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    20 January 2012, Volume 32 Issue 1
    Taxonomic Status of Cephalotaxus alpina(Li) L.K.Fu(Cephalotaxaceae) in the Views of Morphological Characteristics of Seeds and Leaves
    LANG Xue-Dong;SU Jian-Rong*;LU Shu-Gang;ZHANG Zhi-Jun;LI Shuai-Feng
    2012, 32(1):  4-9.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.002
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    The significant differences in length, width, thickness, length/thickness ratio, and width/thickness ratio of seeds, as well as in length and width of leaves between Cephalotaxus alpina(Li) L.K.Fu and Cephalotaxus fortunei Hooker were shown in this study. The width range and mean of leaf of C.fortunei Hooker are 3.50-6.20 cm and 5.02 cm, respectively. In contrast, C.alpina(Li) L.K.Fu has only 2.00-3.50 cm and 2.89 cm. The range of seed width/thickness ratio and mean of C.fortunei Hooker are 0.53 and 1.43, respectively, while C.alpina(Li) L.K.Fu is 0.23 and 1.02, respectively. Scatter diagrams of C.alpina(Li) L.K.Fu and C.fortunei Hooker illustrated that the variations in leaves length, seeds length, seeds width, seeds thickness, seeds length/width ratio and seeds length/thickness ratio between these two taxa can not differ C.alpina(Li) L.K.Fu from C.fortunei Hooker, but the variation in leaves width and seeds width/thickness ratio can differ C.alpina(Li) L.K.Fu from C.fortunei Hooker notably. Based on these significant differences, we supported the view that Fu (1984) treated C.fortunei Hooker var. alpina H.L.Li as C.alpina(Li) L.K.Fu, and disagreed with the argument that Silba(2007) thought C.fortunei Hooker var. alpina Li as C.fortunei Hooker subsp. alpina(Li) Silba. On the other hand, there were evidences supporting that C.fortunei Hooker var. globosa S.Y.Hu(1964) should be the same taxon with C.alpina(Li) L.K.Fu. Finally, a new plates 1-6 was provided.
    Micromorphological Features of Epidermis of 20 Species Ferns from Yunnan
    XU Cheng-Dong;CHEN Yan-Ping;FENG Jian-Meng
    2012, 32(1):  10-16.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.003
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    Epidermal micromorphology of 20 species ferns leaves from different families and genera in Yunnan were observed by optical microscope. The results showed that: different appendages exist in different leaves surface, some species have no appendage. There are eight stomatal apparatus types: polocytic, axillocytic, aotinocytic, diaisocytic, anomotetracytic, copolocytic, coaxillocytic and anomocytic types. The stomatal apparatus have multi-type phenomena, all the stomata are hypostomatic types, while their distributive modes and sizes also varies. The leaf epidermal cell micromorphology from different genera and families show certain differences, basically have irregular type, multilateral type or regular strip type. The leaf epidermal cell anticlinal walls are mainly corrugated, deep wavy or wavy. The results in this study provide basic references for systematics and evolution of ferns.
    Morphological Characteristics of Fruits of Koenigia(Polygonaceae) from China
    CHEN Yan-Song;ZHOU Zhong-Ze*
    2012, 32(1):  17-21.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.004
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    Macro- and micro-morphological characteristics of fruits in eight species of the genus Koenigia L. (Polygonaceae) from China were observed under stereoscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the results, the fruits of the studied species are divided into type Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ. In type Ⅰ: Achene is ovoid to lati-ovoid, intumescently in the middle to up middle, as a double burning glass. Its surface is smooth or rough, favulariately, or undulately. Four species, K.islandica, K.nummularifolium, K.forrestii and K.fertilis are in this type. In type Ⅱ: Achene is ovoid. Its intumescent in the middle, also have three ridged arrises but not notable. One species, K.delicatula is in this type. In type Ⅲ: Achene is ovoid. Maximum width occurred in middle but non-intumescent. Its have three ridged arrises. Their surface are smooth, rugosely, concave-convexly, or verrucately. This type contained three species, K.nepalensis, K.cyanandra and K.pilosa. According to the morphological characteristics of fruits, K.cyanandra and K.pilosa exist independently; K.islandica might be closely related to K.fertilis.
