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    15 May 2018, Volume 38 Issue 3
    Re-analyzing the Taxonomic Characteristics of Hexinia H.L.Yang and the Illegal Name of Zollikoferia Nees
    YANG His-Ling
    2018, 38(3):  321-322.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.001
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    Based on extensive literatures reviewing, the author re-analyzed the taxonomic characteristics of Hexinia and the origin of Zollikoferia Nees. Results show that Zollikoferia Nees and Z. polydichotoma(Ostenf.) Ijin are illegal names.
    Correction of Typographical Errors in the Protologue of Six Taxa in China
    LI Chao, LIN Yun, BI Hai-Yan, YUN Ying-Xia
    2018, 38(3):  323-329.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.002
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    We corrected the typographical errors in the protologues of six taxa in China. The holotype of Eritrichium confetiflorum W. T. Wang(Boraginaceae), incorrectly cited as C. Y. Yang 700422 in the protologue, is actually C. Y. Yang 700442. The holotype of Glochisocaryum kansuense W. T. Wang(Boraginaceae), incorrectly cited as K. T. Fu 1989 in the protologue in Chinese, is actually K. T. Fu 1489; the former collection belongs to Asparagus sichuanicus S. C. Chen & D. Q. Liu(Liliaceae). The holotype of Microula trichocarpa(Maxim.) Johnst. var. macrantha W. T. Wang(Boraginaceae), incorrectly cited as H. Li 70287 in the protologue, is actually H. Li 72087; the former collection belongs to Rhododendron edgarianum Rehder & Wilson(Ericaceae). The holotype of Rabdosia latifolia C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li(Lamiaceae), incorrectly cited as K. L. Chu 2049 in the protologue, is actually K. L. Chu 2046; the former collection belongs to Rosa caudata Baker(Rosaceae). The holotype of Ancylostemon humilis W. T. Wang(Gesneriaceae), incorrectly cited as G. H. Yang 59063 in the protologue, is actually G. H. Yang 59043; the former collection belongs to Betula fargesii Franch. (Betulaceae). The holotype of Thladiantha villosula Cogn. var. nigrita A. M. Lu & Z. Y. Zhang(Cucurbitaceae) was wrongly cited as K. M. Feng 3439 in the protologue, but actually is K. M. Feng 3429; the former collection belongs to Bupleurum rockii H. Wolff(Apiaceae).
    Micromorphological Characteristics of Leaf Epidermis and Ecological Adaptation of Psammochloa villosa, a Desert Plant from the Inner Mongolian Plateau
    LÜ Ting, LIU Yu-Ping, ZHOU Yong-Hui, LIU Tao, ZHANG Xiao-Yu, SU Xu
    2018, 38(3):  330-337.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.003
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    We comprehensively observed and analyzed the micromorphological characteristics of leaf epidermises from 50 representative populations of Psammochloa villosa through the light microscopic. We summarized the similarities and differences of leaf epidermis structures, and then systematically discussed the significance of taxonomy and ecological adaptability about micromorphological characteristics of leaf epidermises. The leaf epidermis was composed of long-cells, short-cells, stomatal cells and prickle-hairs, but they had no micro-hair, macro-hair and papillae, which belongs to the typical festucoid type. The obviously different characters, such as the shape of long-cells and curve extent of cell walls, form and distribution pattern of short-cells, volume and distribution of stomas, shape of subsidiary cells and pattern of prickle hair, existed among populations of P. villosa. They can delimitate P. villosa into two groups. Meanwhile, the stomatal density of leaf epidermises in P. villosa increases with the heavier environmental drought. The stomatal density of group Ⅰ is bigger that of group Ⅱ. This structure is very beneficial for P. villosa to reduce the loss of water, which possibly makes it adapt to arid deserts. Thus, it should be a kind of micromorphologically anatomical adaptation to arid deserts.
    A Supplementary Study of Two Species of Galinsoga in the Liaoning Province
    ZHAI Qiang, WANG Wei-Bin, QU Bo, SHAO Mei-Ni
    2018, 38(3):  338-342.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.004
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    The diagnoses between Galinsoga parviflora Cav. and Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz. et Pav., two invasive plants in Liaoning Province, are still in confusion in morphological traits in some Chinese studies. On the basis of the two plants specimens of Shenyang Agricultural University herbarium and the comparison of these specimens with the new collected ones in Shenyang area, the key morphological distinction between the two Galinsoga species is the G. parviflora's ray florets have no pappus or the ray floret's pappus are speculations, and the tubular flower's pappus are plumose-cribriform with obtuse apex, while G. quadriradiata's pappus of both ray floret and tubular flower are plumose-cribriform with acute apex. These results showed definite morphological characters in identifying Galinsoga weeds.
