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    20 November 2011, Volume 31 Issue 6
    Schizostachyum wanshishanensis S.H.Chen,K.F.Huang et H.Z.Guo sp.nov.,A New Species of Schizostachyum of Bambusoideae from China
    CHEN Song-He;GUO Hui-Zhu;HUANG Ke-Fu
    2011, 31(6):  641-643.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.001
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    A new species of the genus Schizostachyum Nees of Bambusoideae from China, S.wanshishanensis S.H.Chen, K.F.Huang et H.Z.Guo, which was found to grow in Xiamen Botanical Garden, Fujian Province, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to S.pseudolima McClure, but differs by having smooth, straight and short culm-sheathes piece, its length is less than culm-sheathes by 1/2, glabrous leaves surface, the back of leaves have more pubescences; it differs from S.funghomii McClure by its sagging and tall and slender culm upside, white and short stiff hairs on leaves sheathes.
    Taxonomic Notes on Livistona(Palmae) in Flora of China
    LIU Hai-Sang
    2011, 31(6):  644-648.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.002
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    Based on the lectotype of Livistona chinensis, the holotypes of L.fengkaiensis and L.jenkinsiana, the isoneotype of L.saribus and the isotype of L.speciosa, the status of those species in Flora of China was reviewed. L.speciosa has obovate, elliptical or ovoid fruits, but L.jenkinsiana has reniform or subglobose fruits. Livistona jenkinsiana in Flora of China should be L.speciosa Kurz which was misidentified as L.saribus in Chinese taxonomic literature, such as Flora of Hainan, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, Flora Fujianica and Flora Yunnanica. L.saribus in Flora of China, which originates with Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, is not endemic to China. In China, L.speciosa is endemic to Yunnan, Guangdong, Hainan and Fujian, and L.chinensis is endemic to Guangdong and Taiwan, yet Livistona jenkinsiana and L.saribus were introduced to China only by certain botanical gardens.
    Leaf Epidermal Morphology and Taxonomic Significance of Euonymus L. in China
    YU Ming;GONG Ling;LI Yan;SHI Li-Hua;MENG Shi-Yong;LIU Quan-Ru*
    2011, 31(6):  649-658.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.003
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    The leaf epidermal characteristics of 24 species of Euonymus and 3 species of Glyptopetalum in China were investigated using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The stomatal ratio of length to width, density and index were measured. The results revealed that the epidermal structure is of the same type in the two genera: most of adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells are polygonal shapes, and their anticlinal walls are mainly straight-arched; The stomatal apparatuses only present on the abaxial epidermis for most sampled species. The stomata are anomocytic. However, in some species, the stomata are cyclocytic. Under SEM, the cuticular membrane, cell boundary of the leaf epidermis and stomatal structure are different among some species, which may be referred for the systematic relationships and classification of Euonymus.
    Morphogenesis and Development of Gonocormus minutus(Blume) Bosch Spore(Hymenophyllaceae)
    DAI Xi-Ling;WANG Sai-Sai;CAO Jian-Guo;WANG Quan-Xi
    2011, 31(6):  659-663.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.004
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    The morphogenesis and development of the fern Gonocormus minutus(Blume) Bosch spores (Hymenophyllaceae) were studied by means of light microscope. The results are as follows: the mature spores of G.minutus are multilateral round shape and none of them has a visible trilete mark. The perispore is very thin and closely adheres to the smooth exospore surface. It forms the ornamentation, which shows papillate or granulate. At the later stage of the formation of exospore, a number of globules are distributed in the spore surface and sporangium loculus. And spherules are seen scattered around the spore surface during the formation of perispore. Both the globules and the spherules take part in the formation of sporoderm. The tapetum is mixed types in the G.minutus and the inner layer is amoeboid tapetum, while the outer layer is parietal tapetum. The results provide basic information for the developmental biology and phylogeny of Hymenophyllaceae.