    Developmental Anatomy of the Floral Nectaries in Dracocephalum nutans Linn.
    GENG Hua-Mei;FU Qiang;GUO Jun;WANG Hong*
    2012, 32(1):  22-27.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.005
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    The nectaries in Dracocephalum nutans Linn. were located on receptacles under the ovary. The disk nectar upper split into four pieces a list, base in swollen reflexed round the lap cup-shaped receptacle. The nectary composed of secretory epidermis, nectariferous tissue and vascular bundles, which was typical structural nectary. Histochemistry stain indicated that the starch grain exhibited a regular change, hence the nectary belonged to starch nectary. During the development of nectaries tissue, the vacuole occured regular change and the starch grains and protein decreased and increased regularly. The nectar was secreted out through stomata and cuticle.
    Effects of Color Plastic Films on Shoot Regeneration of Stems of Phellodendron amurense and on Some Physiological and Biochemical Indexes During Shoot Regeneration
    WANG Hui-Mei;CHEN Ya-Jie;YU Hai-Di;ZU Yuan-Gang
    2012, 32(1):  28-31.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.006
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    The stems of sterile plantlets of Phellodendron amurense were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg·L-1 6-BA and 0.5 mg·L-1 NAA, the effects of different film filters on shoot regeneration from stem explants of P.amurense and some physiological and biochemical indexes changes during shoot regeneration were investigated. The results showed that there was obvious promotion of blue films to shoot regeneration and the highest percentage of shoot regeneration(75.4%) with the maximum number of shoots per callus(14.7) were observed under blue films, followed by fluorescent light and yellow films. However, red and green films were ineffective for shoot regeneration. In this study, it was found that blue films and fluorescent light induced lower chlorophyll a/b ratio and higher level of chlorophyll content than other treatment. Antioxidant enzymes activity and soluble protein were the highest under blue films, followed by fluorescent light, the lowest under green ones.
    Analysis and Evaluation on Genetic Diversity of Scutellaria baicalensis G. by ISSR Markers
    WEN Miao-Miao;LI Gui-Shuang;ZHANG Long-Jin;ZHENG Peng;BAI Cheng-Ke;*
    2012, 32(1):  32-37.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.007
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    To study the genetic diversity of Scutellaria baicalensis G., 147 individuals from six populations were analyzed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). Eighteen primers were selected to produce highly reproducible ISSR bands. Among 485 amplified bands, 466 showed polymorphism, the percentage of polymorphic bands reached 96.08%. Nei’s gene diversity index and Shannon information index were 0.244 4 and 0.388 9, respectively. Number of alleles (Na) and effective number of alleles (Ne) were 1.993 8 and 1.383 9, respectively. Gst was 0.123 3, genetic identity (I) and genetic distance (D) were 0.951 5 and 0.050 1, respectively. The results showed that the collected germplasm resources of S.baicalensis had a high genetic diversity in general. There was a certain genetic differentiation and gene flow among different populations and the genetic variation was mainly within populations. Molecular clustering results showed that the same region germplasms were not clustered completely following the collection source. It may be related to folk culture introduction or less than normal for ISSR primers. The genetic diversity of S.baicalensis germplasm resources can provide a basis for the evaluation, preservation and breeding of new varieties in the future.
    Cloning and Bioinformation Analysis of C3H Gene in Neosinocalamus affinis
    ZHOU Mei-Juan;HU Shang-Lian*;CAO Ying;LU Xue-Qin;REN Peng;WU Xiao-Yu;LI Xiao-Rui
    2012, 32(1):  38-46.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.008
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    p-Coumarate 3-hydroxylase plays an important role in the biosynthesis pathways of plant lignin. The full-length sequence of C3H in Neosinocalamus affinis(NaC3H) was successfully cloned by RT-PCR, and its bioinformation analysis was carried out. It aims to provide theoretical basis for decreasing the content of lignin in bamboo for making-pulp through engineering technique. The sequence is 1 581 bp in length. The bioinformation analysis showed that the CDS region of the nucleotide sequence was 1 539 bp, encoding 512 predicted amino acids. The protein molecular weight was 58.33 kD and theoretical pI was 9.09. According to the amino acid sequence and structural analysis, it showed that the protein encoding by C3H contained one conserved domain, viz. P450 domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that NaC3H was most similar to C3H from P.edulis and Oryza sativa. The proteins encoded by C3H genes were hydrophilic ones. Subcellular localizations of these three proteins were in the endoplasmic reticulum (membrane). The secondary structures and tertiary structures were abundant in alpha helixs and random coils, beta turns and extended strains were less. Two relative conserved disordered domains were found in amino acid sequences encoded by C3H genes from N.affinis, P.edulis and O.sativa. The full-length sequence of NaC3H has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number JF693629.