    Variation in Needle Morphology and Anatomy of Pinus thunbergii Along Coastal-inland Gradient
    ZHANG Peng, SUN Yang, YU Mu-Kui, WU Tong-Gui
    2018, 38(3):  343-348.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.005
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    The effect of wind on the morphology, physiological and growth of trees has been a topic and difficulty of ecology. At present, response and adaptation of trees to wind were determined through short-time simulation wind or mechanical stimulation, which cannot reflect the long-term adaptation mechanism of trees in the natural windy environment. Here, needle morphology, including length, width, area, specific leaf area(SLA), and anatomy structure, including cuticle and epidermal thickness, were determined for 60-a Pinus thunbergii along coastal-inland gradient. Needle length, width, perimeter, area, thickness and SLA on windward of P. thunbergii decreased from inland to coast, while cuticle thickness, epidermal thickness and vessel diameter increased(P<0.05). However, there were not significant difference for these indices on leeward along coastal-inland gradient. Needle traits on the same gradient were found to be significant differences between windward and leeward within 500 m from coastline. Therefore, with the increasing of sea wind stress, needle morphological indices were decreased to reduce the force bearing area, which was a kind of avoidance strategy. Meanwhile, the needle anatomical indices were increased to improve needle toughness and guarantee adequate water supply, which was a kind of tolerance strategy. These results showed the response and adaption strategies in coastal wind environment for P. thunbergii.
    Morphological and Structural Changes during Male Cones Development in Cunninghamia lanceolata
    ZHU Li-Kui, TANG Liang, ZHAO Bei-Bei, LU Zhao-Geng, WANG Li
    2018, 38(3):  349-356.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.006
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    We selected the Chinese fir from Yangzhou as experimental materials, and studied the development of male cones, microsporangium development and the rule of pollens release in detail using digital camera, stereoscope, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and semi-thin section. The male cones were formed in mid-October, and matured in the following late March. During the pollination period, pollens began to release in the middle of the slit dehisced from the base of the male cones to the upper part. The male cones were borne at the top of the shoots. The cones enlarged with the scales opened when they were maturing. Microsporophylls were arranged spirally along the main axis, and each microsporophyll consists of three microsporangia forming a triangle. The microsporangia wall was composed of epidermis, endothecium and tapetum. Epidermis cells occurred first and differentiated into 2-3 layers of cells which formed the endothecium and the tapetum. Finally, the endothecium and tapetum disappeared. At room temperature, the duration of pollen release for one male cone was about 18 h and about 8-10 h for one microsporangium. The results indicated that the development process of the microspore leaves of Chinese fir had experienced the increase of volume, scale opening and pollen release. These morphological and structural changes were beneficial to improve the efficiency of pollen release, which indicated that the Chinese fir formed many structural characteristics conducive to the wind pollination.
