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    15 September 2017, Volume 37 Issue 5
    One New Species of Pellionia and Two New Species of Elatostema(Urticaceae) from Chongqing
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2017, 37(5):  641-644.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.001
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    One species of the genus Pellionia and two species of the genus Elatostema(Urticaceae) are described as new from Simian Shan, Jiangjin Qu, Chongqing Shi: (1)Pellionia simianshanica is related to P.ronganensis W.T.Wang & Y.G.Wei, differing from the latter in its fewer secondary nerves of leaves, 2 shortly corniculate tepals of pistillate flower, and its oblong achenes; (2)Elatostema oligotrichum is possibly related to E.nasutum Hook. f., differing from the latter in its smoller leaves, carinate pistillate involucral bracts and staminate and pistillate bracteols, and its stigma consisting of only 3 or 4 hairs; (3)Elatostema simianshanicum is related to E.longicuspe W.T.Wang & Y.G.Wei, differing from the latter in its puberulous stem apex, shorter peduncles of staminate capitula, and its linear-navicular and carinate staminate involucral bracts.
    Anatomic Study of Dracaena cambodiana Pierre ex. Gagnep
    LIU Pei-Wei, ZHANG Yu-Xiu, HE Ming-Jun
    2017, 37(5):  645-650.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.002
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    The morphological characteristics of the stems(with or without resin), young roots and leaves of Dracaena cambodiana Pierre ex. Gagnep were observed by traditional paraffin section and photomicrographic technique. Old stems mainly four parts, suberizative layer, cortex, cambium and basic tissue. The resin was mainly distributed in the vessels and fibers of vascular bundles in the basic tissue. Isolateral leaf, and stomata with a clear substomatic chamber were mainly distributed in the lower epidermis, a lot of fiber bundles in the upper and lower epidermis. The structure of younger roots consisted of velamen, cortex and central cylinder. Some parenchyma cells of root, stem and leaf containing calcium oxalate crystal bundle. The structural characteristics of nutritive organs suggested that the plant might adapt to the drought, high temperature and infertile environment. These results can provide the basic anatomical evidence for the development and utilization of D.cambodiana.
    Study on Embryology of Ulmus pumila L.
    ZHENG Jing-Yuan, LI Yun-Zeng, ZHOU Cui-Cui, LU Yun-Shen, WANG Xiu-Hua
    2017, 37(5):  651-657.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.003
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    The processes of embryology of Ulmus pumila L. were observed by serial paraffin sections and under optical microscope. The results are as follows: the anther wall of U.pumila L. includes 4 layers; the cytoplasmic division of microspore mother cells during meiosis was simultaneous; the tetrad of microspores resulted from the meiosis are simultaneously bilateral and tetrahedral;mature pollen grains are two-cell type. The development of the anther wall belongs to a dicotyledonous type. Tapetum belongs to glandular tapetum. The ovary consists of 2 carpels with a single locule,parietal placenta,anatropous ovule,double integument,and thick nucellus. The tetrad of megaspores is linear or T-type in arrangement.Embryo sac of U.pumila L. is of single-spore polygonum type. The embryogenesis of U.pumila L. conformed to the So-lanad type; karyotype endosperm; cotyledon embryo without endosperm.
    Phenotypic Plasticity and Respond of Juglans mandshurica Seedling under Different Light Environments
    ZHANG Dong-Lai, ZHANG Ling, GE Wen-Zhi
    2017, 37(5):  658-663.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.004
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    We studied the growth of the seedling, morphological characteristics, biomass allocation and water feature of Juglans mandshurica seedling under different light environments(100%, 60%, 30% light). The architectural model was modified plastically in response to different light conditions, the biomass allocation and water feature has some differences. Under low light conditions, J.mandshurica seedling growth fast, plant height, ground diameter were 1.14 times and 1.18 times. The canopy was big, which were 1.4 times. Leaf is broad, leaf length and leaf width were 1.25 and 1.36 times and branch number less than total light. The biomass of above ground uner three kinds of light environment was with significant differences, but underground part of the difference is not significant. Leaf relative water content was increased with the decrease of light gradually trend, which were under the condition of blade was bigger than the saturated water capacity and leaf dry fresh under shade conditions. There was significant difference in chlorophyll content under three light conditions. J.mandshurica adapted to different light environment in morphology and physiology, and the appropriate shade treatment was beneficial to the growth of J.mandshurica seedling.
