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Bulletin of Botanical Research ›› 2023, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (3): 447-460.doi: 10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2023.03.015

• Plant reproductive biology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Morph-anatomy of Leaf and Taxonomic Insights of Eight Viola species from Yunnan,China

Qin TIAN1,2, Chengyan SHAO1,3, Hanning DUAN1, Chenxuan YANG1,4, Lu LI1()   

  1. 1.Department of Biodiversity Conservation,Southwest Forestry University,Kunming 650224
    2.Department of Forestry,Southwest Forestry University,Kunming 650224
    3.Department of Landscape Architecture and Horticulture Sciences,Southwest Forestry University,Kunming 650224
    4.Kunming Institute of Botany,the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Kunming 650201
  • Received:2022-07-26 Online:2023-05-20 Published:2023-05-11
  • Contact: Lu LI E-mail:lilu@swfu.edu.cn
  • About author:TIAN Qin(1994—),female,postgraduate,mainly engaged in plant taxonomy.
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(32060049);The Fourth National Survey on Chinese Medicinal Resources(GZY-KJS-2018-004)


The taxonomy of Viola L. has been problematic due to its varied morphology in a large number of species with a wide distribution. To solve its taxonomic problem, leaf morphology and anatomy in eight Viola species from Yunnan, China were investigated using the microscope and paraffine section. The results showed that: (1)There were four leaf shapes grouped into the reniform, the hastate, the ovate, and the three-lobed types. (2)There were three types of uniseriately single-celled trichome, including the short-column, the medium-column, and the long-column, growing along the margins and veins of leaves. (3)The anticlinal wall of epidermal cells was the straight-arched, the sinuolate, and the sinuous patterns respectively. Most of the stomata were orbicular while some wereelliptical, which comprised the paracytic, the diacytic, and the anomocytic patterns. (4)The outlines of mid-rib transverse section were divided into the equal and the unequal types based on the different sizes between the adaxial and the abaxial epidermis. (5)The shapes of cross section of the petiole were grouped into the elliptical, the sub-orbicular, and the circle patterns, with obvious adaxially lateral wings and ridges. The number of vascular bundles was one or three, with varied three outlines containing the round, the shallowly U-type, and the deeply U-type. It was showed that some selected features of morpho-anatomy of leaf were much valuable for problematic species delimitation, including the leaf shape, the trichome, the epidermal cell, the outline of vascular bundle, and the shape of cross section of leaf and petiole. Additionally, it was supported that V. inconspicuaV. prionantha, and V. philippica should be treated as three independent species.

Key words: Viola, leaf morphology, epidermis, anatomy, petiole, trichome, taxonomy

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