    Genetic Effects of Fruit, Seed and Seedling Traits of Alnus cremastogyne Burk in a 7×7 Complete Diallel Cross Design
    GUO Hong-Ying, YANG Han-Bo, CHEN Zhi, WANG Ze-Liang, HUANG Zhen, LI Jia-Man, XIAO Xing-Cui, KANG Xiang-Yang
    2018, 38(3):  357-366.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.007
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    The genetic parameters of parents were estimated by analyzing its hybrids descendant for fruit, seed and seedling traits to select optimum parents for crossbreeding of Alnus cremastogyne Burk. Seven parents of A. cremastogyne were crossed by a 7×7 diallel cross design and their hybrid fruits, seeds and seedlings were tested for fresh weight, thousand seed weight, phenotypic characters like fruit and seed length, seedling height, and caliper. The results showed that there were very significant differences in the characteristics of fruit fresh weight, thousand kernel weight, phenotype character of fruit and seed, seedling height, and caliper between 49 cross groups(P<0.001). In the general combining ability(GCA), specific combining ability(SCA) and reciprocal effects(REC) of fruit fresh weight, thousand kernel weight, and phenotype character of fruit and seed(P<0.001). There also were very significant differences of GCA, SCA, and REC for seedling height and caliper(P<0.001). The broad-sense heritability of seedling height and caliper were 37.06% and 38.04%, and the narrow-sense heritability of seedling height and caliper were 17.47% and 16.03%, respectively. That means higher environment effects existed in the stage of seedling growth. The additive variance of fruit and seed characters were from 1.34 to 11.79 times to non-additive variance, which mainly controlled by additive gene effect, followed by non-additive effect. Otherwise, the non-additive variance of seedling height and caliper were 1.12 and 1.37 times to additive variance, which mainly controlled by non-additive gene effect, followed by additive effect. JG6 and JT4 are superior parents according to the effects of GCA, SCA, and REC. Also, four groups(BZ6×JG6, BZ6×SW2, JT4×TT13 and BZ6×QJ1) are superior cross groups, which hybrids descendants get 20.47%-76.22% genetic gain on seedling height and 5.07%-43.18% genetic gain on the caliper, respectively.
    Preliminary Study on the Effects of Two Different Nitrogen Forms on Flavonoids Accumulation and Related Molecular Mechanism in Medicinal Plant Tetrastigma hemsleyanum
    ZHANG Qiang, LIU Yi, WU Xiao-Min, SHU Liang-Zuo, SONG Yun-Xian, CHEN Chu, LONG Min-Hui
    2018, 38(3):  367-376.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.008
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    The effects of two different nitrogen(N) forms(nitrate-N and ammonium-N) on the accumulation of flavonoids(procyanidin B1, rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin, isoquercitrin and kaempferol) in the endangered medicinal plant Tetrastigma hemsleyanum(from Zhejiang Province) were examined through potted experiment under shady condition(30% natural light), and its influence mechanism was also discussed. The flavonoids content was relatively higher in the root and leaf of T. hemsleyanum under nitrate-N supply than ammonium-N supply. The levels of transcription and expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL) and chalcone synthase(CHS) which are related to flavonoids synthesis were relatively higher in the root and leaf of T. hemsleyanum under nitrate-N supply than ammonium-N supply. Besides, the enzyme activities of PAL and CHS were also higher in the root and leaf of T. hemsleyanum under nitrate-N supply than ammonium-N supply. The PAL-specific inhibitor(AOA) could significantly inhibit the enzyme activity of PAL(P<0.05) and lead to a very significant decrease in flavonoids content(P<0.01). In conclusion, nitrate-N supply is more beneficial to flavonoids synthesis in T. hemsleyanum, which mainly enhances the flavonoids synthesis by increasing the gene expression and activity of key enzymes in PAL metabolic pathway.
    Phenotypic Traits of Half Sibs-seeds and Their Offspring Seddlings on Picea crassifolia Superior Individual Trees
    LÜ Dong, ZHANG Hong-Bin, LI Bing-Xin, ZHAO Hu
    2018, 38(3):  377-383.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.009
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    Picea crassifolia is an important native tree species because it has a strong adaptability in northwest China, plays an important role in soil and water conservation, urban and rural greening, and barren hill afforestation. For understanding the half-sibling seeds and their progeny seedlings phenotypic traits of P. crassifolia variation characteristics, we selected the half sibling seeds and its semi-half-sibling seedlings in eight years of superior individual trees as materials to analyze and compare different good family half-sibling seeds and its offspring seedling phenotypic traits. There were significant differences in the seed scales, seed wing and seed phenotypic traits of the half sibling seeds in P. crassifolia, and there were significant differences among families and within families(P<0.01). There is a significant positive correlation between seed scale, seed longiness and kilo-grain weightiness of half sibs-seeds. The genetic heritability and genetic variation coefficients of the seedlings of the half-siblings of P. crassifolia were the greatest(0.951%, 19.14%) in seedling height, followed by the second(0.737%, 10.87%) in ground diameter, and the smallest in lateral branches(0.642%, 2.66%). The variation of phenotypic traits on half sibs-seeds and their offspring seedlings is mainly controlled by genetic factors and environmental factors.
