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    20 March 2011, Volume 31 Issue 2
    Newly Recorded Species of Hantzschia(Bacillariophyta) in China
    YOU Qing-Min;LIU Yan;WANG Quan-Xi*
    2011, 31(2):  129-133.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.001
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    Seven species of Hantzschia(Bacillariophyta) are first reported from Xinjiang and Neimeng’gu Province in China. They are Hantzschia abundans Lange-Bertalot, H.alkaliphila Lange-Bertalot, H.barckhausenii Lange-Bertalot & Metzeltin, H.longa Lange-Bertalot, H.paracompacta Lange-Bertalot, H.spectabilis(Ehrenberg) Hustedt and H.subvivacior Lange-Bertalot. The taxonomic characteristics, LM (light microscope) or SEM (scanning electron microscope) photos and ecological affinities were described for each taxon. It will provide new data on the geographical distribution of this genus.
    A taxonomical Note on Caragana kansuensis Pojark. and Its Confusable Taxa
    CHANG Zhao-Yang;SHI Fu-Chen;
    2011, 31(2):  134-138.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.002
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    A taxonomical note on Caragana kansuensis Pojark. and other confusable taxa is presented in this paper. C.kansuensis Pojark. and C.brachypoda Pojark.should be treated as two distinct species. The plants from North Shaanxi Province, Northwest Shanxi Province and other neighboring areas which misidentified as C.kansuensis Pojark., in fact, should be a new variety of C.opulens Kom. named C.opulens Kom. var. angustifolia Y. Z. Zhao ex Zhao. Y. Chang et F. C. Shi. The new variety is different from C.opulens Kom. var. opulens by its narrow and dense pubescent leaflets, which often becoming reddish on lower surface when dry. It is also similar to C.licentiana Hand.-Mazz., but distinguishes from it by long petioles, long and narrow leaflets and nearly glabrous fruits.
    Spore Morphology of 26 Species of Family Pottiaceae and Its Systematic Significance
    WANG Xiao-Rui;LI Min;ZHAO Jian-Cheng*;LI Lin
    2011, 31(2):  139-146.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.003
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    The spore morphology of 26 species of the family Pottiaceae was observed by light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the spore characteristics are similar in shape, shape of the proximal face and exine ornamentation, but different in the size and exiguous structure of the ornamentation. It showed heredity similarity and differentiation among the different genus and species in Pottiaceae, and Pottiaceae may be a natural taxon.
    Flowering Dynamics and Breeding System of Incarvillea sinensis var. przewalskii
    LI Jin-Xia;SU Xue;LIU Yu-Guo;CHEN Ming-Zhong;SUN Kun*
    2011, 31(2):  147-151.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.004
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    Flowering and breeding characteristics are important for understanding the plant population reproduction characteristics. In this paper, the flowering dynamics were observed in the fields and the breeding system of Incarvillea sinensis var. przewalskii was studied by using the data of pollen/ovule ratio(P/O), pistil recipient phase, out-crossing index(OCI), pollen viability and bagging experiments. The results showed that the flowering period of I.sinensis var. przewalskii population lasted about three months (from June to September). The life span of individual flower was generally 2-3 d. During the flowering course, the stamen matured before pistil and there was obvious herkogamy. The flowering course for one flower of this species can be divided into four periods based on the flower morphology and anther dehiscence: initial dehiscence, full dehiscence, terminal dehiscence, withering period. The pollen/ovule ratio of I.sinensis var. przewalskii is about 331.3, and its outcrossing index is 5. Combining with the result of emasculation, bagging and artificial pollination, the breeding system of this species was determined to be out-crossing, partially self-compatible and entomoplily plays a larger role in the process of pollination. According to bagging experiments and field observations, it can be inferred that the species is insect pollination.
