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    20 March 2010, Volume 30 Issue 2
    Lectotypifications of Eighteen Names of Chinese Taxa in Angiospermae
    LIN Qi;YANG Zhi-Rong
    2010, 30(2):  129-133.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.001
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    In the voucher specimens housed at the Herbarium (PE), Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the types of eighteen names of Chinese taxa in Angiosperm are found to be syntypes under Article 9.4 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code). According to Article 8.1, 9.9 and 9.10, and Recommendation 9A.2 and 9A.3, lectotypes for these names are here designated.
    Anatomy Studies on Six Mosses in Kanas Nature Reserve
    WANG Jian-Hong;WANG Xin;JIANG Yan-Cheng;TUEr HongJiang;WANG Hong*
    2010, 30(2):  134-139.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.002
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    Paraffin sectioning technique and scanning electron microscopy methods were applied to observe six species of masses. The internal structure of stems,leaves and the stratum corneum surface ornamentation, warts growth and micro-hole were compared.The results indicated that the epidermal cells of Rhytidium rugosum(Hedw.) Kindb. have small verrucose on outer wall, while the tandem of the wall adjacent to the surface of the cuticle cell patterns long into parallel bundles; stem axis of the Abietinella abietina(hedw.) fleisch was not obvious, in the back of a rib-like thorns protruding warts, dorsal, ventral surfaces of the side wall warts, was covered like; the epidermal cells wall of Bartramia ithphylla Brid. uplift, holes was not sink, orifice was covered by the cuticle ornamentation; the back surface of leaf crude cell wall of Aulacomnium palustre(Hedw.) Schwagr. warts highlighted by the depression, cuticle ornamentation was banded, leaf faces big belly, and in many cell wall-like interface was open; the epidermal cells of back leave of Hylocommium splendens(Hedw.) B.S.G wart like thorns wide, dorsal, ventral warts rough high, the top of the cell wall with depression; Dorsal, ventral cells irregular depressions adjacent cell wall of Ceratodon purpureus(hedw.) Brid. was a small intensive wart.
    Foliar Structure of Several Species of Epiphytic Tillandsia(Bromeliaceae)
    WANG Si-Wei;ZHENG Gui-Ling;FU Ying;WANG Dan;LI Peng;*
    2010, 30(2):  140-145.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.003
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    We analyzed and compared external and internal structure of the leaves of three epiphytic Tillandsia species(Tillandsia stricta‘Hard leaf’, T.stricta ‘Cotton candy’ and T.filifolia) and one terrestrial species of Bromeliaceae, Guzmania ‘Denise’, by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and paraffin section. The results showed that the sunflower-shaped trichomes covered the leaf surface in all species studied. The foliar trichomes were made up of disc cells, ring cells and wing cells, and the central disc cells were connected with mesophyll cells by a passage with 2-3 cells. The foliar trichomes of the epiphytic Tillandsia were white and waxy with high densities, but stomata is little or not detectable, which indicated the foliar trichomes would functioned as reduction of transpiration, water repellency and photoprotection other than water and nutrient absorption. In addition, the foliar trichomes among different epiphytic Tillandsia species were different in density, shape and size, which suggested that different species have been adapted to their ancestral and present environment.
    Characteristic of Molecular Evolution of Sibiraea angustata Based on nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnL-F Sequence Analysis
    DUAN Yi-Zhong;ZHANG De-Jun;GAO Qing-Bo;ZHANG Fa-Qi;LI Yin-Hu;CHEN Shi-Long*
    2010, 30(2):  146-151.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.004
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    The differences between the nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnL-F sequences in Sibiraea angustata were analyzed by PCR direct sequencing, and then compared with cpDNA trnS-G, rpl20-rps12 sequences of this species. Total DNA was extracted from silica-dried leaves of S.angustata using modified CTAB method. With the extracted DNA as template, nrDNA ITS and cpDNA trnL-F regions were amplified, then purified and sequenced. The length of nrDNA ITS sequence of S.angustata was 601 bp, of which 3 were variable sites with a percentage of 0.05%, the (G+C) content was 41.4%. The length of cpDNA trnL-F sequence of S.angustata was 927 bp, of which only one was variable site with a percentage of 0.01%, the(G+C) content was 32.6%. The nrDNA ITS region of S.angustata was more conserved and evolved more slowly than the cpDNA trnS-G and rpl20-rps12 sequences, but evolved a little more rapidly when compared to cpDNA trnL-F. The present distribution range of S.angustata has experienced range expansion by the haplotype analysis of this species,which consists with the conclusion resulting from cpDNA genome. Therefore, the nrDNA ITS sequence of S.angustata was fit to the phylogeographic study of this species.