    Effects of Different Forms of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Growth of Populus simonii×Populus nigra Seedings
    ZHANG Shuo, ZHANG Yu, WU Hai-Bo, LIU Yang-Xing, ZHANG Peng
    2018, 38(3):  384-390.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.010
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    To investigate the growth response of broad-leaved trees to amino acid organic nitrogen fertilization, the effects of different N rates(12, 24 and 48 mg·seedling-1) and different forms of nitrogen(organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen) fertilization on the growth of Populus simonii×P. nigra seedings were studied using the sowing seedlings. The regardless of inorganic nitrogen(ammonium nitrate) or organic nitrogen(arginine), the seedling height, diameter and total biomass of P. simonii×P. nigra seedling increased with the increase of nitrogen application rate, but the nitrogen use efficiency of seedlings treated with medium N fertilizer was the highest. The growth performance of seedlings treated with inorganic nitrogen(ammonium nitrate) and organic nitrogen(arginine) showed no significant difference under the same nitrogen application rates. The application of organic nitrogen could achieve the same effect of promoting seedling growth as the application of inorganic nitrogen. Different amino acids and their combination fertilizers have significant effects on the growth of P. simonii×P. nigra seedlings. Under the condition of single amino acid fertilization, arginine was the best one to promote seedling growth, followed by glutamic acid and glycine. Under the combination of amino acid fertilizers, the combination of arginine fertilization seedlings grow well, the combination of glycine fertilization seedlings grow poor. Different amino acid fertilization treatments had no significant effect on the nitrogen content of different organs of P. simonii×P. nigra seedlings.
    Effect of Carbon Source, Auxin and Elicitor on the Growth and Synthesis of Secondary Metabolites of Adventitious Roots of Cajanus cajan(Linn.) Millsp.
    FAN Yan-Min, DANG Shi-Kun, WANG Wen-Jie, WANG Hui-Mei
    2018, 38(3):  391-398.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.011
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    Using 1/2MS as basic medium, we studied sucrose, IBA, jasmonic acid methylester(MJ) and salicylic acid(SA) on the influence of biomass and synthesis of secondary metabolites of adventitious root of Cajanus cajan(Linn.) Millsp.. The content of sucrose had a significant influence on the biomass and synthesis of secondary metabolites. When the content of sucrose was 30 g·L-1, the amount of biomass and the content of secondary metabolites of adventitious root of C. cajan(Linn.) Millsp were the maximum value. The low concentration of IBA is beneficial to the growth of adventitious root of C. cajan(Linn.) Millsp. and the accumulation of secondary metabolites. However, the high content of IBA shows inhibition. When the content of IBA was 0.1 mg·L-1, biomass, genistein and apigenin were maximum, 1.1, 1.1 and 2.8 times as control group respectively. MJ with 0-200 μmol·L-1 almost had no effect on adventitious roots growth(P>0.05), but it had a significant effect on the synthesis of secondary metabolites. When the content of MJ was 100 μmol·L-1, genistein and apigenin were maximum, respectively, 1.9 and 2.1 times as the control group. The growth of adventitious roots and the synthesis of genistein were inhibited by SA. However, SA had a certain effect on the synthesis of apigenin. When the content of SA was 100 μmol·L-1, the content of apigenin was maximum, 1.5 times as the control group. Suspension culture of adventitious roots of C. cajan(Linn.) was an effective method to obtain the secondary metabolites, and will provide a good way of thinking for large-scale production of genistein and apigenin.
    Prokaryotic Expression of Halostachys caspica HcDMC1 and Preparation of Its Antiserum
    ZHANG Ji, ZHANG Li-Li, ZHANG Bei-Bei, ZHANG Fu-Chun
    2018, 38(3):  399-405.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.012
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    DMC1 is a necessary meiotic specific protein for homologous chromosome pairing and recombinant repair during meiosis. According to the transcriptome database of Halostachys caspica under the salt stress, the DNA damage repair gene DMC1 of H. caspica was cloned and named HcDMC1. In order to further investigate the salt tolerant function of HcDMC1, the HcDMC1 fusion protein obtained from prokaryotic expression was used to immunize mice to prepare the specific antiserum against HcDMC1. The expression of HcDMC1 protein could be induced in Escherichia coli by pET30a-HcDMC1 and the fusion protein His-HcDMC1 was purified. The content of His-HcDMC1 was 1 mg·mL-1. Each mouse was immunized with 50 μg fusion protein for three time, the antibody titer and specificity were detected by ELISA and Western Blot, respectively. The antiserum titer was about 1:400 000, and the specificity of the antiserum was confirmed by Western Blot. The prepared antiserum can provide experimental materials for the functional identification of HcDMC1 protein.