    New Evidence of Phylogeny in Bryaceae(Musci) Based on the ITS Region
    WANG Chen-Ying;LI Da-Lin;ZHAO Jian-Cheng*
    2011, 31(6):  664-673.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.005
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    The Bryaceae phylogeny was reconstructed based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Both Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of ITS sequences revealed two well supported ingroup clades. One lineage contained Pohlia species whereas the other lineage contained species from five other genera—Rhodobryum, Brachymenium, Bryum, Plagiobryum and Anomobryum. Inconsistent with previous chloroplast DNA phylogenies, the ITS tree showed that the genus Pohlia was not more closely related to the outgroup family Mniaceae than to Bryaceae. In the other lineage, some Bryum species, such as B.algovicum, B.capillare, B.pallescens, B.pallens, B.pseudotriquetrum, B.uliginosum, B.amblyodon, B.caespiticium and B.lonchocaulon, clustered with high support with Plagiobryum zierii, which was also suggested by other molecular datasets. Based on the ITS tree, we supported the proposed shift for these Bryum species and Plagiobryum zierii to the genus Ptychostomum.
    Effects of Alkaline Stress on the Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species and Osmotica Accumulation in Ryegrass Seedling Roots
    LIU Jian-Xin;WANG Xin;WANG Rui-Juan;LI Dong-Bo
    2011, 31(6):  674-679.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.006
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    To explore the tolerant extent of ryegrass seedlings to alkaline stress, ryegrass seedlings were exposed to Hoagland’s nutrient solution with NaHCO3 added (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 mmol·L-1), and the effects of NaHCO3 stress on the growth of roots, metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and osmotica accumulation in roots were studied by a sandy culture in greenhouse. The results showed: Alkaline stress had significantly inhibitory effects on the roots growth of ryegrass seedlings, the inhibition was aggravated with the increasing of NaHCO3 concentration, the maximum concentration for ryegrass in resistance to alkaline stress was 150 mmol·L-1. With increasing NaHCO3 stress, the contents of O2, H2O2 and MDA in the seedling roots increased dramatically, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity reduced and glutathione (GSH) contents decreased significantly, the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as well as ascorbic acid (AsA) content first increased and then decreased. The root Na+ content increased significantly with increasing NaHCO3 concentration, while root K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio were in adverse, soluble sugar content first increased and then decreased, proline content first decreased and then increased, free amino acid content first increased, then decreased and increased again. All the above results indicated that alkaline stress caused the imbalance of ROS metabolism and the disturbance of Na+ and K+ homeostasis in the roots of ryegrass seedlings, and consumed more energy for osmotic adjustment by accumulating organic solutes, which might partly lead to its growth inhibition under alkaline stress.
    Comparison of Growth and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics Between Plantago virginica and P.asiatica under Aluminum Stress
    CHEN Xiang;HU Xue-Hua;XIAO Yi-An*;LU Yao-Dong;LI Yun
    2011, 31(6):  680-685.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.007
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    The present study is aimed at comparing the differences in growth responses and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics between exotic invasive species Plantago virginica and native species P.asiatica under various concentrations of Al3+ stress (100, 500, 800 and 2 000 mg·L-1) along with different durations (0, 10, 20 and 30 d). The results showed that root/shoot ratio increased slightly under low concentration of aluminum (100 mg·L-1) and began to decrease significantly at over moderate concentration (500 mg·L-1); leaf chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b showed less change under low concentration of aluminum, but decreased obviously with the increases in Al3+ concentration and treatment duration. Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters revealed that Fv/Fm, ΦPSⅡ and Fv/Fo increased slightly under low concentration of aluminum, and decreased obviously with the increases in Al3+ concentration and duration. The decreases in root/shoot ratio, chlorophyll a and chloraphyll b, Fv/Fm,ΦPSⅡ and Fv/Fo of P.virginica was less than those of P.asiatica, indicating that the exotic invasive P.virginica had greater potential to alleviate aluminum stress through the mechanism of physiological defense, compared with the native P.virginica.