    Species Diversity of Ground Bryophyte Communities in Different Vegetation in Daqinggou National Nature Reserve
    HAN Shu-Ting, TIAN Gui-Quan, HAN Shu-Mei
    2017, 37(5):  664-672.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.005
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    Based on quadrat survey ground bryophytes community under five kinds of vegetations in Daqinggou National Nature Reserve, we studied the species diversity and its relationship with environmental factors. (1)The 55 species bryophytes belonging to 12 families and 27 genera were found, among which Pottiaceae, Brachytheciaceae and Bryaceae were the dominant families, Brachythecium, Bryum and Weissia etc. were dominant genera, and Bryum bicolor, Mannia sibirica, Entodon compressus var. zikaiwiensis and Brachythecium velutinum were dominant species; (2)Among Alpha diversity indexes, Patrick richness index varied from 6-29, Shannon-Wiener index from 1.439 2-2.608 0, and the order in natural vegetation was:Fraxinus mandschuria forest > Quercus mongolica forest > Ulmus macrocarpa forest > Armeniaca sibirica shrub > Leymus chinensis community. Simpson dominance index varied from 0.131 6-0.295 5, and had significant negative correlation with Patrick richness index and Shannon-Wiener diversity index. Pielou evenness index ranged from 0.663 0-0.803 3, and had not significant correlation with the other Alpha diversity indexes; (3)The main environmental factors affecting the diversity of bryophytes were air humidity, soil water content, canopy coverage and shrub coverage; (4)Bata diversity index varied from 0-0.652 2, with the highest species similarity between Ulmus macrocapa forest and Quercus mongolica forest, and the lowest between Leymus chinensis community and Fraxinus mandschuria forest.Fraxinus mandschuria forest and Quercus mongolica forest were the key area for diversity conservation of bryophyte in Daqinggou National Nature Reserve.
    Vertical Characteristics of Plant Diversity in Transition Between Mount. Yan and Mount. Taihang
    CONG Ming-Yang, CAO Di, CHEN Guo-Ping, CHEN Bao-Zheng, SUN Feng-Bin
    2017, 37(5):  673-681.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.006
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    We clarified forest constructive species in transition area, and put ‘Intermediate expansion hypothesis’ to the test. We took the highest peak Juxianfeng in Tianjin of China as study site, and set transect sampling along elevation vertically. The results were as follows:(1) Change rules of dominant species in every layer differed from each other. In tree layer, dominant species in lower area were Quercus aliena and Q.variabilis. Increasing with altitude, Juglans mandshurica gradually became dominant, mixed with Pinus tabuliformis.Q.mongolica played an important role in community. Until top of the mountain, the plant communities were Tilia amurensis-Q.mongolica mixed forests. However, Q.aliena and Q.variabilis became companion species at the same time. Quercus distributed everywhere and were keystone species in this transition area. Deutzia parviflora was absolute dominant species in shrub layer within all altitude. Dominant species in herb layer showed disordered. (2) α diversity indexes changed vertically. Total species richness S reached the maximum in 600-700 m. The peak of Simpson index appeared in 800-900 m which was in middle high altitude, suggesting more information and complexity. Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indexes showed the same law that was bimodal pattern, namely numerical value in 700-800 m was lower than both two sides. Therefore, our results didn't support ‘Intermediate expansion hypothesis’ in transition area. Our study enriched the ecology theory in mountain transition region, and provided plant diversity information of the north mountain in China.
    Effect of Plant Growth Regulators and Osmoticums on Somatic Embryogenesis of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.
    YANG Ling, LIU Hong-Nan, ZHANG Dong-Yan, WEI Cheng, SHEN Hai-Long
    2017, 37(5):  682-689.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.007
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    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and osmotic adjustment substances on somatic embryogenesis of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. by changing the kinds and concentrations of them, which was taken cotyledon of mature zygotic as explants. PGRs were the essential factors for somatic embryogenesis of F.mandshurica on the induction medium. The induction medium higher osmotic stress was beneficial to induce somatic embryos. Under PGRs, the induction medium of highest SSEs induction rate was added with 75 g·L-1 sucrose. The somatic embryo was induced by the induction medium was added with 100 g·L-1 sucrose had higher differentiation rate on the differential medium contained BA. This study laid the foundation in increasing SE induction rate and improving the status of somatic embryogenesis and optimizing the somatic embryogenesis system of F.mandshurica.