    Effects of H2S and PLDα1 on Drought Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana
    ZHAO Min, YANG Ning, CHEN Lu, AN Yan-Huang, LI Wen-Ling, ZHAO Feng-Feng
    2018, 38(3):  406-414.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.013
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    The experiment was conducted to study the role of phospholipase Dα1(PLDα1) and the gas signal hydrogen sulfide(H2S) in response to drought stress and the possible signal relationship. The wild type Arabidopsis thaliana(WT), PLDα1 mutant(pldα1-1) and the LCD mutant plant(lcd-4) was used as experiment materials, and 0.3 mol·L-1 mannitol was used to simulate drought stress. The content of endogenous H2S, the activities of PLD, L/D-CDes, and the relative expression of PLDα1, LCD and DCD in wild type Arabidopsis were significantly changed under drought stress. Compared with WT, pldα1-1 and lcd-4 were more sensitive to drought condition. Application of NaHS could promote the seed germination and endogenous H2S production in WT, pldα1-1 and lcd-4. Exogenous addition of PA could increase the germination rate and endogenous H2S concentration in WT and pldα1-1, but had no significant effect in lcd-4. The signal molecules H2S and PLDα1 played important roles in the plant response to drought stress, and H2S might be located at downstream of PLDα1 in signal transduction process to regulate the seed germination of A. thaliana.
    Transcriptome-wide Identification of Lignin Gene Families of Bambusa emeiensis Shoots and Their Differential Expression
    JIANG Hai-Gang, WANG Shu-Gang, LIU Yang, SHEN Yan-He, LI Xiang-Ning, CAO Ying
    2018, 38(3):  415-421.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.014
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    Bambusa emeiensis is a good fiber raw material, but the presence of lignin negatively affects bamboo pulp production. The 351 lignin biosynthesis-related unigenes of B. emeiensis were indentified through BLASTp combined with phylogenetic analysis, based on the transcriptome data of B. emeiensis shoots with 10 cm 150 cm height. Among them, the numbers of transcripts including 51 laccase(LAC), 374CL, 26PAL and 25CAD were found, and all these transcripts having more abundant in B. emeiensis than other reported bamboo species. RNA-seq and real-time quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR) analysis were used to investigate the differential expression of these lignin genes in bamboo shoots at the different elongation stages, and the relationship between lignin gene expression and lignin amount was further determined. The results revealed that with the elongation of shoots, the expression levels of 16 lignin biosynthesis genes, including 2 PAL, 5 CCR, 34CL, 2CAD and 4LAC, were up-regulated, indicating their roles in developmental lignin accumulation of B. emeiensis.
    Screening and Identification of the Proteins Related to Drought Response in Leaves of Eucommia ulmoides
    ZHAO Xin, BAI Wei
    2018, 38(3):  422-432.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.015
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    To uncover the underlying mechanism in leaves of Eucommia ulmoides in response to drought stress, we studied the physiological response characteristic in the leaves at the drought treatment time of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 d and 2 d of recovery by pot test. We used differential proteomic analysis between the leaves of 0 and 15 d to reveal the molecular mechanism. The results showed that with the stress time prolonged, the water saturation deficit was increased. While the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration and stomatal conductance were decreased. The activity of SOD, POD and CAT were firstly increased, then decreased. The content of MDA was firstly increased, then decreased, thereafter, increased again at the day of 15. The change profile of proline and soluble sugar content were in consistence with the change of SOD activity. After rehydration, all the parameters recovered to a certain level, but still could not recover to the control level. The total proteins extracted from the leaves that were collected at 0 and 15 d were separated by 2-DE, and the differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. About 36 protein spots were successfully identified, including 22 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated proteins. Further analysis of these differential expressed proteins revealed that these proteins were mainly involved in signal transduction, photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, energy metabolism, secondary metabolites synthesis, antioxidant protective enzyme, amino acid metabolism and protein metabolism. It was speculated that Eucommia ulmoides leaves firstly sensed the stress signal in response to drought, then affected photosynthesis, secondary metabolites synthesis and protein synthesis. Meanwhile, the excess ROS were eliminated by antioxidant protective enzyme. On the other hand, the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway were enhanced to produce the energy to supply demands of plant growth under drought stress. The physiological analysis results revealed that the proline and soluble sugar content were increased to reduce the water loss by decreasing the osmotic potential in plant cells. These results were in accordance with the change profiles of amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism associated proteins.