    Effect of Drought Stress on the Ultramicrostructures of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria of Five Plants
    YU Hui;LIU Zhong-Liang;HU Hong-Liang;GUAN Qing-Wei*;WAN Fu-Xu
    2011, 31(2):  152-158.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.005
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    The effect of soil drought stress on the ultramicrostructure of mesophyll cells was studied and observed by SEM using the potted seedlings of the following trees in the greenhouse, i.e. Quercus acutissima Carruth, Dalbergia hupeana Hance, Pistacia chinensis, Pinus elliottii and Celtis sinesis Pers. The experiment results showed that under the condition of well water state, the organelles of mesophyll cells keep integrity. Under the condition of light drought stress, the ultramicrostructure of P.elliottii was not damaged. The mitochondria of Q.acutissma Carruth remained normal, but the chloroplasts expanded. For C.sinesis Pers, plasmolyses occurred and the mitochondria and chloroplasts were damaged. Under the condition of heavy drought stress, the mitochondria of P.elliottii and Q.acutissima Carruth were degraded, and the chloroplasts were not adhered to the cell walls. For P.chinensis and D.hupeana Hance, plasmolyses occurred and the mitochondria and chloroplasts were severely damaged. The cells of C.sinesis Pers were damaged most severely. The results showed that the drought resistance of these five plants could be divided into three degrees: P.elliottii and Q.acutissima Carruth have strong drought resistance, P.chinensis and D.hupeana Hance have moderate drought resistance while C.sinesis Pers has the weakest drought resistance.
    Microstructural Observations on the Development of Gametophytes and Oogenesis in the Fern Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum
    HUANG Wu-Jie;CAO Jian-Guo*;WANG Quan-Xi
    2011, 31(2):  159-163.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.006
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    The development of gametophytes and oogenesis of the fern Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum was studied using microscopical techniques. The spores are brown, tetrahedral and trilete. The spores germinate about 3-7 days after being sowed. They develop into prothallia through filament and plate stages. The adult prothallia are usually dioecious or hermaphroditic. Section observations show that the archegonium of the P.aquilinum var. latiusculum develops from a superficial cell, i.e. the initial cell of archegonium, which forms a tier of three cells by two divisions. The upper and lower cells develop into the jacket cells of the archegonium. The middle cell, i.e. the primary cell,finally develops into an egg, a ventral canal cell and a neck canal cell by two unequal divisions. When new formed, the periphery of the three cells is appressed closely to the jacket cells of the archegonium. A large amount of vesicles are seen in the cytoplasm. During maturation, a separation cavity occurs between the egg and the ventral canal cell, but a pore region persistently connects the two cells. Simultaneously, the egg membrane is formed in the upper surface of the egg. Thereafter, the neck canal cell and ventral canal cell degenerate gradually. Some black granular substances appear in the jacket cells of archegonium. Series sections show that a fertilization pore appears in the central region of the upper surface of the mature egg. The ultrastructural observations are needed to elucidate the detailed cytological features of oogenesis.
    The Role of Light Intensity in the Recovery of Photosynthesis in Tomato Leaves after Chilling under Low Light
    HU Wen-Hai;YAN Xiao-Hong;YUAN Li-Fang;YAN Qing;WU Zhang-Yi
    2011, 31(2):  164-168.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.007
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    To investigate the role of light intensity in the recovery of chilled plants, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were examined in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Zhefeng 202) plants with natural sunlight or shading during recovery period after chilling under low light. Chilling under low light (8℃/12℃, PFD 80 mol·m-2·s-1) significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), the relative quantum efficiency of PSⅡ photochemistry (ФPSⅡ), photochemical quenching (qP), and efficiency of energy capture by open PSⅡ reaction centres (Fv′/Fm′), but increased nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and did not induce PSⅡ photoinhibition (Fv/Fm). Pn, Fv/Fm, ФPSⅡ, qP, NPQ and Fv′/Fm′ further deceased when the chilled plants were recovered under natural sunlight at 1 and then increased to the values close to the control. However, decreases in these parameters were less significant for shaded plants. Compared with control plants, shaded plants maintained higher NPQ during recovery period. Our results suggested that chilling under low light inhibited photosynthesis, but induced photoinhibition until the plants were exposed to full natural sunlight during recovery period. The photoprotection by shading is associated with the increased photochemical activity of PSⅡ and the enhanced thermal dissipation from antenna in PSⅡ.