    Study on Rapid Seedling-raising Technology of Tree Peony Embryo Culture
    XU Li, CHENG Fang-Yun, ZHONG Yuan
    2017, 37(5):  690-699.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.008
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    This study used Paeonia ostii ‘Fengdan’ and Paeonia rockii as explants, established efficient method of Seedling-raising of tree peony embryo culture through the study of hormones, light conditions, medium ingredients and activated carbon(AC) on the in vitro embryo culture. The main result:In vitro embryos radicle germination in 10 d, grow true leaves in 20 d, root system developed in 25 d, transplanting in 40 d, after 3 months the seedlings grow well in the medium of improved MS(calcium doubled)+0.2 g·L-1AC+0.5 mg·L-1GA+0.5 mg·L-1BA. Suitable medium for ‘Fengdan’:improved MS(calcium doubled,macroelement doubled)+0.6 g·L-1AC+1.0 mg·L-1GA; medium for P.rockii:improved MS(calcium doubled,macroelement doubled)+0.6 g·L-1 AC+0.5 mg·L-1GA; The seedling rate of ‘Fengdan’ was 63.88%, the survival rate was 66.34%, and the rate of seedling of P.rockii was 93.75%, and survival rates vary among breeds, with a maximum of 100%.
    Variations in Nutrition Compositions and Morphology Characteristics in Different Hybrid Combination of Korean Pine(Pinus koraiensis)
    MO Chi, ZHANG Hai-Xiao, ZHANG Lei, HOU Dan, ZHANG Han-Guo
    2017, 37(5):  700-708.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.009
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    With 12 seed traits of 44 different hybridized combination, we studied the variation of seed traits of Korean pine hybrids and breed hybrid combinations. The coefficient of variation of length of seed was the lowest(10.65%), and the coefficient of variation of weight of seed was the highest(36.35%) in seed morphological traits of Pinus koraiensis. Fat content variation coefficient was the lowest(8.07%) among the main nutrition compositions, while polysaccharides contents was the highest(30.89%). The correlation analysis showed that the length positively correlated with kernel weight and 100-grain weight, and thus selecting large length of seeds can improve the kernel weight and 100 grain weight. These nutritional components and morphological traits displayed significant differences among 44 different hybridized combinations. Three fine crosses were selected from 44 different hybridized combinations by principal component analysis. The realistic gain of their kernel yield, seed weight, 100-grain weight, kernel weight and fat content were 7.52%, 27.89%, 13.14%, 9.85% and 10.08%, respectively. The heterosis of seed weight, seed weight and kernel weight of 011×153 was the highest, which were 34.59%, 95.75% and 43.23%, respectively. The 100-grain weight and the fat content of 156×161 were the largest, which were 24.58% and 24.87%, respectively. The results of heterosis analysis showed that the hybrids with 011 as female parent had higher heterosis, while the hybrids with 174 as male parent had higher heterosis. Korean pine cross breeding could induce abundant variations, and the selection of excellent hybrid combinations could provide a choice for the construction of nut-production forest.
    Genetic Diversity between Island and Mainland Natural Populations of Polygonatum odoratum in Dalian Area by ISSR
    HAO Jiu-Cheng, JIA Xin, MU Xiao-Hong, ZHANG Heng-Qing
    2017, 37(5):  709-714.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.010
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    With Polygonatum odoratum, a plant on both the mainland and islands in Dalian, we studied the genetic diversity of 262 P.odoratum from 5 islands and 4 mainland populations by ISSR molecular marker technology. Information of 120 loci was obtained by amplification of 10 ISSR primers that were screened out, where the percentage of polymorphic bands was 91.67%, the gene diversity index of Nei's was 0.346 0, and Shannon information index was 0.510 8. Its genetic differentiation coefficient was 0.117 4, and its gene flow was 3.758 5. The genetic diversity of natural populations of P.odoratum was relatively rich with relatively frequent gene exchange among different populations, and its genetic distance had certain correlation with its geographic distance. By comparison between genetic diversity of populations from the mainland and islands, the genetic diversity of populations from islands was slightly higher than that from the mainland, indicating that under a more isolated ecological environment and more complicated selection pressure, populations of P.odoratum on islands might accumulate more genetic variation to form high levels of genetic diversity. Our results would provide evidence for further discussion on laws of genetic evolution of populations of natural plants in isolated ecological environments.