    Cloning and Analysis of the cat Associated Genes of Hevea brasiliensis and Banana in Hainan
    YU Nai-Tong;SUN Yu-Juan;ZHANG Yu-Liang;LUO Zhi-Wen;LIU Zhi-Xin*
    2012, 32(1):  47-53.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.009
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    According to the existence of plant cat genes in GenBank, we designed a pair of degenerate primers, and amplified cat genes of banana, Hevea brasiliensis, yellow lantern pepper, pineapple, sugar cane, papaya from Hainan island. Ultimately, we cloned the rubber cat-1 and banana cat-2 genes, while the others not. Sequence analysis showed that open reading frame (ORF) of rubber cat-1 and banana cat-2 genes were both 1 479 bp, and encoded 492 amino acids. GenBank accession number were HQ660587 and HQ660588. Using bioinformatics software, the tertiary structures of rubber’s CAT-1 and banana’s CAT-2 proteins were predicated, which were similar to Exiguobacteriu Oxidotolerans (PDB code:2j2mA0) and Pseudomonas Syringae (PDB code:1m7sA), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Hainan H.brasiliensis CAT-1 possessed the highest homology with Ricinus communis CAT-1 (XP_002521709.1), while banana CAT-2 was the highest homology with Elaeis guineensis CAT-2 (ACF06566.1).
    Relationship Between Contents of Mineral Nutrient Elements and Peroxidase Isoenzyme in Leaf of Wild Cerasus humilis
    MA Jian-Jun;YU Feng-Ming;DU Bin;ZHANG Li-Bin;REN Yan-Jun
    2012, 32(1):  54-60.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.010
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    In this study, the content variations of peroxidase isoenzyme in Chinese dwarf cherry (Cerasus humilis) leaves and 6 mineral elements in leaves and fruits as well as their correlations were investigated by the method of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) using 113 Chinese dwarf cherry which were cultivated at the same conditions in Yanshan Mountain as materials. The results showed that 7 types of POD isoenzyme bands appeared in Chinese dwarf cherry seedling population. Among these bands, two characteristic bands (Rf=0.126, Rf=0.716) appeared in all tested materials. The results of system clustering analysis showed that the relative amounts of the same position isoenzyme bands in different POD isoenzyme band types were different, and the variation was greater. The results of correlation analysis showed that notable or extremely notable correlation existed between the amount of correlative isoenzyme bands in different types and the mineral element contents. The amount of POD isoenzyme band could indicate the genetic difference and diversity of mineral nutrient metabolism of Chinese dwarf cherry leaves in some degree.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of HMGR Gene from Taraxacum kok-saghyz
    WANG Qi-Chao;LIU Shi-Zhong;XIAO Xian-Zhou;*
    2012, 32(1):  61-68.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.011
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    Based on the design of degenerated oligonucleotides according to the conservative regions of nine 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductases from nine plants and the total RNA extracted from Taraxacum kok-saghyz, a HMGR named TKHMGR was first obtained using the techniques of degenerate RT-PCR and RACE. Comparison of the amino acid sequence homology and system evolution analysis show that, TKHMGR belongs to the new members of the HMGR gene families. At the same time, the gene expression in different organizations was analyzed using fluorescence quantitative method. The cloning, bioinformatics analysis and expression analysis of this gene laid a foundation for further research on its function.
    Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of Full-length cDNA of Actin Gene(CsActin1) from Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis(L.) O. Kuntze)
    YANG Ya-Jun;WANG Xin-Chao;MA Chun-Lei
    2012, 32(1):  69-76.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.012
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    Two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries of tea plant(Camellia sinensis(L.) O. Kuntze) were constructed using cDNA from the dormant buds and sprouting buds. A cDNA fragment, which was homologous to the 5′-end of actin gene family, was identified from the sprouting bud SSH library. Using one primer designed on the basis of the fragment, its fulllength cDNA sequence was cloned through 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3′-RACE). The full length of the actin gene, named CsActin1, was 1 470 bp (GenBank accession No. HQ235647) and contained a 1134 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 377 amino acid residues, a 5′-UTR of 100 bp and a 3′-UTR of 236 bp. The deduced protein molecular weight was 41.70 kD and its theoretical isoelectric point was 5.31. It contained the characteristic actin family signature sequence (YVGDEAQs.KRG and WISKgEYDE) and actin-related proteins signature (LLTEApLNPkaNR). Homologous alignment showed that it shared over 80% nucleotide sequence similarity and over 95% amino acid sequences similarity with actins in other plants. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed on the basis of amino acid sequences suggested that the relationship between C.sinensis and Populus trichocarpa is the most intimate.
    Phylogeny of Polygonum Sect. Cephalophilon(Polygonaceae) Inferred from the Chloroplast trnL-F,rbcL and Nuclear Ribosomal ITS Sequences
    ZHAO Da-Peng;WANG Kang-Man;HOU Yuan-Tong*
    2012, 32(1):  77-83.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.013
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    The phylogeny of Polygonum sect. Cephalophilon was analyzed using the chloroplast genes trnL-F, rbcL and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. Individual and combined analyses of three datasets were performed with maximum parsimony method and the gene trees were constructed with Rheum officinale as outgroup. The results show that Polygonum sect. Cephalophilon is a more natural group which is the most closely related to Polygonum sect. Persicaria, sect. Echinocaulon and the genus Antenoron. The results support to put Polygonum sect. Cephalophilon into the genus Persicaria as a section and transfer P.filicaule and P.cyanandrum from Polygonum sect. Cephalophilon to the genus Koenigia, do not support to attribute Polygonum sect. Echinocaulon to Polygonum sect. Cephalophilon. There is strong conflict regarding the systematic position of Polygonum delicatulum, which needs further studies.
    Contamination Control during Tissue Culture of Peony
    WANG Ji-Feng;LI Qing;BAO Xin
    2012, 32(1):  84-90.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.014
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    To solve the problem of explant contamination during peony tissue culture, the explants of different seasons were studied. The results showed that soaking explants in 0.1%-0.2% HgCl2 for 8 min, etiolation treatment, low temperature and electronic vibration are effective for sterilization; Antibiotics added into the media can inhibit contamination caused by endophytes.
    Analysis of Spatial Pattern and Spatial Association of Pinus tabulaeformis Populations at Different Developmental Stages
    ZHANG Ling;MIAO Yan-Ming;SUN Yong-Xing;BI Run-Cheng*
    2012, 32(1):  91-98.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.015
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    In Huoshan Qiliyu woodland, a field survey was made on the typical Pinus tabulaeformis, and the distribution of P.tabulaeformis at different age-classes and its co-relationship were studied. The results show that: (1)The distribution of the age-classes appears kurtosis, i.e. the majority is the middle-aged, 20-30 cm, whereas the numbers of young and old are comparatively less; (2)The spatial distribution of these seven age-classes tends to be in groups, in which ages 4, 5 and 6 are more obvious. Meanwhile, it centralizes in groups in small-scale and tend to be in random distribution in large-scale; (3)The co-relationship between different age-classes is significantly positive correlated, of which ages from 3 to 5 are more significant. This significantly positive correlation is beneficial for the P.tabulaeformis to make full use of the resources in order to guarantee the living and development of the groups.
