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    15 July 2017, Volume 37 Issue 4
    Leaf Venation and its Taxonomical Significance in Sect. Denticulatae(Salix) of China
    MENG Xiang-Yu, YU Hui-Ying, ZHANG Zhi-Xiang
    2017, 37(4):  481-491.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.001
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    Comparative observation on leaf venation of 17 species and 1 variety from Salix Sect. Denticulatae were made performed in order to provide new morphological evidence for the classification of Salix by the means of this section. The results showed that the venation of all taxa was found to be craspedodromously pinnate. Most species have intersecondary veins. Tertiary and higher level veins were divided into three types. The areoles are regular or irregular. Veinlets are branched or absent. The results also indicated that the areoles and veinlets were stable characters which showed significant differences bwteeen species. Based on the UPGMA analysis for venation pattern of Sect. Denticulatae C.K. Schneid., S.praticola Hand.-Mazz. ex Enander types and S.delavayana Hand.-Mazz. types were founed. Leaf venation characters provides new characters. They could be used, therefore, as important diagnostic features for identifying these species.
    Floral Morphology and Development of Female and Male Gametophyte of Bambusa intermedia Hsueh et Yi
    WANG Yu-Jun, LUO Jian, CHEN Nan-Nan, LIN Shu-Yan, DING Yu-Long, WANG Shu-Guang
    2017, 37(4):  492-498.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.002
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    The morphological characteristics of the floral organs of Bambusa intermedia Hsueh et Yi were observed. Its inflorescence belonged to the indefinite inflorescence, and each of pseudospikelets had dormant buds. The floret type was of open type, and its fundamental structure included lemma(1), lodicule(3), stamens(6) and pistil(1) with plumate stigma and three branches. The developmental sequence of these structures in florets was lemma→palea→lodicules→ stamens→pistil. The developmental sequence of florets in spikelet was from base to top. Its ovary was unilocular, with parietal placentation, and dual-integument enclosing the anatropous ovule. The anther walls contained 4 cell layers and a lot of aborti onsoccured.
    Anther Development and Microsporogenesis in Dipentodon with Systematic Implications
    ZHANG Zi-Yuan, LIU Xiao-Xiao, LI Lu, KONG Dong-Rui, PENG Hua
    2017, 37(4):  499-507.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.003
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    The monotypic genus Dipentodon Dunn is endemic to Eastern Asia and has been rare and endangered due to the habitat loss. Its systematic position has been controversial. The investigation in a natural population showed that the average ratio of seed-setting in D.sinicus was very low with a number of 4.31% for three successive years. The anther development and microsporogenesis of D.sinicus were observed by means of conventional paraffin sections. The anther is tetrasporangiate, and its anther wall comprises four or five layers:an epidermis, an endothecium, one or two middle layers and a tapetum. The development of anther wall belongs to basic type. The tapetum is glandular type, and wall thickening occurs in endothecium. Cytokinesis of microsporocyte meiotic division is simultaneous, and the tetrads are tetrachedral, occasionally isobilateral. The mature pollen grains are two-celled with three colpates. The high percentage of pollen abortion was observed in process of male gametogenesis. Comparative embryological features supported the molecular view that Dipentodon should be included into Dipentodentaceae among order Huerteales. The abnormality in the pollen development in Dipentodon might be one of the main causes resulting to its extremely low seed-setting.
    Anther and Young Ovule Development in Clematoclethra(Actinidiaceae) with Taxonomic Implications
    LI Lu, ZHANG Zi-Yuan, KONG Dong-Rui, PENG Hua
    2017, 37(4):  508-513.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.004
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    The anther and young ovule development of the genus Clematoclethra is reported for the first time. This research shows the following embryological features in C.scandens subsp. scandens. It has a six-layered anther wall with a basic type of development, including an epidermis, two middle layers, two glandular tapetum layers, a fibrous thickened endothecium in mature anther. It is characteristic of owning successive cytokinesis during microsporogenesis, tetrahedral tetrads, and 2-celled pollen grains; a unitegmic-tenuinucellate and nearly anatropous young ovule, a micropyle formed by unitegument. The ovule in Clematoclethra is unitegument as well as in both Actinidia and Saurauia, while those of Theaceae family are bitegument. Therefore embryological data supports the viewpoint based on pollen morphology, cytology, and molecular data that Clematoclethra should be grouped into Actinidiaceae, and together with other two genera(Actinidia and Saurauia), constitutes a well-supported monophyly.