    Bioinformatics and Response to Salt Stress Analysis of the HD-Zip Transcription Factor Family in Populus simonii×P.nigra
    ZHANG Xue-Mei, YAO Wen-Jing, ZHAO Kai, JIANG Ting-Bo, ZHOU Bo-Ru
    2017, 37(5):  715-721.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.011
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    The HD-Zip transcription factor family is a kind of special protein in plant, playing crucial roles in plant development processes and abiotic stresses response. The protein family includes a highly conserved homeodomain(HD) and a leucine zipper domain(LZ), forming a special structural model. The HD-Zip transcription factor family, including 63 members, can be classified into 4 subfamilies HD-Zip Ⅰ, HD-Zip Ⅱ, HD-Zip Ⅲ and HD-Zip Ⅳ. RNA-Seq analysis of poplar roots, stems and leaves under salt stress was conducted for the differentially expressed genes in different tissues, and reveal the molecular mechanism of the response to stress environment. Therewere 25 HD-Zip genes down-regulated and 21 HD-Zip genes up-regulated in leaves under salt treatment, 42 genes down-regulated and 11 genes up-regulated in stems, and 26 genes down-regulated and 24 genes up-regulated in roots. According to gene annotations in Arabidopsis thaliana, the functions of HD-Zip transcription factor in poplarwere predicted.The conserved domains, structural characteristics and chemical properties of HD-Zip family members were also studied by bioinformatics, providing reference for gene functions of HD-Zip family in poplar.
    Prokaryotic Expression,Activity Assay of Chlorella Cyclophilin A and Salt Tolerance Analysis of Arabidopsis Over-expressing CsCyp1A
    LIAO Xu, HE Ming-Liang, ZHANG Su-Yan, MA Hai-Yan, WANG Xu-Hui, LUO Qiu-Xiang, GUAN Qing-Jie
    2017, 37(5):  722-729.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.012
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    In order to test the activity of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase of cyclophilin encoded by CsCyp1A, which was isolated from Chlorella sp. X1 in previous research(Accession No:KY207381), the primers were designed by using pMD18-T-CsCyp1A plasmid DNA as template and the target gene fragment that included Kpn Ⅰ and Sal Ⅰ digestion sites were obtained by cloning. After enzyme digestion, ligation and sequence analysis, the His-tagged pQE-30-CsCyp1A prokaryotic expression vector was obtained. IPTG induced E.coli M15 strain which contained its plasmid to express the fusion protein. Purified soluble HisCsCypA fusion protein was obtained by purification on a Nitra-column and the relative molecular mass of CsCyp1A was about 29 kDa. HisCsCyp1A protein hybridization signal was detected by Western blot. By enzyme activity analysis, the production rate of chromogenic groups in HisCsCyp1A fusion protein was significantly faster than in control, and the CsCyp1A protein could catalyze the cis-trans folding of Xaa-Pro peptide bond in N-succinyl-Xaa-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide and accelerate the cleavage of blocking groups. The purified CsCyp1A protein had PPIase activity. By overexpression of CsCyp1A gene driven by 35S promoter in Arabidopsis thaliana under vacuum infiltration, the results showed that it increased the tolerance of overexpression lines to NaCl stress, and revealed the salt tolerance of Chlorella CsCyp1A gene. It will become a genetic resource for resistance breeding. The study established the foundation for exploring the biological role of chlorella cyclophilin CsCyp1A in the anti-carbonate stress of algae.
    Bioinformatics and Drought Tolerance of PP2C Gene Family Members in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.