    Anther Development and Pollen Germination of Jackfruit
    WU Tian;YE Chun-Hai;FENG Feng;XIA Chun-Hua
    2011, 31(2):  169-174.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.008
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    Studies on the anther development and pollen germination conditions are the essential elements for a good harvest and high quality of jackfruit. Using paraffin sections and in vitro culture method, the anther development and pollen germination of jackfruit were observed. The results showed that there are four pollen sacs in the jackfruit anther, and there are two types of cytokinesis in the meiotic, namely the continuous type and the simultaneous type, which formed tetrads arranged to be equally bifacial or tetrahedral. Moreover, a great many of tannin was observed to be accumulated in the mature anther epidermal cells. The mixed solution of 160 g·L-1 sucrose and 0.25 g·L-1 boric acid had an obvious catalytic effect on the jackfruit’s pollen germination, while CaCl2 exerted almost no effect.
    Effects of Water Stress on Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Red Pine Seedlings
    LIU Ya-Li;WANG Qing-Cheng*;YANG Yuan-Biao
    2011, 31(2):  175-179.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.009
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    Two-year-old red pine seedlings were grown in pots to study the effects of different soil water contents (including aridity, waterlogging stress and stress relief) on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of red pine seedlings in order to provide theoretical foundation for the expansion of cultivation and management of red pines. The results were as follows: (1)Dramatic responses in fluorescence origin (Fo), fluorescence maximum (Fm), fluorescence variety (Fv), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and quantum yield of PSⅡ electron transport (ΦPSⅡ) were detected under different soil water stress (p<0.05); (2)Under both aridity and waterlogging stress, Fv/Fm decreased with the increasing of the stress intensity and the extending of the stress time, presenting as FC60>FC80>FC>FC40>FC20>FL, and the Fv/Fm in all treatments had risen with various extents (recovery speed of aridity treatment was faster than that of waterlogging treatment); (3)The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under the condition of FC60 were optimal. Therefore, the moderately and mildly arid sites are more suitable for the growth of red pine seedlings.
    The Relationship Between Shrub Growth and Stoichiometry Characteristics of C.davazamcii and the Stability of Soil Substrates
    ZHANG Xin-Jun;GAO Yu-Bao*
    2011, 31(2):  180-187.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.010
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    The community characteristics and leaf C, N and P stoichiometry of Caragana davazamcii Sancz in the semi-mobile dune area, semi-fixed dune area and inter-dune lowland in the Mu Us sandy land were studied. The soil substrates of different habitats as well as the relationship between plants characteristics and soil conditions were studied. We found three major results: (1)The soil substrates of different habitats showed significant differences, i.e. the semi-mobile dune area had relatively poor and loose soil while the semi-fixed dune area and inter-dune lowland had relatively compact soil. (2)Length of current branches, weight of dry current branches, weight of dry leaves and leaf dry matter content were negatively correlated with the soil compaction, while leaf N:P ratio and leaf C:P ratio were positively correlated with the soil compaction. There was no significant relationship between leaf C:N ratio and soil compaction. (3)The crown, density and coverage of C.davazamcii Sancz from different habitats showed significant differences, which might be caused by the differences of soil compaction. In one word, soil compaction influenced the growth status of C.davazamcii Sancz, not only by affecting the above ground biomass and length of current branches, but also affecting the leaf C, N and P stoichiometry and the efficiency of nutrient contents of leaf.