    Nodulation Structure in Rosa omeiensis Rolfe and Its Relationship with Itself
    MA Chao, PUBU Duoji, CHEN Bin, XU Ai-Guo, JIANG Si-Ping
    2017, 37(4):  514-520.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.005
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    We studied the occurrence of nodulation on Rosa omeiensis Rolfe and their regularity as well as the reasons of nodulation in the area of Xiongse Nature Reserve of Lasa in Tibet Autonomous Region, and checked the ecology effect of distribution of R.omeiensis on other shrubs Results show that:(1)The nodulation was organized by the hyperplasia of xylem, dense tissue forming irregular annulation without pulp. Its enlargement due to meristem tissue formation of plant tumors, which mainly formed by the square cells size of about 10-15 μm×25 μm×30 μm; (2)The occurrence of nodulation is closely related to the growth condition of its own. The relationship between the occurrence of nodulation, the density and the altitude gradient was not significantly great, while it has a significant correlation with the coverage and the height of the plant(P=0.0081<0.01); (3)Within the scale of the study area, nodulation can be found in over 9-year R.omeiensis, as an important species of discrete distribution in the area with no correlation with other brush. To maintain the competitive advantage of shrub and whole population, it was achieved by self-thinning effect with nodulation. The nodulation of R.omeiensis is formed in the long-term evolution process. The rapid growth and death of the individuals in the shrubs is realized through the nodulation. Through nodulation, the competitive advantage of brush and the entire population is kept.
    Effects of Shading on Anatomical Structure and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Ribes nigrum L. Leaves
    LI Xin-Yan, TENG Zhi-Yuan, XU Qi-Jiang, ZHANG Hui-Hui, ZHENG Bao-Jiang
    2017, 37(4):  521-528.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.006
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    We studied the anatomical structure and photosynthetic characteristics of Ribes nigrum L. leaves under different shading degrees(full sunlight, 20%, 60% of shading degree) and different shading time(early, middle, and late). The thickness of leaf under 20% and 60% shading treatments were lower than that under full sunlight treatment with significant differences, and the epidermis thickness were higher in the opposite way. The ratio of palisade tissue to spongy tissue decreased as the increase of shading degree, which increased with the extension of shading time. In early and middle shading stage, the photosynthetic rate(Pn) of 20% shading treatment was little higher than that under full sunlight treatment, but there was no significant difference(P>0.05), the transpiration rate(Tr) and water use efficiency(WUE) were changed in the same circumstances. The Pn of 60% shading treatments were lower than that under full sunlight treatment significantly(P<0.05). In late shading stage, the Pn of 60% shading treatments were significantly higher than that under full sunlight treatment(P<0.05), and the WUE, Tr and Stomatal Conductance(Gs) were higher than that under full sunlight and 20% shading treatment. Therefore, these changes of the anatomical structure were helpful for R.nigrum to improve the utilization of luminous energy, and different shading time resulted in the change of photosynthetic characteristics. With the photosynthetic characteristics and anatomical structure of R.nigrum leaves, the R.nigrum should be shadowed in different degrees(20% shading treatment in early and middle stage, 60% shading treatment in late stage) during the different stages, which can improve the efficiency of using light and water, maintain higher photosynthetic rate and retard the aging process.
    Comparison of Morphology and Structure of Stem and Leaf of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. under Different Soil Conditions
    MAO Jin-Feng, NIE Jiang-Li, WU Zi-Rui, YANG Xue-Jun, PEI Yi
    2017, 37(4):  529-534.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.007
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    We compared the morphology and structure of leaf and stem from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. grown in different soil environment for introducing L.ruthenicum in Tianjin using paraffin sectioning. We measured the thick of epidermis, palisade tissue, vascular bundle, cortex and phloem of leaf and stem. The growth of L.ruthenicum in different soil conditions of Tianjin was good. The leaf of L.ruthenicum grown in alkaline clay was long lanceolate, the epidermal and vascular bundle of stem were the best developed; the leaf grown in sandy loam also was long lanceolate, but the cuticula was the thickest, the cortical of stem was the best developed; the leaf grown in red brown was long oval and more thicker, the leaf epidermal stomatal density was biggest, the epidermis was the thickest, the sponge tissue and palisade tissue of mesophyll were the best developed, the vascular bundles of petiole was the biggest, the stem was the thickest, the phloem was the most developed, and the pith was the largest. Therefore, the morphology and structure of stems and leaves of plants grown in different soil conditions were significantly different.