    Dynamic Relationships Between Structure and Saponins Accumulation in Vegetative Organs of Alternanthera philaxeroid Criseb
    WANG Gui-Qin;XU Ru-Song;WANG Rui
    2011, 31(6):  686-691.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.008
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    The relationships between anatomical structure and the content of saponins in vegetative organs of Alternanthera philaxeroid were studied by means of histochemical localization, light microscope and quantitative analysis. The results showed that triterpenoid saponins are accumulated in the perennial roots, stems, rhizomes and leaves of A.philoxeroides, especially rich in leaves and rhizomes. The contents of triterpenoid saponins accumulated in vegetative organs are in the order of leaves>rhizomes>perennial root>stem under the same conditions, with leaf palisade tissue as main stored place. There were tertiary vascular bundles of concentric circular arrangement in transverse section of the perennial roots and rhizomes, which belongs to abnormal structure. Triterpenoid saponins were accumulated in secondary phloem, phelloderm, tertiary phloem and conjunctive tissue in perennial roots and rhizomes. The tertiary structure was not only the main parts in the perennial root and rhizome, but also important storage region of triterpenoid saponins. Accumulating trend of triterpenoid saponins at different collecting periods in leaves, rhizomes and perennial roots are similar, which increased with vegetative organs growing. The stem of A.philoxeroides was composed of epidermis, cortex, vascular bundle and pith cavity in transverse section, and only a few cells of cortex and primary phloem deposited triterpenoid saponins.
    Characteristics of Recombined Protein GST-OsCATB Expressed in E.coli
    LIU Da-Li;;LU Zhen-Qiang;*;ZHANG Ge-Yan;YU Ting-Ting;WANG Xu
    2011, 31(6):  692-695.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.009
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    To clarify the enzymology of catalase in rice(Oryza sativa L.), large quantities and active of the target protein is available firstly. Here, rice OsCATB(GenBank accession No.D26484) gene was cloned and constructed with the pGEX-6p-3 vector to allow expression of OsCATB as glutathione-S-transferase(GST) fusion protein, and E.coli strain BL21 was used for expression of fusion proteins as well. The results indicated that GST-OsCATB fusion proteins were effectively expressed in E.coli, and regulated by IPTG, inducing period, temperature and others of the actions. The purified, enough and activity GST-OsCATB was obtained by affinity chromatography using glutathione-Sepharose 4B column. The final yield was 51 mg·g-1 dry cells for GST-OsCATB.
    Construction of SPS Ⅲ in Sugarcane 5′ Flank Sequence Deletion Expression Vectors and the Transformation in Tobacco
    CHI Zhao-Hua;CHEN Ling;ZHOU Ping;GAO Yu-Na;YE Bing-Ying;CHEN You-Qiang;*
    2011, 31(6):  696-701.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.010
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    Sucrose phosphate synthase is one of the key enzymes in the metabolism of sucrose. Based on the 5′ flank sequence of SPS Ⅲ cloned in our lab, 3 flank sequence deletion expression vectors were constructed and transformed in YUNYAN 85 tobacco leaves. Three transgenic plants were obtained, which can be used in the identification of core promoter. The results revealed that all these three deletion flank sequences have promoter activity.
    Preliminary Study on Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation of WIN1 Genes into Tobacco
    SHA Yan-Yan;LI Xiao-Li;SHI Tuan-Sheng*;ZHANG Jun;WANG Ya-Jie
    2011, 31(6):  702-707.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.011
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    The WIN1 genes are related to the process of gene expression in waxy metabolism. In this research, the total RNA was extracted from the wild type arabidopsis buds and amplified into SHN1 WIN1. The plant expression vector PBI121-SHN1/WIN1 was constructed and the WIN1 genes were inserted into tobacco k326 by using the agrobacterium-mediated technique. There were four different culture media in this research, the minimal medium was T1: MS+1 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA; the medium for filtration sterilization was T2: MS+1 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA+500 mg·L-1 Carb; the medium for screening tobacco was T3: MS+100 mg·L-1 Kan; the medium for tobacco subculture was T4: MS+80 mg·L-1 Kan+300 mg·L-1 Carb; the medium for rooting culture of tobacco was T5: MS+0.1 mg·L-1 Naa+300 mg·L-1 Carb+80 mg·L-1 Kan. In this experiment, the WIN1 genes were inserted into tobacco k326 by the plant genetic engineering to change the total gene sequences of tobacco k326. By the detection of PCR and RT-PCR, the WIN1 genes were successfully inserted into tobacco k326, and eventually the transgenic tobacco k326 were obtained. In this experiment, the WIN1 genes were inserted into tobacco k326 through the plant genetic engineering and to make the cutin membrane become thick and the composition changes are expected. Another object was to increase the drought-resistance, cold-tolerance and disease resistance of tobacco K326, therefore, the resistance of tobacco can be improved. The experiment is not only meaningful to reveal the function of plant cutin membrane structure, but also has great important application value in plant gene engineering technology and cultivate quality variety of plants and agricultural production.
