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    20 January 2010, Volume 30 Issue 1
    A New Species of Armeniaca Scop. from China
    FU Da-Li;LI Bing-Ren;FU Jian-Min;LI Jian-Hong;YANG Shao-Bing;ZHOU Dao-Shun;LIU Meng-Pei
    2010, 30(1):  1-3.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.001
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    A new species of the genus Armeniaca Scop. of Rosaceae, A.cathayana D. L. Fu, B. R. Li et J. H. Li, sp. nov., was described in this paper. The species appears to be similar to A.vulgaris Lam. and A.sibirica (L.) Lam., but it has some particular characteristics which can be distinguished from A.vulgaris Lam., A.sibirica(L.) Lam. and other species of the genus. The main distinguishing features are that the leaf blade pubescent sparsely on both surfaces, the margin serrate and biserrate, and entire at base; the petiole not glandular; the inflorescence 1-3-flowered; the ovary with white villous densely; the endocarp triangle ovoid with 5~7 longitudinal sharp ridges on ventral suture and 1 longitudinal shallow groove on dorsal suture; the seed large and compressed, and the kernel friable and not bitter. The species was found and collected on July 11, 2008 in Zhuolu County, Hebei Province of China by Da-li Fu. The holotype is kept at Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF), No.2008071101.
    Lectotypifications of Thirteen Names in Pellionia(Urticaceae)
    LIN Qi;YANG Zhi-Rong
    2010, 30(1):  4-7.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.002
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    Based on examinations of the specimens housed at BM, E, K and P, lectotypes for eleven species, one variety and one forma of the genus Pellionia Gaudich. (Urticaceae) are here selected under Art. 9.4, 9.9 and 9.10, and Recomm. 9A.1, 9A.2, 9A.3 and 9A.4 of the Vienna Code (McNeill & al., 2006) because no clear collections were cited in the protologue, or two or more specimens were cited, but without indicating the type in the protologue.
    Pollen Morphology and Viability of Elaeagnus umbellata
    MA Xiao-Li;HAN Rong*
    2010, 30(1):  8-11.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.003
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    Different methods were applied to specimen preparation of Elaeagnus umbellata pollens for SEM observation. Results indicated that the natural drying pollen morphology of E.umbellata changed seriously, but pollen shape maintained well by the fixation and dehydration. The pollen grains of E.umbellata are subspheroid in equatorial view, triangle-boll and 3-colporate in polar view, and the exine sculpture is cerebroid. Viability of the pollen was measured by I2-KI staining in different time after anthesis. Results showed that the mean pollen viability is high in inchoate anthesis, and declines after sharply 36 hours, but a few pollen grains are still viable at the end of anthesis.
    Micro-morphology of Leaf Epidermis and Its Taxonomical Significance of Sanicula L.
    MA Yong-Hong;ZHANG Xue-Mei;ZENG Chun-Ting;ZHAO Huan
    2010, 30(1):  12-17.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.004
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    Leaf epidermis of 6 species and 13 populations of Sanicula were observed under light microscope and some quantity index was measured by analyses system of microphotograph. The results revealed that the epidermal structure is the same type: Almost adaxial epidermis are polygonal shapes and their anticlinalwalls are mainly straight-arched, abaxial epidermis are irregular and their anticlinalwalls undulate to sinuate. The stomata are scattered and anisocytic. But the types of anticlinalwall and the proportionment of length to width of stomatal aperture ect. are different among species. Leaf epidermal morphology may verify the systematic relationships and classification of Sanicula.
    A New Observation on Several Morphological Characteristics of Gametophyte in Lygodium japonicum
    GUO Zhi-You;LIU Bao-Dong;ZHANG Xian-Chun
    2010, 30(1):  18-21.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.005
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    Lygodium japonicum(Thunb) Sw. is one of normal medicinal ferns. Based on many previous works, its gametophytic development was studied by the microscope. We also supplemented the representative characteristic of it, such as Shorter filament was 2~3 cells long, Prothallial plate and young prothallus of develop types were diverse, Adult prothallus was Cordate-thalloid form, Hair made of 1 cell or 2 cells, Unicellular rhizoid was either in chloroplasts or at top enlargment and so on. These characteristics of gametophytic showed that it was a middle type on phylogeny and evolution. Many young sporophytes were obtained by artificial culture of spores, which established foundation for protective development and utilization of resource of L.japonicum.