    Ploidy Identification and Karyotype Analysis of Five Itoh Hybrid Peonies
    YANG Liu-Hui, ZHANG Jian-Jun, WANG Qi, ZHU Wei, ZHANG Teng, YU Xiao-Nan
    2017, 37(4):  535-541.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.008
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    We studied the karyotypes of five Itoh hybrid peonies by using squashing method. Five Itoh hybrid peonies were triploid(2n=3x=15). Asymmetry index ranged in 61.02%-62.41%, and the karyotypes of these cultivars were 2A. The karyotypes of the tested Itoh hybrid peonies were mainly made of median region, submedian region and subterminal region, without satellite. Our result provided cytological information and polyploidy resources for breeding research for the first time.
    The Comparative study of Callus and Direct Differation Regenaration System of 84K Poplar
    WANG Li-Na, WANG Yu-Cheng, YANG Chuan-Ping
    2017, 37(4):  542-548.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.009
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    High-frequent transformation and strong regeneration ability of plants are prerequisites to the establishment of good plant transformation receptor system, which is the foundation for plant genetic transformation. Taking 84K poplar leaves as study material, this experiment studies the influence of different types and concentrations of plant hormones to its dedifferentiation and re-differentiation under different cultivation conditions, and sets two mature plant tissue cultivation regeneration system. Based on above,here establishes genetic transformation system of adventitious buds and callus pathway, respectively as callus regeneration system and regeneration system of direct differentiation. Then through conducting comparative analysis of two tissue culture system using PCK1 and PCK2, here summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of two methods.
    Effects of Fire Intensity on the Soil Microbial Community of Larch gmelinii Forests
    PENG Yao, CAO Feng-Yan, QU Lai-Ye
    2017, 37(4):  549-555.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.010
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    We studied theeffects of fire intensity on the soil microbial community of larch forests by selecting three kinds of sites including high intensity burned site, light intensity burned site and unburned site in the current year burning in the Daxing'an Mountain. Soils were sampled from 0-5 and 5-10 cm, separately in each site, and the soil microbial characteristics were analyzed by phospholipid fatty acid(PLFAs). The pH, total potassium, available phosphorus and clay and sand content were significantly compared with burned and unburned sites. The total soil microbial biomass, bacteria biomass, fungus biomass and Frankia biomass were influenced by fire, there was no significant difference in three sites. However, the structure of soil microbial community indictors, such as G+/G-and F/B, were significantly different compared high intensity burned site and other two sites. By RDA analysis, G+/G-was influenced by soil water content, and F/B was influenced by soil pH.Therefore, the current year of burning, soil water content and pH are critical factors in affecting the structure of soil microbial community.
    Effects of Different Light Intensities on the Growth and Photosynthesis of Symplocos tetragona Seedlings
    SHU Wen-Jiang, CHAI Sheng-Feng, LI Zhao-Hai, FAN Jin-Shun, TANG Jian-Min, ZHU Shu-Fang, HE Zhi-Hong
    2017, 37(4):  556-562.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.011
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    By measuring the effects of different shading on seedling morphology of Symplocos tetragona, we studied the response and adaptation mechanism of the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of S.tetragona to changes of light intensity in growth environment. The biomass of S.tetragona seedlings was sensitive to light intensity distribution, under light processing, the ratio of leaf area decreased, the total leaf area decreased. Under weak light treatment by increasing the leaf biomass ratio and leaf area ratio, the biomass ratio was support, and the light harvesting capacity was improved. However, total biomass accumulation under L100, L30, and L10 treatments was significantly less than that under L50 treatment, and total leaf area under L30, L50, L100 light intensity treatments was significantly higher than that under L10. The growth intensity significantly affected photosynthetic physiological parameters and photosynthetic pigment content of S.tetragona. At 10% and 100% light intensity, leaf maximum net photosynthetic rate(Pmax), apparent quantum efficiency(AQY) and light saturation point(LSP) of S.tetragona were significantly lower than the condition of 30% and 50% light intensity, and the light compensation point(LCP) increased with the increase of light intensity. The total chlorophyll and carotenoid in 10% 100% were decreased significantly with the increase of light intensity(P<0.05). Too strong or too weak light environment has a negative impact on the growth of S.tetragona, of which 50% is the best light intensity for seedling growth of S.tetragona. S.tetragona is a neutral species, whose seedlings is suitable for slightly hidden conditions.