    ZHANG Dong, LI Xiao-Na, XIAO Hou-Zhen, LU Yan-Xi, ZHANG Yu, WANG Meng
    2017, 37(5):  730-737.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.013
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    PP2Cs are a group of monomeric serine/threonine protein phosphatases, which play an important role in ABA signaling pathway in higher plants. In order to elucidate the structure and function of PP2C gene in rubber tree,we used a bioinformatics approach to get six PP2C genes members from rubber tree transcription database, six HbPP2Cs all contain PP2C conserved domains.By sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis,six HbPP2Cs were divided into four subfamilies:subfamily A, D, F1 and F2. Different expression analysis of six PP2C family genes under drought stress by qRT-PCR showed that they all response to drought stress in varying degrees.Our study provides a theoretical basis for exploring the mechanism of PP2C genes in drought resistance of rubber tree.
    Effects of Shading and Nitrogen Addition on the Growth and C-N Balance of Fritillaria unibracteata
    GUO Hai-Xia, XU Bo, SHI Fu-Sun, WU Yan
    2017, 37(5):  738-743.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.014
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    In order to check how Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K.C.Hsia adjusts to resources variation, a controlled field experiment was set, and F.unibracteata's responses of growth and C-N balance to shading and nitrogen addition were examined. F.unibracteata was highly responsive to shading and nitrogen addition. Nitrogen content in leaf and root showed significant increase after shading and nitrogen addition, which induced the decrease of C:N in leaf and root. The ratio of leaf biomass to root biomass(R1) was significantly increased(P<0.05) under shading treatment, while there was no obvious change of R1 under nitrogen-addition treatment. Finally, there were significant correlations(P<0.01) between nitrogen content, C:N and total plant biomass, leaf-root biomass ratio. Therefore, C-N balance in F.unibracteata would be a better index of resource strategy.
    Effects of Exogenous GA3 on the Growth of Stem and CesA Gene Expression in Phyllostachys edulis Seedling
    JIANG Yong, HU Shang-Lian, CAO Ying, LU Xue-Qin, HUANG Yan, XU Gang
    2017, 37(5):  744-750.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.015
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    We studied the growth of stem and CesA gene expression from the seedling in Phyllostachys edulis under the different concentration of exogenous GA3(0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 μmol·L-1). Compared with without GA3 treatment, the internode and fiber cells of stem from the seedling elongated significantly, after treated by exogenous GA3. The relative expression of primary wall-related PeCesA2 and PeCesA6 genes were significantly up-regulated, while that of secondary wall-related PeCesA4 and PeCesA4-1 genes were significantly down-regulated. By Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), the absorption intensity of characteristic cellulose peak(1 060, 1 160 and 1 373 cm-1) from the stems enhanced with the increase of GA3 concentration. Signifying the expression of CesA gene could be affected by the exogenous GA3. The expression of PeCesA2 and PeCesA6 genes could be related to the process of fiber cells elongation.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of RbohB Gene in Brassica campestris L.
    ZHANG Teng-Guo, LUO Dan-Yu, GUO Yan-Feng, ZHENG Sheng, WANG Juan
    2017, 37(5):  751-760.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.016
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    A novel RbohB gene was isolated from Brassica campestris L. Longyou 6 by RACE. The full-length cDNA of RbohB is 2 694 bp, with open reading frame (ORF) 2 541 bp, encoding a 846 amino acid protein. By RT-PCR analysis, transcript level of RbohB was increased in response to cold, high salt and H2O2 stress. However, MAPKK inhibitor U0126 pretreatment 12 h before cold, high salt and H2O2 stress, compared with the single stress, the expression level of RbohB was significantly decreasing. The results suggested that RbohB played an important role during cold, high salt and H2O2 stress in B.campestris L. and U0126 has inhibitory effect to RbohB gene transcription. The activity level of NADPH oxidase was increased in response to H2O2 stress. However, U0126 pretreatment 12 h before H2O2 stress, compared with the single H2O2 stress, NADPH oxidase activity was significantly decreasing. The result showed that MAPKK inhibitor U0126 has inhibitory effect to NADPH oxidase activity.