    Differences in Absorption and Distribution of Main Mineral Elements Between Male and Female Populus cathayana Seedlings
    YANG Peng;XU Xiao;*
    2011, 31(2):  188-192.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.011
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    In the present experiment, the sex-related absorption and distribution patterns of the main mineral elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) were investigated between male and female Populus cathayana seedlings. The results showed that the female individuals exhibited significantly higher total content of P and Ca, but lower total content of K than male individuals. For two sexes, the content of N in leaf was significantly higher than that in root and stem, and the distribution pattern of P, K and Mg content showed that root>stem>leaf, leaf>root>stem, and root>leaf>stem, respectively. Meanwhile, the distribution pattern of Ca content showed the tendency of root>stem>leaves in males but the tendency of root>leaf>stem in females. Furthermore, females exhibited significantly higher Ca content in leaf and P content in root, but lower Mg content in root than males. In addition, the ratio patterns of these mineral elements contents were characterized as Ca>N>K>Mg>P in females, but N>Ca>K>Mg>P in males. However, in root, stem and leaf of all individuals, it was characterized as Ca>K>N>Mg>P, Ca>N>K>P>Mg, N>K>Ca>Mg>P, respectively. Our results suggested that there were sexual differences in mineral elements content and its distribution between male and female P.cathayana seedlings although similar ratio patterns of these elements contents were found in root, stem and leaf for two sexes.
    Relationship of 17 Rosa Plants Detected by Morphology and ISSR Analysis
    YANG Fan;ZENG Li*;YE Kang;ZHAO Zi-Gang;ZHANG Pin;GONG Xiao-Wen;YIN Qin;SUN Qiang
    2011, 31(2):  193-198.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.012
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    The genetic relationship of 17 Rosa plants is analyzed by ISSR and morphological data. NTSYS2.1 is used in clustering analysis. The results showed: 13 primers were selected to perform ISSR-PCR. A total of 479 DNA bands was obtained, of which 221 bands had polymorphism, the percentage of polymorphic bands was 0.46. All these plants could be divided into three groups by morphological data: the first group was consisted of Rosa rugosa ‘Bao Dao’, Rosa chinensis ‘Sophie’s perpetral’, Rosa chinensis ‘Comtesse dll cayla’, Rosa hybrid tea‘Sophy’s Rose’, Rosa hybrid climbingroses ‘Ten Shen Qi’, Rosa chinensis ‘Da Fu Gui’, Rose hybrid bracteata ‘Mermaid’, Rosa chinensis‘Jin Ou Fan Lv’, Rosa chinensis‘Jin Fen Lian’ and Rosa chinensis ‘Yi Ji Fen’; the second group was consisted of Rosa chinensis ‘Viridiflora’, Rosa chinensis ‘Hu Zhong Yue’ , Rosa chinensis‘Yu Shi Zhuang’ , Rosa hybrid tea ‘Yankee Dodle’, Rosa chinensis‘Si Mian Jing’ and Rosa chinensis ‘Pu Fu Hong’; the third group was consisted of Rosa gallica ‘Versicolor’. All these plants can be divided into four groups by ISSR cluster analysis. The first group was consisted of Rosa rugosa ‘Bao Dao’; the second group was consisted of Rosa chinensis ‘Viridiflora’, Rosa chinensis‘Pu Fu Hong’, Rosa chinensis‘Comtesse dll cayla’, Rose hybrid bracteata ‘Mermaid’, Rosa chinensis‘Si Mian Jing’, Rosa chinensis ‘Hu Zhong Yue’ and Rosa chinensis‘Yu Shi Zhuang’; the third group was consisted of Rosa hybrid tea ‘Sophy’s Rose’ and Rosa hybrid tea ‘Yankee Dodle’; and the fourth group was consisted of Rosa gallica ‘Versicolor’, Rosa chinensis ‘Jin Ou Fan Lv’, Rosa hybrid climbingroses ‘Ten Shen Qi’, Rosa chinensis ‘Sophie’s perpetral’, Rosa chinensis ‘Yi Ji Fen’, Rosa chinensis ‘Da Fu Gui’ and Rosa chinensis ‘Jin Fen Lian’. The results of morphologic cluster analysis and ISSR cluster analysis were similar.