    Dynamic Analysis on Camptothecin Yields in Branches and Leaves from Different Strains of Camptotheca acuminata in Field Condition
    YU Jing-Hua;HONG Xue-Jiao;TANG Zhong-Hua;ZHANG Xue-Ke;WAN Ji-Zhong;CHANG Ying;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2011, 31(6):  708-710.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.012
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    The yield of camptothecin (CPT) accumulated in two strains of Camptotheca acuminata Decne, i.e. Sichuan (SC) strain and Hisun-Ⅰ(HI) strain, were compared in filed condition using HPLC method. The results showed that the content of CPT, biomass accumulation and consequent CPT yields in H1 were significantly higher than those in SC strain. With regard to H1 strain, the content of CPT in the upper branches and leaves was much higher than those in the middle and bottom parts, while the yield was significantly reverse because of the low biomass. In June, the H1 strain contained more CPT in leaves than in other months. However, the biomass accumulation in June was comparatively lower. For the continuous yield purpose, the branches and leaves on the upper part was suggested to be harvested in June. However, the middle and bottom parts were harvested from July to October, and one third of which on the bottom part was harvested in November, the end of the growing season.
    Characteristics of Life Cycle form Spectrum of Camptotheca acuminate and Taxus walichiana var. maimnei Mixed Communities
    YANG Feng-Jian;LIU Wei;WANG Wen-Jie;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2011, 31(6):  711-715.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.013
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    The life cycle form spectrum of Camptotheca acuminate and Taxus chinensis var. mairei in the mixed communities were studied. The results showed that the score and proportion of both are 0 in the S life cycle form. The highest principal components score of V life cycle form among C.acuminate and T.chinensis var. mairei communities is mountain plot 2, pure forest V life cycle form is the lowest, C life cycle form is the same. The life cycle form proportion of C.acuminate community, according to mountain plot, sloping land plot, flat land plot and pure forest plot, the general trend is V life cycle form rise and C life cycle form drop, which compose the life cycle form spectrum composition of C.acuminate mixed communities. The T.chinensis var. mairei community life cycle form spectrum showed that the V life cycle form is the lowest between mountain plot and sloping land plot and the C life cycle form is the highest. However, the V life cycle is the highest among the pure forest plot and the C life cycle form is the lowest.
    Analysis of Agronomic Traits and Heritability Combining Ability of Hybrid Rice
    YANG Guo-Tao;XIE Chong-Hua*;ZHANG Ling;HU Yun-Gao;LI Hai-Qing;CHEN Yong-Jun
    2011, 31(6):  716-721.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.014
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    Five hybrid rice sterile cytoplasms commonly used in production and five restorer lines with high combining ability were used in this experiment. Using NCII model, the parental combining ability, contribution rate of variance and heritability of major agronomic traits including yield traits, awn and grain shape were analyzed. The results showed that the effects of cytoplasm and restorer in the measured traits were in significant or highly significant differences levels, while the environment impact on awn length, grain shape and single ear weight were less. The non-additive genetic effects of yield and harvest index was obvious, also influenced by environmental effects. In the parental effect, the effect of restorer is much stronger than that of cytoplasm; In yield traits, the general combining ability of JW cytoplasm and Shuhui 527 is high, while JW cytoplasm and R21 belong to the class I parents; In gain shape trait, the general combining ability of G cytoplasm and Shuhui527 is high, both of them also belong to the class I parents.