    Induction of Embryogenic callus and Somatic Embryogenesis of Juglans mandshurica Maxim.
    ZHANG Jian-Ying;JIANG Si-Jia;XING Ya-Juan;GUO Shu-Ping;GUO Xi-Jun;WANG Fei;*
    2010, 30(1):  22-26.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.006
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    Juglans mandshurica Maxim. is one of the most important component species of the mixed forest of the broadleaved species and Korean pine forest in the eastern mountains in Northeast China. Because of too much cutting, the resource is decreasing. Somatic embryogenesis is basic for the rapid development of population and research on artificial seeds and has important significance in genetic improvement. This study intended to establish a culture system that would induce somatic embryogenesis of J.mandshurica Maxim. Various plant growth regulators and their ratio were investigated with different explants of J.mandshurica Maxim. The results showed that the zygotic embryos were the best to induce embryogenic callus. May and June were the best period to collect explants for the induction. The best induction medium for embryogenic callus was MS supplemented with 1.0 mg·L-1 2,4-D and 0.5 mg·L-1 6-BA. The best medium for induction, development and differentiation of somatic embryos was MS supplemented with 60 g·L-1 sugar, 700 mg·L-1 CH without any growth regulation substances.
    Mitigative Effect of IBA and CaCl2 on Under Salt Stress Ammopiptanthus mongolicus Seedlings
    LI Jing-Nan;LIU Qiang*;LI Sheng
    2010, 30(1):  27-31.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.007
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    Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, an endangered evergreen leguminous shrub, which is endemic to the semi-arid desert region of central Asia was successfully introduced in Tianjin by our team. In order to understand the mitigative effect of IBA and CaCl2 of A.mongolicus seedlings under salt stress, the seedlings were treated with 1.3% NaCl and different concentrations of IBA and CaCl2 under water culture. Antioxidant enzyme activities, photochemical efficiency of PSII and other related physiological index are measured and analyzed. The results showed that several treatments improved the growth of A.mongolicus seedlings; they were also helpful to increase the content of chlorophyll, the activity of antioxidant enzyme. It was also found that the application of IBA and CaCl2 could decrease the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). Therefore, the injuries induced by the salt stress were mitigated and salt resistance of A.mongolicus was raised by the low concentration of IBA and CaCl2. When the concentration of IBA and CaCl2 reached 5 and 20 mmol·L-1, respectively, the seedlings growth were inhibited. The application effect of CaCl2 is better than IBA.
    Effects of He-Ne Laser and Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Chloroplast Pigments in Wheat Seedlings
    GAO Li-Mei;LI Yong-Feng;HAN Rong*
    2010, 30(1):  32-36.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.008
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    The seedlings of wheat were exposed to He-Ne laser(5 mW·mm-2) irradiation and enhanced UV-B(10.08 kJ·m-2d-1) radiation. Then the content changes of chloroplast pigments and the composition of pigment-proteins were measured in order to test the mitigative effect of He-Ne laser irradiation on injury by enhanced UV-B radiation. After treating wheat seedlings for 4 days circularly, chloroplast pigments were extracted respectively by 90% ethanol and 80% acetone. The contents of chloroplast pigments were detected with spectrophotometer or paper chromatography. The composition of pigmentproteins were detected with column chromatography. It suggested that the content of chloroplast pigments decreased 17.76% approximately in wheat seedlings by enhanced UV-B radiation. The binding degree of Chl-Pro is weakened. The composition of pigment-proteins also differed from the control group. Straps of D1 and D2 proteins lost. However, the content of chloroplast pigments increased about 10.64% exposed to He-Ne laser irradiation, but decreased 8.12% comparing with the control. The binding degree of Chl-Pro is higher than the B group. At the same time, the composition of pigmentproteins was similar with the control group. So the lower dose of He-Ne laser irradiation can partly repair the radiation injury on chloroplast pigments and pigment-proteins in wheat seedlings after enhanced UV-B radiation.