    Screening and Variation Analysis of Soil Organic Nitrogen Efficient in Different Beta vulgaris Genotypes
    WANG Qiu-Hong, GUO Ya-Ning, HU Xiao-Hang, WANG Xiao-Chun, DENG Yan-Hong, ZHOU Jian-Chao
    2017, 37(4):  563-571.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.012
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    We used the screening and variation analysis of soil organic nitrogen use efficiency and assimilation efficiency in different genotypes of sugar beet for the cultivation and breeding of high efficient genotypes of soil organic nitrogen. From 2014 to 2015, by the indoor pot experiment or the field experiment, the genotypes with higher and lower efficiency of soil organic nitrogen were screened from 100 genotypes of sugar beet. In the initial screening experiment, the whole plant and root organic nitrogen use efficiency(ONUE) were significantly different between KWS8138, HI0466(the genotypes with higher efficient of organic nitrogen in sugar beet) and BETA176, T230(the genotypes with lower efficient of organic nitrogen in sugar beet) at the seedling stage. In the field experiment, the further screening was taken according the organic nitrogen assimilation efficiency(ONAE). The significant advantage of KWS8138(higher use efficiency of organic nitrogen at seedling stage) was found, with higher assimilation capacity of organic nitrogen, including higher translocation amount of soil organic nitrogen and the reasonable root-shoot ratio after the seedling stage. Because of the lower uptake and use ability of organic nitrogen with BETA176, BETA176 transfer ability of soil organic nitrogen was too low to limit the reasonable utilization of organic nitrogen, which was not conducive to the improvement of the efficiency of organic nitrogen. Therefore, KWS8138 is a highly efficient genotype material of organic nitrogen, and BETA176 is an inefficient genotype of organic nitrogen, which can be used as a material for further experiments. Soil organic nitrogen translocation amount and reasonable root-shoot ratio of higher organic nitrogen efficient genotypes in sugar beet can promote the absorption of organic nitrogen, which is the foundation with the higher efficiency of organic nitrogen. The higher dry matter production efficiency is the key to the efficient utilization of organic nitrogen.
    Complete Sequence Analysis of Chloroplast Genome of Salvia japonica
    HE Yi-Han, HAN Li-Min, LIU Yu-Ping, TIAN Na, SU Xu, WANG Zhe-Zhi
    2017, 37(4):  572-578.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.013
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    Salvia japonica is a perennial herb of the genus Salvia(Lamiaceae), which is of great medicinal and economic value. The chloroplast genome of S.japonica was sequenced using Illumina Hiseq platform. The complete chloroplast genome sequence was obtained by Salvia miltiorrhiza chloroplast genome as a reference. The full-length chloroplast genome of S.japonica was 153 995 bp. The LSC was 84 573 bp and 19 874 bp in SSC, and the length of IR region was 24 774 bp. The chloroplast genome of S.japonica successfully annotated 13 groups of genes. The gene types, number and GC content were similar with other species of Lamiaceae. These results enrich the chloroplast data and also provide some valuable molecular data for reconstructing evolutionary history of Salvia.
    Characteristics of Molecular Evolution of Toxicodendron vernicifluum in Qinba Mountains by nrDNA ITS and cpDNA Sequence
    BAI Guo-Qing, LI Wei-Min, CHEN Hao, LI Bin, LI Si-Feng
    2017, 37(4):  579-586.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.014
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    We analyzed the differences between nrDNAITS and cpDNA sequences in Toxicodendron vernicifluum by PCR direct sequencing. The length of nrDNA ITS sequence of T.vernicifluum was 518 bp, of which 15 were variable sites with a percentage of 2.9%, and the(G+C) percentage content was 61.8%. The length of cpDNA sequence of T.vernicifluum was 1 907 bp, of which 20 was variable site with a percentage of 1.05%, and the(G+C) content was 36.1%. By ITS sequence Ribotype and chloroplast sequence Haplotypes, the regional distribution of sumac in Qinba Mountains is obvious and different area has its unique haplotype. There is no expansion in the recent history of sumac populations. The evolution of T.vernicifluum nrDNA ITS sequence is faster than that of chloroplast sequence, and the mutation rate is faster. The nrDNA ITS sequence and cpDNA sequence(matK and psbA-trnH) are fit to the phylogeographic study for this species.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Stress Treatments of a MADS-box Transcription Factor in Sweet Potato
    TAN Chuan-Ting, SONG Wei-Han, ZHU Ming-Ku, XU Tao, DONG Ting-Ting, LI Zong-Yun
    2017, 37(4):  587-595.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.015
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    MADS-box proteins play important functions in the development and stress response of plants. A STMADS11 subfamily gene was cloned from Ipomoea batatas(L.) Xu22 according to I.trifida genome sequences, named IbMADS11-Like. By real-time RT-PCR IbMADS11-Like was expressed abundantly in roots, and a rapid declining trend was observed as storage root formation and development. The IbMADS11-Like might be involved in the storage root development of sweet potato. Stress treatment experiments showed that IbMADS11-Like was induced by drought, NaCl and high temperature, while was reduced by low temperature. ABA, IAA, ZT, BR, ACC, JA and GA treatments also impacted the expression of IbMADS11-Like, indicating that IbMADS11-Like might play functions in the development and stress response in sweet potato. These results play a foundation for further study on the physiological function of IbMADS11-Like in the development and stress response of sweet potato.