    Natural Regeneration Characteristics of Archidendron clypearia
    MA Xing-Yu, LI Mei, JIN Wen-Yun, CHEN Zu-Xu, HUANG Shi-Neng
    2017, 37(5):  761-767.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.017
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    In order to study characteristics of natural regeneration about medicinal plants-Archidendron clypearia, we investigated the seed production, dispersal, and recruitment and growth of seedlings of 42 A.clypearia seed trees naturally distributed in forest parks, nature reserves and ecological public welfare forests in July, 2015 and 2016 in Guangzhou, Huizhou, and Shenzhen, Guangdong Province of China. The mean crown width in the left/right direction was very close to that in the up/down direction, however, 97.6% of the seed trees had inclined crowns that were more frequent on down-ward than the other directions, resulting the mean length of the upward crowns was about 1/2 of that of the down-ward ones. Inclined crowns of seed trees appeared to be, among others, one of the main factors affecting seed dispersal. The numbers of seeds and seedlings were significantly correlated with the distance to the base of seed trees, while the diameter at ground level and height of seedlings were not significantly varied among the different distances. All the studied parameters, except the number of seeds dropped, were not significantly different among all sub-plots(1.0 m×1.0 m) in the four directions. The newly emerged seedlings(1-2 weeks old) and one year old seedlings accounted for 87.8% of the total of seedlings, and none of five years old seedling was found under seed tree canopies, implying that it is hard for A.clypearia to maintain its population growth by natural regeneration. The overall result of natural regeneration of the species inversely correlated with the distance to the base of seed trees evaluated by a regeneration index derived from Entropy method, with the best regeneration result recorded in areas within 3.0 m away from the seed trees. A.clypearia appears to have more characteristics in common with those of the plant species with extremely small populations. Research needs in biological and ecological sciences should be a priority for the species in the near future.
    Effects of Planting Densities on Production and Dynamics of Litter of Mytilaria laosensis Plantation
    ZHANG Yang-Feng, YIN Guang-Tian, YANG Jin-Chang, LI Shao-Wei, LI Rong-Sheng, ZOU Wen-Tao
    2017, 37(5):  768-777.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.018
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    Field investigations were made on the production, components and dynamics of litter of Mytilaria laosensis plantation at different planting densities from October 2015 to September 2016 by using 90 litter traps. The production of litter and its components was linearly correlated with the planting densities; the production of total litter, leave, flower and fruit, and miscellaneous litter decreased, but that of branch litter increased with the increasing of planting densities. The annual litter production of M.laosensis plantation at different planting densities varied from 6.52-8.17 t·hm-2·a-1. The leave constituted the highest proportion(86.2%-87.85%), followed by miscellaneous components(6.69%-8.89%) while the branch made up 0.35%-5.43%, and flower and fruit accounted for 0.46%-4.67% of annual yield of the litter. The monthly variation of the litter production of leave at different planting densities showed a unimodal mode with the maximum in September and the minimum in March or April. Monthly variation of branch litter was irregular while that of flower and fruit, miscellaneous litter had bimodal seasonal patterns. Flower and fruit fell mainly in May and October, and miscellaneous litter peaked in June and September. The monthly variation of total litter was almost similar to that of leaf litter, but double peaks would occur in some densities under the influence of miscellaneous litter fall in July. With the increase of the planting densities, the height under living branch would be higher, but DBH, crown ratio and crown width would be lower, which might lead to much decline in total litter, leaf, fruit and miscellaneous litter but there would be great enhance in branch litter after the crown.