    Effects of Exogenous Nitric Oxide Donor on the Ascorbate-glutathione Cycle in Peganum multisectum Seedling Leaves under NaCl Stress
    LIU Jian-Xin;WANG Xin;LI Bo-Ping
    2010, 30(1):  37-41.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.009
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    The effects of spraying exogenous NO with the donor of sodium nitroprusside(SNP) on the ascorbate-glutathione cycle dependent antioxidant system and the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde(MDA) in Peganum multisectum Bobr under salt stress were investigated. The results showed that the activities of ascorbate peroxidase(APX), glutathione reductase(GR), glutathione-S-transferase(GST) and the contents of ascorbic acid(ASA) and reduced glutathione(GSH), the ratios of ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG in leaves of P.multisectum with 0.15 mmol·L-1 SNP treatment under 300 mmol·L-1 NaCl stress were increased while the contents of oxidized ascorbic acid(DHA), oxidized glutathione(GSSG), H2O2 and MDA were decreased, the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase(MDAR) and dehydroascorbate reductas(DHAR) were not affected under NaCl stress. However, the effects of SNP on the activities of APX, GR, GST, the contents of ASA, GSH, DHA,H2O2, MDA, and the ratios of ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG under NaCl stress were reversed by methylene blue(MB), inhibitor of the key enzyme guanylyl cyclase(GC) during signal transfer of NO. It is suggested that NO is involved in regulation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle dependent antioxidant system through cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cGMP) pathway to alleviate the oxidative damage of P.multisectum seedlings from salt stress.
    Adaptive Evolution in the Chloroplast Gene rps4 in Ferns
    ZHANG Li-Jun;CHEN Jie;WANG Ting*
    2010, 30(1):  42-50.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.010
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    RPS4 (ribosomal protein small subunit 4) is one of the primary rRNA-binding proteins that initiate assembly of the 30S subunit in prokaryotes and plant chloroplast. In ferns, RPS4 is encoded by chloroplast gene rps4. Recently polypod ferns have been demonstrated to undergo diversification in the Cretaceous after the rise of angiosperms. To further test this proposal, an adaptive evolutionary analysis was performed on the rps4 gene sequences of 23 types of ferns, under the branch model, site model and branch-site model developed by Yang et al. The results from branch model indicated that 4 lineages were under the positive selection with ω>1. No positive selected sites were detected under the branch-site model, however, 85 negative selected sites were identified under the site model. There were only 2 lineages from Polypodiaceous ferns which are under positive selection. And this finding was constant with the proposal we had mentioned before. Moreover, the fact that rps4 was under highly negative selection indicated that the function and structure of rps4 had been almost stabilized.
    Effects of Different Nitrogen-form Proportions on the Growth of Schisandra chinensis Seedlings
    XU Hai-Jun;SUN Guang-Yu;ZHANG Yue;ZHOU Zhi-Qiang*
    2010, 30(1):  51-56.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.011
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    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of different nitrogen(N)-form proportions of NH+4-N to NO-3-N on the growth of Schisandra chinensis seedlings. The soluble protein content, chlorophyll concentration in leaves, whole nitrogen content, and the seasonal regulation of biomass accumulation and distribution in roots, stems and leaves were analyzed on 2-year-old S.chinensis seedlings. The results showed that the absorbance and assimilation of different nitrogen(N) form in each growth stage of S.chinensis seedlings were significantly different. NH+4-N and NO-3-N had notable jointeffect: NH+4-N was beneficial for early growth stage of S.chinensis seedlings, when the proportion of NH+4-N and NO-3-N was 75∶25, above-ground biomass was the most; but NO-3-N was more useful in middle and late growth stages, when the proportion of NH+4-N and NO-3-N was 25∶75, the biomass was mostly distributed above ground.