    Specific Molecular Marker Analysis of the Somaclonal Mutant No.30 of Dendrocalamus farinosus through SLAF-seq
    WANG Mao-Lin, HU Shang-Lian, CAO Ying, LU Xue-Qin, XU Gang, HUANG Yan, LONG Zhi-Jian
    2017, 37(4):  596-602.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.016
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    Somaclonal mutant No.30 of Dendrocalamus farinosus has the specific characteristic of high cellulose and lignin contents, long fiber cells and high length-to-width ratio of fiber cells. Because vegetative propagation is the main way for D.farinosus multiplies, resulting in the failure of homozygous plants, molecular identification of the mutant has not been performed so far, which severely hinders the popularization and application of mutants. Specific molecular marker analysis of the somaclonal mutant No.30 of D.farinosus and identify the sources of character variations. A reduced-representation genome sequencing was performed on wild-type D.farinosus and the mutant No.30 using SLAF-seq technology. After sequencing, library construction, polymorphic sites development, specific screening of polymorphic sites, annotation analysis was carried out on the results of specific screening of polymorphic sites. GC content and homozygous InDel in the mutant No.30 were less than that in the wild type, while total InDel and heterozygous InDel in the mutant No.30 were more than that in the wild type. After specific screening of InDel and SNP sites obtained from SLAF-seq, specific stable InDel/SNP markers including 9381 C-T transition, 9472 A-G transition and 329 InDel were found in the mutant No.30. According to the annotation of these specific SLAF markers, there were 6 SNP markers and 1 InDel related to cellulose synthesis, 3 SNP markers related to lignin synthesis, as well as 4 SNP markers and 1 InDel related to fiber cell morphogenesis. The results revealed genome-level mutations in the mutant No.30 during somatic cell culture, and the sources of character variations were initially identified. However, the correlation between these specific SLAF markers and the characters of the mutant No.30, including cellulose and lignin contents, and fiber cell development, still requires further validation.
    Interspecific Relationship among the Wild Species of Paeonia Sect. Moutan DC with ITS and matK Sequence
    CHOU Huan-Huan, TANG Hong
    2017, 37(4):  603-612.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.017
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    Revealing the interspecific relationship between wild species of Paeonia Sect. Moutan DC at molecular evidences would provide theoretical basis for preserving and utilizing wild peony resources. The sequence of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer(ITS) and the coding region of the matK gene sequenced from 9 Paeonia Sect. Moutan DC, 5 cultivars of P.rockii, and 3 accessions of P.suffriticosa. Sequences of ITS and matK of one P.suffruticosa, one P.delavayi and three outgroups of P.lactiflora,P.veitchii and P.obovata were retrieved from GeneBank. The 44 sequences were obtained and corrected, and the divergences, variable sites, parsim-informative sites, the ratio of transition to transversion(R) and pairwise distances were analyzed. The phylogenetic analysis was conducted by Neighbor-joining(NJ) method. The size of ITS sequences of Paeonia Sect. Moutan DC wild species and cultivars ranged from 750 to 800 bp containing 86 polymorphic sites and 74 parsim-informative sites with R of 1.2, whereas, their matK sequences encompassing 20 parsim-informative sites with R of 1.7. From the phylogenetic trees of ITS, P.jishanensis, P.rockii, P.qiui and P.ostii fell into a large clade. The similarity coefficients between P.ludlowii, and the species of P.lutea, P.potaninii and P.delavayi were clustered in another clade. These two clades corresponded well to Subsect. P.decomposita were at the bottom of Subsect. Vaginatae, which showed the classification of P.decomposita into Subsect Vaginatae. By matK sequences analysis, there is closely genetic distance between wild species from Paeonia Sec. Moutan DC; however, there was no clear genetic relationships between wild species. As a result, ITS sequence can be better used to study interspecific relationship among wild species of Paeonia Sect. Moutan DC.