    Biomass Allocation Pattern and Water Characteristics of Each Component of Phoebe bournei Container Seedling
    TANG Xiao-Yan;YUAN Wei-Gao*;SHEN Ai-Hua;ZHANG Jun;ZHU Jin-Ru;JIANG Bo
    2012, 32(1):  99-104.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.016
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    In this research, the moisture content and biomass distribution of 1.5-year old Phoebe bournei container seedling at different height stages were measured and analyzed. The results showed that: (1)With the increase of seedling height, the biomass and its components in P.bournei container seedling increased. The biomass allocated in the order of root biomass>leaf biomass>stem biomass>branch biomass. With the increase of seedling height, the biomass of stem increased, while the biomass of leaf first increased and then decreased, and the biomass of root first decreased and then increased. The biomass as well as its components are significant correlated to basal diameter (D) and height (H) except branch. (2)The moisture contents of stem and leaf reach peak values while the seedling height was between 20 and 25 cm, the moisture content of root reach peak value while it between 35 and 45 cm. (3)Root moisture content as well as leaf, stem and aboveground biomass are significant positive correlated, while a significant negative correlation between leaf moisture content and different organs biomass was identified.
    Competition Relationship of Populations of Natural Secondary Acer mono Forest
    YIN Dong-Sheng;GE Wen-Zhi;ZHANG Feng-Hai;SHEN Hai-Long
    2012, 32(1):  105-109.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.017
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    The intraspecific and interspecific competition intensities in the secondary Acer mono forest were quantitatively analyzed by Hegyi single-tree competition index model. The results showed that the intraspecific competition intensity in A.mono was bigger, accounting for 26 percents of total competition, and the competition intensity gradually increased with the increasing tree diameter. However, the competition intensity decreased after diameter at breast height DBH was greater than 30 cm. The interspecific competition (89.061) in A.mono was more intensive than the intraspecific competition (31.487). The competition intensity of interspecific competition with A.mono followed the order of A.mono>Tilia mandshurica>Quecus mongolica>Phellodendron amurense>Juglans mandshurica>Tilia amurensis. The competition intensity of A.mono declined with the increasing DBH, and the stress was more intense for trees less than 15 cm in DBH. The relationship between competition intensity and DBH of target trees followed the exponential function. The tending management should be actualized to increase the timber utilization quotiety when DBH of A.mono individual near 15 cm in natural conditions.
    Characteristics of Fruit Development and Flower and Fruit Drops of Artificial Population of Xanthoceras sorbifolia
    CHAI Chun-Shan;LU Juan;CAI Guo-Jun;WANG Zi-Ting
    2012, 32(1):  110-114.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.018
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    The characteristics of fruit development and flower and fruit drops of Xanthoceras sorbifolia in Dingxi district of Gansu were studied. The results showed that: (1) X.sorbifolia fruit need about 2.5 months from developing to ripening, and its main development and growth stage was in the 40 days after flowering. Its fruit development feature was as follows: fruit growth was the fastest in 10 days after blossom period and its growth increment rate reached 193%, in the next month the fruit still keep faster growth and had a growth increment rate of 120%, but it grew slowly in the last month and the increment rate was only 7%, and during the whole growth process, the width of fruit grew always faster than the length of fruit; (2)X.sorbifolia flower and fruit drops occurred in the early stage of its fruit developing and growing process, and it had a higher drop rate of flower and fruit of 94.65% (flower drop rate 5.74%, fruit drop rate 88.91%), but a very low fruit-bearing rate of 5.35%. Its feature of flower and fruit drops was as follows: the fruit drop was an ongoing process and there was always fruit drop from fruit expanding to ripening after blossom stage. However, there were some peak days in fruit dropping, namely in the 10 days after blossom stage the fruit drop was very serious and the fruit drop rate nearly reached 40%. According to this study, it was regarded that, for the consideration of preserving flowers and fruits, the late flowering stage was the key period for X.sorbifolia to enhance the water and fertilizer management. However, considering the facts that X.sorbifolia profuse flowers and the concentration of fertile flower could lead to heavy drops of flower and fruit because of its high consumption nutrients of tree and top inflorescence, it should thin flower and fruit or let it drop naturally in late flowering stage and young fruit stage, but strengthening water and fertilizer management is needed in the middle and late periods of fruit development to promote its fruit-bearing rate.