    ISSR Analysis of the Genetic Structure of Torreya jackii Population in Tonglu County,Zhejiang Province
    LI Jian-Hui;JIN Ze-Xin*
    2011, 31(6):  722-728.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.015
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    Using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular technique, six subpopulations of Torreya jackii(Taxaceae) collected from Baiyunyuan Forest Park of Tonglu county of Zhejiang province were analyzed, the genetic structure of T.jackii was revealed in small scale. Using 12 primers, 87 polymorphic loci from total 194 loci were detected in 120 individuals from 6 subpopulations and the overall percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 44.85% with an average of 29.21%. Shannon’s information index (I) and Nei’s gene diversity (h) of T.jackii were 0.166 3 and 0.103 5 with an average of 0.119 9 and 0.075 5, respectively. P, I and h indicated that the genetic diversity at species level was relatively high, while at subpopulation level was relatively low. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) suggested that the variation was 21.45% among subpopulations and 78.55% within subpopulation. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) was 0.270 5 among subpopulations and the gene flow was 1.347 8. The mean genetic distance of six T.jackii subpopulations was 0.037 0. Based on the genetic distance, the clustered result for six T.jackii subpopulations by unweighted pair group method arithmetic average (UPGMA) suggested that the subpopulations in the similar habitat were clustered together.
    Genetic Diversity of Endangered Plant Abies ziyuanensis Based on nrDNA GapC Gene Intron Sequences
    WEI Fan;TANG Shao-Qing*
    2011, 31(6):  729-734.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.016
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    In order to analyze the genetic variation and differentiation as well as the evolutionary history of Abies ziyuanensis, the nrDNA GapC gene intron sequences were used in this study. Eight polymorphic nucleotide sites and twelve haplotypes were detected from seventy alleles sequences of thirty-four samples from three A.ziyuanensis populations. Yinzhulaoshan (YZ), Dayuan (DY) and Shunhuangshan (SH) populations had ten, six and seven haplotypes, respectively. Seven individuals had more than two kinds of haplotypes. The haplotype diversity (h) of A.ziyuanensis was 0.817 0, ranging from 0.683 3 to 0.883 1 for different populations. The nucleotide diversity (π) of species and population was 0.003 90, ranging from 0.002 63 to 0.003 82. Research result of genetic differentiation (Gst=0.103, p<0.05) indicated that there was significant genetic differentiation among populations. AMOVA showed 88.64% (p<0.001) genetic variation within population and 11.36% (p<0.05) significantly genetic differentiation among populations. In Tajima’s D, Fu & Li’s D and Fu & Li’s Fs neutrality tests, the variation in nucleotides did not deviate from that expected with neutral evolution. There was no unique district branches in the gene genealogies of haplotypes. The result of mismatch distribution analysis showed no recent rapid expansion and no significant difference (p>0.05) between Nst(0.131) and Gst(0.103), which indicated no obvious geographic structure exists in A.ziyuanensis. We inferred that the extant A.ziyuanensis populations might be resulted from the habitat fragmentation in a relatively recent period.
    Allelopathy Effects of Oenanthe javanica Extracts on Scenedesmus obliquus
    ZAI Xue-Ming;ZHU Shi-Nong;QIN Pei;YUAN Ya-Guang;WU Xiang-Hua;ZHOU Wen-Zong
    2011, 31(6):  735-738.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.017
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    Using pure culturing Scenedesmus obliquus with different concentrations of Oenanthe javanica extracts, the effects of O.javanica on the growth, chlorophyll content and structure of S.obliquus were studied. The results showed that 10 g·L-1 O.javanica extracts significantly promoted the growth of S.obliquus, and 20 g·L-1 O.javanica extracts increased the algae chroma and chlorophyll content of S.obliquus till the third day, and then caused obvious inhibition. 30-50 g·L-1 O.javanica extracts inhibited the algae chroma and chlorophyll content observably on the second day, and intensified with time extension and concentration increase. When the growth of S.obliquus was affected by 20 g·L-1 O.javanica extracts, the cell wall broke and even disappeared, cells of chloroplast swelled and even disintegrated, the nuclear broke, and the nuclear mass exosmosed. The results indicated that O.javanica extracts had allelopathy on S.obliquus, and lower concentrations promoted the growth, while higher concentrations inhibited.