    Genetic diversity of Eomecon chionantha Populations in Jinggangshan revealed by RAPD
    CHEN Xiang;HU Xue-Hua;LIAO Xin-Jun;XIAO Yi-An*;JU Jian-Wen;GUO Yong-Jiu
    2011, 31(2):  199-205.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.013
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    The genetic diversity of Eomecon chionantha Hance populations in five different habitats, namely, bamboo forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, shrubs, conifer and broad-leaved forest and fir forest, was analyzed by polymorphic DNA technique. Sixteen primers were selected from 50 random primers amplified 180 fragments in 90 individuals of E.chionantha, in which 156 segments were polymorphic. The rate of polymorphism was 85.56%. By Shannon index, the ratio of genetic diversity among 5 populations was 31.50%, the Nei’s genetic differentiation index was 0.302 9. Results from two indices showed that genetic variation among populations was the small part of the genetic diversity. Most of the genetic variation existed within populations. The number of migrants per generation was 1.150 8. The matrix for five populations displayed that: genetic distance between Ciping population and Jingzhushan population was 0.234 9; the highest genetic identity was 0.886 1 between Liping population and Shuikou population. The dendrogram based on Nei’s genetic identity clustered by UPMGA showed the same result: the genetic distance within populations was significantly related to the altitude and environmental heterogeneity by survival space.
    Variation in Phenology and Population Distribution Pattern of Three Alpine Species Along the Snowmelt Gradient
    CHEN Wen-Nian;WU Yan;WU Ning*;LUO Peng
    2011, 31(2):  206-212.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.014
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    In an alpine snowbed on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, three portions were established along snowmelt gradient. At each portion, the phenology and population distribution pattern of three alpine species(Pyrethrum tatsienense, Leontopodium longifolium and Polygonum macrophyllum) were tested. The results showed that from early-to late-melting portion, phenological phases of three species delayed to different extents. Plant emergence delayed 12-14d, first flowering delayed 6-8 d and peak flowering delayed nearly 6 d. For each species, however, consenescence at three portions did not differed significantly, indicating that growing season length of a species at late-melting portion shortened. At population level, the distribution pattern of Leontopodium longifolium and Polygonum macrophyllum varied as the snowmelt delayed, changing from cluster pattern at early-melting portion to random pattern at late-melting or medium portion. Pyrethrum tatsienense showed cluster pattern at three portions. However, its intensity of cluster weakened as the snowmelt delayed.
    Effect of Exogenous Hydrogen Peroxide on the Proline Metabolism in Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. Callus
    ZHANG Yuan-Yuan;LÜXiu-Jun;ZHANG Hui;LIU Yan;JIANG Yu;YANG Ying-Li*
    2011, 31(2):  213-217.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.015
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    In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of proline metabolism at the cellular level, Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. callus was used to investigate the effects of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment on the proline content and the activities of proline-related metabolism enzymes. After treatment with 2 and 10 μmol·L-1 H2O2 for 24 h, proline content was about 112% and 92% of the control value in N.tangutorum Bobr. callus, respectively; at 72 h treatment, the amount of proline increased about 41% and 19% in comparison with the control. Analysis of enzyme activities showed that exogenous H2O2 induced remarkable decrease in proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) activity and significant increase in glutamyl kinase (GK) activity, but no significant changes in ornithine aminotransferase activity. In addition, the endogenous H2O2 level was increased in exogenous H2O2 treated callus. In conclusion, our results indicated that exogenous H2O2 treatment resulted in the significant increase of endogenous H2O2 content in N.tangutorum Bobr. callus. Here it was also indicated that H2O2 induced proline accumulation, which was associated with the reduction of ProDH activity and the elevation of GK activity in N.tangutorum Bobr. callus.