    Plant Species Diversity in Sinocalycanthus chinensis Community and its Correlation with Soil Factors in Dalei Mountain of Zhejiang Province
    LIU Li-Li;JIN Ze-Xin*;LI Jian-Hui
    2010, 30(1):  57-64.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.012
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    Plant species diversity of Sinocalycanthus chinensis community in Dalei mountain of Zhejiang Province was determined by using the index of species richness, species diversity and community evenness, and the relationships between the biodiversity indices and soil factors were studied by employing correlation analysis. According to the statistics of ten plots, there are altogether 74 families of vascular plants which can be subdivided into 193 species, 165 genera. Most of them are distributed in the temperate zone in terms of the geographic composition of seed plant genera. In different communities, the species richness and species diversity index of the woody plants were highest in Cunninghamia lanceolata+Schima superba forest, the community evenness was highest in C.lanceolata forest, and these index were lowest in bamboo grove. The species richness of the herbal plants was highest in C.lanceolata+Pinus massoniana forest and lowest in C.lanceolata forest. The species diversity index and community evenness of the herbal plants was highest in bamboo grove and lowest in Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata+Eurya muricata forest. In the vertical structure of these different communities, the species richness and species diversity index of tree layer were lower than those of shrub layer, the species diversity of herb layer was greatly varied in different communities. The correlation analysis showed that there was great correlation existing between the species diversity of S.chinensis community and soil organic matter content in which organic matter content was positively related to species diversity of the woody plants but negative to the herbal plants significantly, respectively.
    Morphological Variations in Fruit Among Population of Calligonum roborowskii A.Los.
    GULNUR Sabirhazi;PAN Bo-Rong*;YIN Lin-Ke
    2010, 30(1):  65-69.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.013
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    Eleven morphological attributes of fruit among five populations of Calligonum roborowskii A.Los. from Tarim basin of Xinjiang, China were compared by statistical analysis in the present study. One way ANOVA showed that there are significant difference in 10 morphological traits among populations; The five populations were incorporated into two types according to the results of clustering analysis (Euclidean distance). The principal component analysis result indicated that the distance of the between bristles, the distance of the between ribs and length of bristle were the main reasons leading to the morphological variations among populations. The correlation analysis showed that length of seed had a very significant correlation with diameter of seed and altitude had a very significant correlation with length of bristles.
    Morphological Diversity of Flower Lotus(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera) germplasms
    GUO Hong-Bo;KE Wei-Dong;LI Shuang-Mei
    2010, 30(1):  70-80.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.014
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    The genetic diversity in forty flower lotus germplasms of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera from Chinese National Garden of Aquatic Vegetable was evaluated using nineteen morphological characters. Among all characters, flower type (FT), number of petals (NP), pistil character, pistil function and rhizome color (RC) exhibited significant positive correlation with figure of floral bud (FB). The correlations of FB with FT, NP and RC were positive and highly significant. The path analysis revealed that days of emerging flower bud (DB) had the highest positive direct effect on FB (0.552), followed by NP (0.516) and RC (0.368). Characters showing highly negative direct effect on FB were petal length (PL) (-0.801), days of emerging first flower (DF) (-0.558) and leaf width (-0.451). Four principal components accounted for 65.68% of the total variability. A cluster analysis based on the morphological characters revealed four continuous groups according to the evolutionary direction.
    Cloning and Analysis of Dirigent-like Protein in Gene from Tamarix androssowii
    GAO Cai-Qiu;LIU Gui-Feng;WANG Yu-Cheng;JIANG Jing;YANG Chuan-Ping*
    2010, 30(1):  81-86.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.015
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    A dirigent-like protein (DIR) full length cDNA was cloned from Tamarix androssowii cDNA library. The Tadir gene is 724 bp in length without its polyA sequence, including 26 bp of 5′untranslated region and 143 bp of 3′untranslated region. It has an open reading frame (ORF) of 555 bp, encoding 184 amino acid residues. The protein molecular weight is 19.69 kD and its isoelectric point is 6.96. Hydrophobicity analysis showed that there was a hydrophilic region between 1 to 41 residues. This gene was accepted by Genbank, the accession numbers are DQ462418 (gene) and ABE73781 (protein). Under the stress of 0.4 mol·L-1 NaCl and NaHCO3, expression of Tadir gene has been changed by real-time PCR. Therefore, this gene may be associated with salt resistance of T.androssowii.