    Differences in Growth Response to Cr,Pb Stress and Their Uptake and Accumulation of Foxtail Millet Seedlings
    ZHANG Xi-Wen;ZHANG Yi-Xian*;LI Ping;XIAO Zhi-Hua;YANG Lei
    2011, 31(6):  739-743.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.018
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    Heavy metals Pb and Cr are two primary environment pollutants. Pb and Cr are neither essential nutrient elements for the growth of plants, nor participates in the process of cell metabolism. The differences in growth response to Pb, Cr stress and their uptake and accumulation of foxtail millet (Setaria italica(L) Beauv) seedlings were studied using a pot culturing after treatment for 30 d. The results indicated that at the concentrations of 50-800 mg·kg-1, there were significant differences in the content of Pb, Cr in the roots and shoots of foxtail millet seedlings. In the seedlings, both the uptake coefficients and transmission coefficients of Pb were higher than those of Cr. Both Pb and Cr stress improved the biomass of seedlings at low concentrations while inhibited at high concentrations, however, the effect of Cr was stronger than that of Pb. At the same treatment condition, there were significant differences in the content of soluble protein, DNA content and DNA hyperchromic effect between Cr and Pb in foxtail millet seedlings, and the order of two heavy metals on the phytotoxic effects and DNA damage effects was Cr>Pb.
    Accumulation and Distribution Characteristics of Rhubarb Polysaccharides in Root of Rheum palmatum L.
    ZHANG Ying-Cai*;YANG Jun;LI Rui
    2011, 31(6):  744-749.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.019
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    The distribution characteristic and content change law of rhubarb polysaccharides in root of Rheum palmatum L. were studied by histochemical method and phenol-vitriol colorimetry. The results showed that the distribution of rhubarb polysaccharides in root was of multi-locus, rhubarb polysaccharides of root differently existed in phelloderm of periderm and parenchyma of secondary vascular tissue, the xylem parenchyma of secondary xylem and the phloem parenchyma of secondary phloem in root were the main tissues which stored and accumulated rhubarb polysaccharides. During different growth periods of root, the total content of rhubarb polysaccharides in the root and its tissues gradually increased with the growth of the plant but decreased slightly in a later period. Rhubarb polysaccharides content was greater in phloem parenchyma than in xylem parenchyma, the mode of rhubarb polysaccharide production was gradual storage and accumulation.
    Comparisons of Growth and Quantitative Defense Compounds between Plants from Invasive and Native Populations of Chromolaena odorata
    ZHANG Ru;LIAO Zhi-Yong;LI Yang-Ping;FENG Yu-Long*
    2011, 31(6):  750-757.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.020
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    The evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis predicts that invasive plants may reallocate the resources formerly used for defenses to grow and reproduce in responses to enemy release in introduced ranges, contributing to increased competitive abilities and therefore to invasiveness. To explore the roles of evolution in invasion success of noxious Chromolaena odorata, eight invasive and eight native populations were compared at two nutrient levels in a common garden in terms of growth and quantitative defense compounds such as tannin, total phenolics, hemicellulose and cellulose. The results indicated that plants from invasive populations showed lower hemicelllulose concentrations in leaf and stem than plants from native populations at both nutrient levels. Plants from invasive populations exhibited lower leaf cellulose concentration at high nutrient level but higher leaf and stem phonolics concentrations at lower nutrient level. Plants from invasive and native populations were not significantly different in total biomass at both nutrient levels. Thus, we concluded that C.odorata may not evolve to increase growth in introduced ranges, while showing genetically based changes in quantitative defense compounds. The decreased hemicellulose and cellulose concentrations in plants from invasive populations of C.odorata are likely to be associated with the evolutionary responses to the lack of specialist enemies in introduced ranges, while the increased total phenolics concentration may help C.odorata defend generalist enemies in introduced ranges.
    Analysis on Plant Distribution and Environmental Factor of Coastal Zone and Neighbor Islands in Shanghai
    SONG Guo-Yuan;CAO Tong
    2011, 31(6):  758-769.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.06.021
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    During the development of coastal zone and neighbor islands in Shanghai, biotic and abiotic environmental factors are playing important roles. Among them, the age and the height of the islands, soil type, nutrient, salinity and pH of soil influence the formation, colonization and succession of the plant communities. On the basis of field work for several years, applying 2-D ordering of Canonical Correspondence Analysis(CCA) of ecological multivariate analysis, the diversities of plant communities and species of coastal zone and neighbor islands in Shanghai were analyzed. Meanwhile, the situation of plant community succession and the environmental factor of all kinds of habitats were analyzed. All of these investigation results will give basic information for the research on coastal zone and neighbor islands as well as the whole ecological system in Shanghai.