    Influence of Gibberellin and Amino Acid on Branch and Leaf Growth of Syzygium grijsii
    LIU Wei;XIE Bing;NI Guo-Ping;DENG Guang-Hua*
    2011, 31(2):  218-226.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.016
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    An orthogonal design was used to assess the influence of gibberellin and amino acid on branch and leaf growth of Syzygium grijsii. The results showed: the growth curve of S.grijsii was a double-peak type, there were two growth peaks in spring and autumn, respectively. There was significant interaction between gibberellin and amino acid, which had promotion effects on the branch and leaf growth of S.grijsii. Most observed variance of growth was obviously affected by the concentration of gibberellin acid whereas amino acid had a little effect. For branch and leaf growth, 100 mg·L-1 was an appropriate concentration of gibberellin acid. Concentration variance of exogenous nutrient had a larger effect on young tissues like new shoot and new branch than those old ones. Principal component analysis(PCA) showed mean month growth of new shoot and number of new branch would be considered as rapid indices for evaluation of gibberellin and amino acid spraying effect. Leaf thickness and leaf area(second principal component) would be considered as potential indicators for long-term evaluation of spraying effect. Growth amount of new shoot and number of new branch would be used as fast indicators for evaluation of gibberellin and amino acid spraying effect in production.
    Effects of Low Light Stress on the Biomass Distribution and Secondary Metabolism of Catharanthus roseus
    TONG Lu;ZHANG Bao-You;TANG Zhong-Hua;GUO Xiao-Rui;JIA Xue-Ying;YU Jing-Hua*
    2011, 31(2):  227-230.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.017
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    Under full exposure and 20% exposure to light, the field-cultivated Catharanthus roseus(L.) Don. was used to investigate the changes of biomass distribution, antioxidative secondary metabolites and contents of objective active products such as vindolin, catharanthine and vinblastine after a growing season. The results indicated that the total biomass of C.roseus was extremely restrained by the low light intensity, especially the investment of generative propagation; the contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in leaves under low light intensity decreased distinctly, and the contents of dry weight were 62.50% and 50.00% of the control, respectively, while the content of proanthocyanidins increased slightly, but not remarkably as compared to the full exposure group; vindolin and catharanthine contents under low light intensity were much higher than that of control while vinblastine content increased slightly; the contents of three alkaloids all reduced, which was affected by the reduction of biomass. In conclusion, C.roseus could regulate physiological metabolism to adapt the low light environment, including the remarkable increased content of vindolin and catharanthine. Land resource was fully utilized by planting C.roseus in low light environment. Meanwhile, the needs of vindolin and row material of vinblastine were satisfied as well.
    Inhibitory Effect of Extract from Galla chinensis on the Growth of Microcystis aeruginosa
    NIE Jiang-Li;WANG Ting;SHI Cong;PEI Yi*;WU Ya-Xin
    2011, 31(2):  231-234.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.018
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    Through the experiments of inhibitory effects of water extracts from 10 Chinese herbal medicines on Microcystis aeruginosa, Galla chinensis was selected with strong effect. The results showed: the maximum specific growth rate of inhibition on M.aeruginosa by water extract from G.chinensis was 0.834 d-1, the inhibition on chlorophyll a was significant with long duration. After 3 h treatment by low concentration group of 50 mg·L-1, the inhibition rate was higher than 50%. After 24 h treatment by high concentration groups of 500 and 1 000 mg·L-1, the inhibition rate was higher than 90%. Algal inhibition of G.chinensis figured out the characters of rapidity, sustainability and stablity, which has a great prospect of application in controlling water bloom.