    Genetic Diversity of Alfalfa(Medicago sativa) Germplasm using Bulked DNA Based on RAPD Markers
    WANG Xiao-Juan;BAN Ting;HAN Peng;LIU Xiang;YANG Xiao-Li
    2010, 30(1):  87-91.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.016
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    Analysis of molecular genetic diversity in Alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.) germplasm is of great importance for conserving and breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of alfalfa varieties, and to identify them through screening the variety-specific primers. This report analyzed the genetic diversity of 16 alfalfa varieties from Gansu Province based on RAPD markers using bulking equal quantities of DNA from 20 individuals of a cultivar. Based on the Roger’s distances between the sixteen cultivars, the dendrogram by UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the relationships among these cultivars were tightly related to breeding programs. There was a clear difference between creeping variety Jindera and other erect varieties. Within the erect accessions, 3 distinct groups including one introduced varieties and synthetic varieties originated from alien germplasm, one east-central group and one west group, were detected. Four of 10 primers, OPE4, OPE5, OPE6 and OPE7, amplified the specific bands belong to 5 cultivars, Gannong 3, Ganza 27, Jindera, Longdong and Algoniun, were detected, respectively, which could be used to identify alfalfa varieties through exploring the variety-specific primers.
    Removal Effect of Two Species of Filamentous Green Algae on Phenol at Low Concentration
    DONG Xiao-Li;LIU Xiao-Ling;XIE Shu-Lian*
    2010, 30(1):  92-97.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.017
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    Removal effect of two species of filamentous green algae, Cladophora fracta and Spirogyra longata, on phenol at low concentration was studied. The results show that the removal rate of C.fracta and S.longata towards phenol are 86% and 75.63% under absence of between-subjects effects, respectively. It was indicated the temperature is the primary factor to C.fracta and the exposure time is the primary factor to S.longata. The removal rate of C.fracta and S.longata towards phenol were 88.98% and 75.63% under presence of between-subjects effects, respectively. It was indicated the temperature is the primary factor to C.fracta and the exposure time is the primary factor to S.longata. The best combination for removing phenol by C.fracta is temperature 18℃, exposure time 2 h and algal weight 0.5 g and the best combination for removing phenol by S.longata is temperature 8℃, exposure time 1 h and algal weight 0.5 g.
    Biosynthesis and Function of Glutathione in Plant
    DUAN Xi-Hua;TANG Zhong-Hua;GUO Xiao-Yui
    2010, 30(1):  98-105.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.018
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    Glutathione (GSH) is the major non-protein terminal production containing sulfur in the reduction assimilation pathway and the oxidized forms of GSH is called GSSG in the organism. Because of the abroad and unique ability to maintain the redox state, GSH has got extensive attention. In this paper, the progresses made in the research of GSH recently was reviewed about the biosynthesis, compartmentation, transport and degradation, and the function of glutathione during abiotic stress.
    Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Rare Plant in Codariocalyx motorius(Houtt.)
    MAO Yan-Ping;SU Zhi-Xian*;ZOU Li-Juan;WU Qing-Gui
    2010, 30(1):  106-110.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.019
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    The aseptic seedings of Codariocalyx motorius(Houtt.) Ohashi were the materials of our study on issue culture and rapid propagation, MS and 1/2MS were the basic mediums. Impact of different conditions on the rapid propagation of C.motorius(Houtt.) was discussed and a tissue culture system of C.motorius(Houtt.) was initially established, the best callus adventitious and bud differentiation medium was MS+6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.1 mg·L-1+sugar 30 g·L-1+VC 2.0 mg·L-1, the best medium for the shoot regeneration was MS+6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1+NAA 0.05 mg·L-1, the best rooting medium was 1/2MS+NAA 0.2 mg·L-1+IAA 0.5 mg·L-1.