    Diversity and Ecological Characteristics of Bryophytes from Peak Cluster under the Background of Karst Urban
    LI Ze-Ke, WU Qi-Mei, WANG Zhi-Hui, ZHANG Zhao-Hui
    2018, 38(3):  433-443.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.016
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    We studied the diversity and ecological characteristics of bryophytes on three peak clusters in the Yunyan district of Guiyang City, Guizhou Province. The results are as follows:(1) A total of 62 bryophytes from 31 genera and 13 families were recorded. Among them there are 2 species of liverworts belonging to 1 genus and 1 family, 60 species of mosses belonging to 12 families and 30 genera; (2) There are three life-forms of bryophytes, mainly including wefts and turfs accounting for 61.3% and 35.5%, respectively; (3) The richness index of bryophyte species in three peaks cluster are in the descending order of Xianrendong Mountain, Zhaobi Mountain, and Dong Mountain. The Pielou index of bryophytes in three peaks cluster has little difference, showing that the distribution of individual species is more uniform. The similarity index results show that the bryophyte species of Dong Mountain and the Zhaobi Mountain, and Xianrendong Mountain are quite different. One of the important reasons for the differences is lithology; (4) The number of the bryophyte species shows different law in mountain bottom, mountain side and mountain top, which may be caused by human disturbance; (5) A Canonical Correspondence analysis showed that the main environmental factor affecting the distribution of bryophytes in Zhaobi Mountain and Dong Mountain is human disturbance, followed by altitude. The distribution of bryophytes in Xianrendong Mountain with mild human disturbance was affected by natural environmental factors(altitude, light and soil temperature). As the dominant species, Eurohypnum leptothallum well inhabited in harsh natural environment with strong human disturbances, which provide a potential value for improving the deteriorating environment.
    Effects of Foliar Trichomes on the Retention and Resuspension of Atmospheric Particulates:in the Case of Tillandsia velutina
    ZHANG Wei, ZHANG Rui-Wen, ZHENG Gui-Ling, LI Peng
    2018, 38(3):  444-452.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.017
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    Foliar trichomes are the specialized structures getting in touch with atmospheric particles firstly. However, effects of foliar trichomes on particulate retention have not been investigated until now. So epiphytic Tillandsia velutina with typical foliar trichomes was selected as materials, and its trichomes were removed artificially to investigate the particulate retention and resuspension under different wind strengths and operation time. The maximum(23.24±0.11 g·m-2) and the natural particle retention contents(10.22±0.92 g·m-2) with all the foliar trichomes were significantly higher than those without foliar trichomes(P<0.05). After the atmospheric particles deposited on the leaf surface, more than 99.0% dust was blown away by the wind in the plants without trichomes, while the proportion was only 28.1% for those plants with trichomes. Moreover, more folair trichomes were removed, more particles were resuspended. Therefore, the effects of foliar trichomes of T. velutina on the retention and resuspension of atmospheric particulates was reflected not only in the total amount of atmospheric particulates, but also in the process of atmospheric particulate resuspension. Foliar trichomes would decrease the resuspension of the atmospheric particles descending on the leave surface, and promote the retention of these particles.
    Caffeoylquinic Acid Derivatives in DAYE Kudingcha(Ilex latifolia Thunb.) Organs in Differently Developing Stage by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography
    LIN Chun-Song, XU Su-Xia, HUANG Qing-Yun
    2018, 38(3):  453-459.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.018
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    DAYE Kudingcha is rich in caffeoylquinic acid derivatives(CQAs). CQAs in DAYE Kudingcha organs in different developing stages were determined by micellar electrokinetic chromatography(MEKC). The composition of CQAs variated greatly in tissues at differently developing stages. The content of CQAs was 19.78 g/100 g in leaves at the age of 10 days, and then decreased to 1.41 g/100 g at 12 months. A similar predisposition was observed in female and male flowers with the increasing age. Female flowers(fruits) and male flowers at the age of 10 days have a high content of CQAs:20.29 g/100 g and 18.06 g/100 g, respectively, which subsequently decreased to 0.16 g/100 g in 7-month mature fruits, 10.36 g/100 g in 40 day falling male flowers. The male flowers, as well as the young leaves, might be a good CQAs' raw material, due to a large amount of CQAs and biomass of the male flowers in the Kudingcha species. This is the first report describing the contents of CQAs in the flowers of Kudingcha. MEKC method was also used for the first time in the determination of CQAs in Kudingcha. Compared to the HPLC method described previously, the MEKC might be an alternative for the quality control of CQAs in Kudingcha.