    Allelopathic Effect of Acacia mearnsii on the Seed Germination of Several Plants
    ZHOU Wei-Jia;WU Ying-Yin;ZHENG Si-Si;ZHENG Qian-Qian;LI Qiong;DING Bing-Ying*
    2011, 31(2):  235-240.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.019
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    Allelopathic effects of different concentrations of water extracts of different above-ground organs of the invasive plant Acacia mearnsii on the seed germination of Callicarpa formosana, Lagerstroemia indica, Patrinia villosa and Corchoropsis tomentosa were studied. The main results were as follows: (1)The allelopathic effects of water extracts from stem, leaf and pod on the seed germination of four native species varied much, leaf>stem>pod according to the intensity of allelopathic effects on Callicarpa formosana, Patrinia villosa and Corchoropsis tomentosa. The allelopathic effect on Lagerstroemia indica was concentration-dependent, i.e. at a low concentration, stem>leaf>pod, while at a high concentration, pod>stem>leaf. (2)The allelopathic effects of water extracts from the same organ also varied, the pod water extract showing a strong inhibition on the seed germination of Callicarpa formosana, Lagerstroemia indica and Patrinia villosa, but no significant effect on that of Corchoropsis tomentosa. (3)At high concentrations of stem water extract, the allelopathic strength on seed germination was Corchoropsis tomentosa>Callicarpa formosana>Lagerstroemia indica>Patrinia villosa. (4)The allelopathic strength on Callicarpa formosana, Patrinia villosa and Corchoropsis tomentosa was enhanced with the increase of the water extract concentration of A.mearnsii. (5) The invasion of A.mearnsii was possibly related to the allelopathy inhibiting on the seed germination of accompanied species and has negative impact on the species diversity of the invaded forests.
    Bryophyte Communities from Abandoned Mercury Mine in Eastern Guizhou Province
    PAN Sha;ZHANG Zhao-Hui;*
    2011, 31(2):  241-248.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.020
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    The bryophyte communities were investigated in abandoned mercury mine of Yunchangping town, Guizhou province. Based on the extensive investigation and identification of the bryophyte specimens, 62 taxa in 52 genera of 13 families were found (2 species in 2 genera of 2 families are Hepaticae, 60 taxa in 50 genera of 11 families are Musci). Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) were used to analyze their distribution patterns. The results showed that 12 sampling plots could be classified into two groups. Group 1 contained waste rock sampling plots and waste solid sampling plots, group 2 contained abandoned mercury mine caves, which indicated the habitats of abandoned mercury mine caves are different from waste rock and waste solid, the habitats of waste rock and waste solid are similar. The dominant communities are Barbula fallax Com., Weisia planifolia Com., Barbula constricta Com., Gymnostomum anoectangioides Com. and Gymnostomum subrigidulum Com., their biomass range from 55.20 to 448.20 g·m-2, and the quantity of saturated water absorption ranges from 260.80 to 3 599.40 g·m-2, which indicate the bryophyte communities are very significant for the ecology environment renovation of the mine area because of their special ecological function.
    Progress of Variations in Floral Organs and Seeds of Autotetraploid Plants
    SUN Peng;LI Yun*;JIANG Jin-Zhong;YUAN Cun-Quan;ZHANG Li-Ling
    2011, 31(2):  249-256.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.02.021
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    The phenotypes of floral organs, female and male gametophytes and seeds vary in various degrees because of the genome reduplication for autotetraploid plants. Compared with original diploid plants, the variations focus on the following aspects. The form and inserted site of inflorescences are diverse. The floral organs generally increase in size. The transmitting tissue in style is not well developed. The content of nucleic acid increases whereas the numerical value of RNA/DNA decreases in buds. Parts of egg apparatus, centrocytes and antipodal cells in sac degenerate or grow abnormally of morphology and location, which result in embryo sac abortion. Male gametophytes (pollen) are bigger than original diploid in size, diversiform and infertile. Seeds of autotetraploid plants have an increasing trend of size, weight, content of protein and tolerability to salt, but few of the seeds can germinate. The abnormal development of endosperm negatively affects the supply of nutrition to embryo, so that a lot of embryos degenerate or develop abnormally.