Ming-Hao, LIU Ying-Nan, ZHOU Dan, SUI Xin, NI Hong-Wei, MU Li-Qiang
    2017, 37(3):  461-467.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.018
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    Agricultural activities is one of the main disturbance styles in Sanjiang Plain, and the long-term agricultural activities had made a significant influence on the wetland environment. The 20 dominant species in Sanjiang Plain were selected to study its characteristics of niche breadth and niche overlap in 8 resources dimensions, including soil moisture, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total potassium, available potassium, and soil organic carbon, and reveal the impact of agricultural activities on the niche of dominant plant populations. Deyeuxia angustifolia has the greatest niche breadth, and Carex lasiocarpa has the smallest niche breadth among the dominant species. Among the companion species, Lysimachia thyrsiflora has the greatest niche breadth. The 20 dominant species showed the difference in utilization of different resources dimensions. More than 60% species showed a narrow niche breadth in SOC, and more than 60% species showed a wide niche breadth in soil moisture, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The dominant species showed the different niche breadth and niche overlap in soil moisture, SOC and N, and this differences are the main factors affecting the species distribution and population differentiation. The change of soil environment caused by agricultural activities would lead to the competition for limited resources among plant populations, and it would be also the key factors influencing the species composition and community dynamics.
    Pigments and Active Ingredients in Leaves of Seven Eucommia ulmoides Variation-types
    DU Qing-Xin, QING Jun, ZHU Jing-Le, DU Hong-Yan, DU Lan-Ying
    2017, 37(3):  468-473.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.019
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    The experiment was conducted to investigate the formation reasons for different colors and the active ingredients content of red leaf Eucommia ulmoides variation-types. With seven red leaf E.ulmoides variation-types and one green leaf E.ulmoides, the color, pigments distribution and content, and active ingredients content in leaf were determined. The front of blade was dark red or purple red of seven red leaf E.ulmoides variation-types, and the palisade tissue was red or dark red. The backs of No.3, 5 and 6 were red with red lower epidermis, and those of No.1, 2, 4 and 7 were green with transparent lower epidermis. The contents of Ca, Cb and CT in seven red leaf were lower than those of in control check leaf, while CCar, CF content and the value of CCar/CT and CF/CT were significantly higher than those of in control check leaf, and there were the differences of pigment content between seven red leaf. Five kinds of active ingredients content were high in seven red lea, and the contents of chlorogenic acid, geniposide, and total flavonoids were higher than those of in control check. The distribution and content of CF and the value of CF/CT were the main reasons for different colors of seven red leaf, and the high content of active ingredients made it of great potential in the utilization of medicine. This study would provide materials for ornamental and medicine E.ulmoides resources.
    Process Optimization of Ultrasonic Assisted Deep Eutectic Solvents(DESs) Extraction of Polyphenols from Hippophae rhamnoides Seed Meal
    NI Yu-Jiao, ZHAO Chun-Jian, LI Chun-Ying, LI Guo-Chun, WANG Kai-Ting, ZHANG Yu-Kun
    2017, 37(3):  474-480.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.03.020
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    A range of deep eutectic solvents(DESs) as the solvent were used for extraction polyphenols with ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods from sea buckthorn. According to the single-parameter study, experiment factors(ultrasonic power、ultrasonic time、ultrasonic temperature) remarkably affected the yield of polyphenols were selected and Box-Behnken experimental design was investigated to be optimized by response surface methodology. The results indicated that with 30% water in Choline chloride-Oxalic acid as the suitable solvent and liquid to material ratio of 14:1, the optimal conditions of ultrasonic extraction were as follows:ultrasonic power of 420 W, ultrasonic time of 56 min, and ultrasonic temperature of 44℃. Under these conditions, the yield of polyphenols was(3.31±0.08)%. Comparison experiment indicated that the extraction efficiency of polyphenols from sea buckthorn seed meal by DES was superior to the traditional solvent. Compared with the heat refluxing extraction method, DESs extraction method was a extraction technology with high efficiency.