    Staged Responses of Non-structural Carbohydrates of Pinus tabulaeformis Seedlings to Drought Stress
    WANG Zong-Yan, WANG Kai, JIANG Tao, CAO Peng, SUN Ju, WANG Dao-Han
    2018, 38(3):  460-466.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.019
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    The experiment was conducted to study the effect of drought on non-structural carbohydrates(NSC) of Pinus tabulaeformis and its response mechanism, with 2-a P. tabulaeformis seedlings, we set four different water treatments including suitable water, light, moderate and serious drought stress, i. e., 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of the field capacity. We compared the variations of NSC in different organs under different drought stress times(15, 30, 45 and 60 d). There were significant interacting effects between drought stress degree and duration on the contents of soluble sugar, starch and total NSC in current-year-old needles, 1-a needles, stems, coarse roots and fine roots of P. tabulaeformis seedlings. On the 15th day of treatment, NSC contents in current-year-old needles under drought stress were significantly lower than that under suitable water condition. Moreover, NSC content in fine roots under light and serious drought stress treatments was significantly higher than that in suitable water treatment. On the 45th day of treatment, the starch content in current-year-old needles, one-year-old needles, stems, coarse roots and fine roots increased with the increasing of drought stress degree. On the 60th day of treatment, the starch content in fine roots was declined with the increasing of stress degree, and the soluble sugar and total NSC contents in fine roots under the drought stress treatment were significantly lower than those in suitable water treatment. These findings indicated that NSC firstly supplied to roots to promote water uptake in the early stage of drought stress. However, downward translocation of NSC was inhibited, and growth and absorption ability of root decreased under long term stress. The findings of staged strategies of NSC for drought stress should provide data support for the choice of the optimum afforestation time and water management of P. tabulaeformis seedlings in Northeast China.
    Flavonoids Enrichment from Elaeagnus angustifolia Fruit
    ZHANG Zi-Dong, ZHANG Yuan-Yuan, MENG Yong-Bin, XU Lei, JIA Nan, XIANG Feng-Ying, LU Qi
    2018, 38(3):  467-474.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.020
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    Based on the static screening experiments, AB-8 resin was determined to be the best resin for enriching flavonoid of Elaeagnus angustifolia from nine kinds of macro-porous resins. According to the dynamic experiment results, some enriching conditions were optimized, as follows:the sample concentration was 2.43 mg·mL-1; the flow rate was 2 BV·h-1; the ethanol concentration was 70%; the elution rate was 2 BV·h-1. The purity of total flavonoids from E. angustifolia was increased by 5.09 times, from 9.73% to 49.52%. The purity of Hypericin was increased by 5.79 times, from 0.53% to 3.07%. The results of this research would provide the theoretical basis and data support for the development and utilization of total flavonoids in E. angustifolia.
    Decolorization Process of Polysaccharide from Tara Seed
    LI Zhan-Jun, LIU Yun-Wei, ZHANG Zhong-Lin, ZHANG Zhi-Huan, MA Ke, YANG Feng-Jian
    2018, 38(3):  475-480.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2018.03.021
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    Tara polysaccharide is a kind of galactose, which has a very important application value for us. We mainly studies the tara polysaccharide extract from tara seeds. By the single factor experiment, we optimized four factors including the activated carbon particle quality, decolorization time, decolorization temperature and decolorization times. The best optimum conditions were under activated carbon particles of 0.6 g, decolorization time of 45 min, decolorization temperature of 45℃, decolorization times of 3, the decolorization rate can be achieved 50.21%, at the same time, and the retention rate of polysaccharide was 90.39%.