    Establishment of SSR Reaction System and Fingerprinting for Some Aechmea Species
    ZHANG Fei;WANG Wei-Yong;ZHANG Zhi;TIAN Dan-Qing;LIU Jian-Xin;LIU Xiao-Jing
    2012, 32(1):  115-119.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.019
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    The SSR reaction system was established by orthogonal design and the SSR fingerprints were constructed for some ornamental bromeliads in Aechmea in this study. The results showed that the optimal SSR reaction system of Aechmea was a total of 10 μL containing 1×PCR buffer, Mg2+ 2.0 mmol·L-1, dNTPs 200 μmol·L-1, primers 2.5 μmol·L-1, template DNA 90 ng and Taq DNA polymerase 1.5 U. Three informative and polymorphic SSR primers, namely M1, M3 and M4, were screened out from 6 SSR primers based on the established SSR reaction system. Three molecular fingerprints were preliminarily constructed for 15 samples of Aechmea species by these three SSR primers, respectively. The establishment of SSR fingerprint proved the SSR reaction system was stable and reliable, and could be further used in germplasm identification of Aechmea.
    Effects of TDZ on Polyamines Concentration Changes during the Construction of Floral-buds in Derooted Seedlings of Dendrobium officinate Kimura et Migo in vitro
    HUANG Zuo-Xi;CHEN Yi;XIAO Xiao-Jun;LI Ting-Ting;PENG Wen-Lu;TANG Xu
    2012, 32(1):  120-123.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.020
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    The effects of tridiazuron (TDZ) on endogenous polyamines concentration changes in derooted seedlings of Dendrobium officinate Kimura et Migo in vitro and the construction of floral-buds were researched in this experiment, in which MS basal medium supplemented with TDZ was used. It was found that the formation rate of floral-bud in derooted seedlings cultured on MS mixed with 0.1 mg·L-1 TDZ accounted for 21.1%, whereas the control was 0. During the construction of floral-bud, the endogenous concentrations of Spd, Spm and the ratios of Spd to Put, Spm to Put in top shoots of derooted seedlings cultured on MS mixed with 0.1 mg·L-1 TDZ exceeded those in the control, and remarkably exceeded that of control when the floral-bud emerged. In addition, the levels of Put and DAP in top shoots of derooted seedlings were apparently lower than that in the control. It was seen that exogenous TDZ could promote the construction of floral-bud by means of the changes of endogenous polyamines concentration and its ratio in D.officinate Kimura et Migo.
    Effects of Copper Stress on Seedlings Growth and Active Ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza
    WANG Chuan;LI Kun-Wei;WEI Yu-Kun;CUI Lang-Jun*;LI Fa-Rong
    2012, 32(1):  124-128.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.021
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    The effects of copper stress on seedlings growth and active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza were investigated. The results showed that copper stress inhibited seedlings growth, increased Cu2+ accumulation in both soil and seedlings. Moreover, a reduction in photosynthetic pigments and an increase in the levels of TBARS content of stressed seedlings showed that oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation were provoked. The effects of the treatment on active ingredients accumulations in above-ground parts and roots were different. In above-ground parts of copper stressed seedlings, the accumulations of caffeic acid, tanshinol and protocatechuic acid increased, while the contents of rosmarinic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde and salvianolic acid B decreased. However, the accumulations of both six phenolic acids and four tanshinone ingredients all decreased in stressed roots. All these results showed that copper stress had a toxic effect on both S.miltiorrhiza growth and 10 mainly active ingredients accumulations.
     A new species of Gentiana L.—G.hsinganica from Inner Mongolica,China
    YU Jing-Hua;HE Hao;ZHANG Bao-You;YUAN Shu-Sheng;CHEN Chang-Mei
    2012, 32(1):  1-3.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.01.001
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     Gentiana hsinganica J. H. Yu, a new species of the from Wuerqihan Forestry Bureau, Inner Mongolica, China, is described and illustrated. The new species is closely related to G.manshurica Kitag., G.triflora Pall. and G.uchiyamai Nakai, from which it differs apparently by the leaves 3 verticillate at the stem, the calyx lobes are very small and the shape is triangle, the bract of each flower is more longer than the calyx.