    Comprehensive Evaluation of Soil Quality on Agroforestry Stereoscopic Management Patterns of Southern Medicine
    LI Chen-Chen, ZHOU Zai-Zhi, LIANG Kun-Nan, HUANG Gui-Hua, YANG Guang
    2017, 37(5):  778-788.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.019
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    In order to select optimum stereoscopic management patterns of southern medicine, we chose four kinds of medicinal plants which were suitable for growth in south area, using completely randomized block design to establish four agroforestry stereoscopic management patterns(SM, SMA, SMC, SMG) in 15-year old third generation Chinese fir plantation, and seven physical indexes, eleven chemical indexes and five enzyme activity indexes at 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers were determined. By the principal component analysis, we evaluated the effect of these patterns on soil quality. Compared to control, four patterns can significantly reduce soil bulk density and increased with increasing soil depth. In 0-20 cm soil layer, soil bulk density dropped, respectively, SM by 22.3%, SMA by 13.4%, SMG by 14.1%, and SMC by 20.8% while decreased by 7.0%-15.5% in 20-40 cm soil layer. The soil mass water content, field moisture capacity, capillary moisture capacity, capillary porosity and total porosity were significantly increased(P<0.05) and decreased with increasing soil depth. The maximum of these indexes all appeared in SM, respectively, increased by 55.0%, 88.7%, 100.1% and 88.7% than control in 0-20 cm soil layer while in 20-40 cm soil layer was SMG, respectively, increased by 61.5%, 67.6%, 69.7%, 43.4% and 44.0%. In 0-20 cm soil layer, pH dropped by 0.7%-6.2%, while in 20-40 cm soil layer it did not reach significant levels among treatments. The soil nutrient content decreased with increasing soil depth. In 0-20 cm soil layer, the contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available N, available P, available K, exchangeable calcium and magnesium, and cation exchange capacity reached maximum in model SMC, and increased by 79.7%,69.5%, 30.3%, 91.4%, 30.3%, 166.1%, 91.6%, 166.1% and 91.6%, respectively. The highest content of total potassium appeared in SMG, increased by 26.9% than control, while in 20-40 cm soil layer, most chemical indicators between models did not reach significant differences except available potassium. As to the soil enzyme activity, in 0-20 cm soil layer, the activities of soil urease, invertase, polyphenol oxidase and acid phosphatase activity among models and control had significant difference(P<0.05). The activities of urease and polyphenol oxidase of SMC were highest, 1.7 and 1.6 times higher than that of control, respectively. The activity of invertase of models were lower than control, decreased by 59.3%-69.4%. The maximum of acid phosphatase activity appeared in SMA, which was 1.38 times of the control. In 20-40 cm soil layer, only acid phosphatase activity of models and control had significant difference(P<0.05), and it reached maximum in SMA, which increased by 78.7% than control. The descending order of improvement effect of four agroforestry stereoscopic management patterns on soil quality were SMC(2.811), SMG(1.293), SMA(0.111), SM(-1.544) and CK(-2.671).
    Ultra Turrax-Microwave Assisted Extraction of Oil from Pinus koraiensis Sieb Seed and its Quality Evaluation
    YANG Ming-Fei, SU Wen, KOU Ping, WANG Xi-Qing, GUO Na, ZANG Yu-Ping, FU Yu-Jie
    2017, 37(5):  789-796.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.020
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    In this work, ultra turrax-microwave assisted extraction process was conducted to extract oil from Pinus koraiensis using ethanol as the extraction solvent. The effects of homogenization speed, homogenization time, liquid-solid ratio, microwave temperature, microwave power, and microwave time on the oil yield were investigated. The optimal conditions for the oil extraction from P.koraiensis seed were obtained as follows:homogeneous speed 12 000 r·min-1, homogeneous time 120 s, the ratio of liquid to material 20 mL·g-1, microwave temperature 60℃, microwave power 700 W and microwave time 50 min. Under the above conditions, the optimum oil yield was 60.3%. The fatty acid composition of P.koraiensis seed oil was analyzed by GC-MS, and the main components were identified as linoleic acid, stearic acid and palmitic acid. The contents of unsaturated fatty acid and specific pinolenic acid reached 85.55% and 13.65%, respectively. The antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of P.koraiensis seed oil were also determined. The seed oil exhibited better DPPH radical scavenging activity with the IC50 value of 0.0954 g·mL-1. And the seed oil was a high quality natural oil with lower acid value, lower peroxide value and high iodine value.
    Fast Manufacture of Meiotic Chromosome Specimens of the Plant Material
    DING Hai-Yan
    2017, 37(5):  797-800.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2017.05.021
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    In order to establish a set of simple techniques for meiosis chromosome specimen preparation of pollen mother cell for in situ hybridization study, genetics experimental teaching, etc. Wheat and rye anther was used as experimental materials, glass slides were prepared by the improved method, and the meiosis of pollen mother cell were observed under microscope and recorded by photograph. These permanent specimen were good, showing the dynamic continuous phases of meiosis. They could be better used in the experiment teaching and in situ hybridization study.