    Molecular Identification of Genets of Clonal Plant Duchesnea indica
    SONG Wen-Jing;LI Jun-Min;JIN Ze-Xin*
    2010, 30(1):  111-115.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.020
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    Inter-simple sequence repeat(ISSR)was used to determine the genets of Duchesnea indica. The results show that 6 ISSR primers amplified 62 DNA bands in 22 ramets. Each of the primers amplified 4~16 bands, the average amplified band was 10.3. The use of six primer pairs 22 ramets cloned amplified DNA bands have 28 kinds of type, which has nine specific bands. Comprehensive analysis of these bands, ascertaining that 22 ramets belong to 16 genets. According to the banding patterns, all ramets tested in this study were distinguished from each other by four of 6 selected primers. It was shown that the ISSR technique is a reliable and effective tool to identify the genets of D.indica. At the same time, the polymorphic proportion of the bands amplified by each primer, with an average of 90.3%.
    Genetic Diversity Analysis of Lycium barbarum L. by RAPD
    SHANG Jie;LI Shou;ZHANG Kao-Wen
    2010, 30(1):  116-119.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.021
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    By screening 13 samples being polymorphic with 10 base random primers, we amplified the genomic DNAs of four domestic and three wild cultivars of Lycium barbarum L.. A total of 123 RAPD bands was detected, 68 among which were polymorphic, and the percent of polymorphic bands was 55.28%. Then we calculate the genetic similarity coefficient by Ntsyspc 2.1 and did UPGMA cluster analysis, and found the genetic relationship among the domestic cultivars is close, especially Ningqi No.1 and Ningqi No.2, whose similarity coefficient goes 81.82%, but between the domestic cultivars and the wild cultivars the genetic relationship is far.
    Genetic Diversity in the Natural Populations of Liquidambar fornosana Revealed by ISSR Molecular Markers
    BI Quan-Xin;JIN Ze-Xin*;LI Jun-Min;LI Jian-Hui
    2010, 30(1):  120-125.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.022
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    By using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers technique, the genetic diversity of five populations of endangered relic shrub Liguidambar fornosana was studied in this paper. Using 10 primers, ISSR amplification was conducted in 100 individuals from 5 L.fornosana populations and 118 polymorphic loci were detected from total 135 loci. The total percentage of polymorphic loci(P) was 87.41%. The mean of Shannon’s Information index(I) and Nei’s gene diversity(h) at population level was 0.366 0 and 0.254 3. It suggested that the genetic diversity of BS population was the highest while that of TTS population was the lowest. Analysis of molecular differences showed that 85.49% was distributed among individuals within populations, while only 1451% was distributed among populations, The gene differentiation coefficient (Gst) among populations is 0.185 6. The gene flow among populations is 2.194 4. The average genetic distance of 5 populations was 0.119 9. Using unweighted pair group method arithmatic average(UPGMA), BYS population, TTS population, BS population and ADH population were clustered into one group; the DMS population was clustered into another group.
    Preliminary Anatomy Study on Leaf of Lonicera maackii
    NIE Jiang-Li;MENG Ling-Ning
    2010, 30(1):  126-128.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.01.023
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    Preliminary anatomical structure of leaf from Lonicera maackii was studied by the methods of barehanded section in order to provide the basis for anatomy, systematic and pharmacognosy. The results show that: leaf of L.maackii is bifacial leaf , the upper and lower epidermis are 1 layer, the stomata only exist in lower epidermis, stomatal index is 14.3%~25%,most stomata are anomocytic type, palisade tissue is 1 layer with a lot of chloroplasts, there are cluster crystal of calcium oxalate in spongy tissue ,the main vein of leaves is collateral vascular bundle. There is collenchyma in cortex. The characters mentioned aboved show leaf of L.maackii adapted well to the physiological function and ecological environment.