    Response Surface Optimization of Culture Conditions for the Formation of Early Embryos in Larix olgensis
    SONG Yue, LI Shu-Juan, BAI Xiao-Ming, ZHANG Han-Guo
    2017, 37(4):  613-620.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.018
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    With the larch embryogenic callus, through the Design Box-Behnken design test, we established a response surface model based on the somatic embryogenesis. The culture conditions of somatic embryo early maturation was optimized in Larix olgensis. The relative ion concentration(P=0.007), the inositol concentration(P=0.000), the culture period(P=0.000) and the interaction between inositol content and culture period(P=0.007) effect on the number of somatic embryos of L.olgensis were extremely significant. Cultivation of Larix somatic embryo maturation was 337.04 ind·g-1 at the early stage of the most optimum conditions for relative ion content of 26.767 7% BM basic culture medium, inositol 10.454 5 g·L-1, culture time 12.656 6 d, and the number of somatic embryos average. In order to facilitate the practical operation, the culture condition was changed to the relative ion concentration of 25% BM, inositol 10 g·L-1, incubation period of 13 d, then the average number of somatic embryos was 336.46 ind·g-1, that was consistent with the predicted value 336.29 ind·g-1. Compared with previous test, the quantity and quality of L.olgensis somatic embryos were increased significantly.
    Chemical Components and Antioxidant Activity of Volatile Oil from Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara
    HU Wen-Jie, LUO Hui, ZOU Lin-Hai, LI Guan-Xi
    2017, 37(4):  621-627.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.019
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    The volatile oil from pine needles of Cedrus deodara was extracted by water-steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS. The antioxidant activity of volatile oil was evaluated by DPPH·, ABTS· and ·OH scavenging capacity with VC as the positive control. Thirty-seven components, accounting for 95.10% of total components, were identified. Olefin hydrocarbon and alcohols were found to be dominant components in the volatile oil. The volatile oil exhibited significant scavenging capacity against DPPH·, ABTS· and ·OH in a concentration fashion. When the scavenging rate against DPPH·, ABTS· and ·OH of volatile oil was 50%, the contents of volatile were 0.30, 0.22 and 0.96 μg·mL-1, respectively. The volatile oil from pine needles of C.deodara contains a variety of chemical composition of application value with a certain antioxidant activity.
    Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Cronartium orientale Aeciospores in vitro
    DI Xue-Ying, JIA Shu-Han, XUE Yu, YANG Guang, ZHAO Bo, WENG Yue-Tai
    2017, 37(4):  628-634.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.020
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    We prepared the wall-breaking Cronartium orientale aeciospore refined polysaccharides to study the antioxidant activities in vitro, and assayedthe polysaccharides' bioactivities including total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power, and capacities of scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals(DPPH·), scavenging hydroxyl free radical(·OH), scavenging superoxide anion(O2·). The polysaccharides' reducing power was lower than Vc, but with a strong total antioxidant capacity.The matrix of most of oxygen free radicals O2· and artificial free radical DPPH· could not be scavenged,but it could effectively scavenge the organism's most destructive free radical ·OH. C.orientale aeciospore polysaccharides could scavenge free radicals selectively. Therefore, the polysaccharides possessed potential value on exploitation and could provide reference to other researchers and a theoretical basis for exploitation of forest pests.
    Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Polysaccharides from Tara Seed and Its Antioxidant Activity
    ZHAO Han-Mei, YUAN De-Cheng, YANG Feng-Jian
    2017, 37(4):  635-640.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.04.021
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    For the optimum ultrasonic extraction of Tara polysaccharide,a multiple quadratic regression was stablished using a 4-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken statistical design, and the response surface with the extraction rate of polysaccharides as the response were drawn. The antioxidant activities of Tara polysaccharide invitrowere tested. Theoptimumextractionconditions of Tara polysaccharide were:ultrasonic treatment at 56℃ for 23 min with ultrasonic power 363 W, and material to liquid ratio of 1:17 g·mL-1. The maximum extraction rate of Tara crude polysaccharides was 25.56%, less than the theoretical deduced value of 25.71%.The purified Tara polysaccharide extraction rate was 17.82%.Using VC as a positive control, the antioxidant activity of different purity Tara polysaccharide was measured, and it was found that its purity was high, and the ABTS radical scavenging ability was stronger.