    Comparative Study on the Microstructure and Ultrastructure for Three Cultivated Varieties of Rice
    YANG Yan-Hua;WANG Cai-Lin*
    2010, 30(2):  152-156.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.005
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    The microstructure and ultrastructure of three cultivated varieties of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica(Wuyujing 3, Wuyunjing 7, and Kanto 194) were investigated using light microscope and transmission electron microscope. The number of vascular bundles and air spaces in the main vein of the leaves in both Wuyujing 3 and Wuyunjing 7 was more than those of Kanto 194. Meanwhile, the grana lamellae of chloroplast were arranged closely and there was no gap in the middle of grana lamellae. The grana lamellae of chloroplast were arranged loosely and there were more gaps.These results showed that the microstructural and ultrastructural features of Wuyujing 3 and Wuyunjing 7 were correlated to their high yield characteristics, which lay a theoretical foundation for our future research.
    Ecological Adaptation of Huperzia serrataⅠ Leaf and Stem Anatomical Characterstics
    ZHOU Yi;HUANG Heng-Yu;*;LI Jing;
    2010, 30(2):  157-163.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.006
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    By using the method of anatomy, we compared and analyzed the anatomical characterstics of the leaf and stem of five wild populations of Huperzia serrata in Xiangxi Region. The results showed that H.serrata populations have obvious differences in anatomical characterstics. Among all anatomical characterstics, vascular cylinder thickness, cortex thickness, spongy tissue thickness, and leaf thickness are the main factors which contribute to the differences of anatomical characterstics of H.serrata populations; The anatomical characterstics of stem and leaf are morphologically adaptive to damp environment, but among all populations, H.serrata in S1 population have the tendency of adapting dry environment. These morphological characterstics are mainly controlled by genetic factors, but environmental factors(mainly light and water) also have important influence on them. Therefore, the anotomical difference and plasticity of H.serrata populations are essential for the adaptation and the existance of H.serrata.
    Variation in Fruit Characteristics of Hippophae tibetana(Elaeagnaceae) in the Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,China
    WEN Jiang-Bo;SUN Kun*;YAN Min-Sheng;HU Rui;SUN Wen-Bin
    2010, 30(2):  164-169.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.007
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    Hippophae tibetana Schlecht. is one of the endemic species of Hippophae L. in the high altitude area of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Himalayas. It presents high variety in the size, shape and color of its fruits, the length of fruit stalk, etc. The variation in fruit characteristics such as fruit length, fruit width, indexes of fruit shape, the length of fruit stalk and fruit ornamentation length of 7 natural populations, distributing in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, were analyzed statistically in order to study its variation level and geographic variation patterns. The results showed that very significant variation existed among and within populations (p<0.01),except the fruit ornamentation length among populations(p<0.05). Coefficient of variation(CV) ranged between 11.19% and 45.03%, the length of fruit stalk presented the greatest variation (CV was 45.03%), followed by ornamentation length of fruit(CV was 31.97%), fruit width presented the least variation(CV was 11.19%). Phenotypic differentiation coefficients of variance (Vst) ranged from 0.213 3 to 0.629 9 and the mean was 0.489 5. Each of the variation among and within populations accounted for a half of the fruit variation. Correlations analysis indicated that there were very significant correlations among the fruit characteristics (p<0.01) except the fruit length and the length of fruit stalk, fruit width and fruit ornamentation length. There were also very significant correlations between characteristics and geographical factors (p<0.01) except fruit length and altitude, fruit width and latitude and longitude. Some fruit characteristics showed geographic variation gradient.Cluster analysis indicated that 7 populations clustered according to the geographical distance.
    Effects of Light Intensity on Spore Germination and Sex Differentiation of Ceratopteris thalictroides(L.) Brongn.
    SUN Xin;ZHU Xuan-Lü;ZHANG Ying;DAI Xi-Ling*
    2010, 30(2):  170-173.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.008
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    The effects of different light intensities on spore germination and the growth of gametophyte of Ceratopteris thalictroides(L.) Brongn. were studied. The results showed that the intensity of 2 000~4 000 lx is suitable for spore germination, the optimum point is at 4 000 lx. When the intensity is around 4 000 lx,the spores easily grow into hermaphrodites gametophyte. When the intensity is around 1 000 lx,the spores mostly grow into males gametophyte. It gives evidence for the cultivation of C.thalictroides and the molecule biology study.
    Somatic Embryogenesis from Mature Zygotic Embryo Explants of Sorbus pohuashanensis Hedl
    YANG Ling;SHEN Hai-Long*;LIU Chun-Ping;ZHAI Xiao-Jie
    2010, 30(2):  174-179.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.009
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    Somatic embryogenesis of Sorbus pohuashanensis Hedl was studied by taking intact mature zygotic embryo, zygotic embryo with 1 cotyledon and the cut cotyledon as explants. The basal induction and differentiation media were MS and MS1/2, respectively. The results showed that somatic embryo induction rate was the highest on intact mature zygotic embryo explant, which was 100%,and the best combination of plant growth regulators was 5 mg·L-1 NAA plus 2 mg·L-1 6-BA for induction of somatic embryos on MS medium. The concentrations of NAA and 6-BA and their interaction have significant effects on induction of callus and somatic embryos. Light environment with longer subculture interval were favorable to somatic embryogenesis. Stereomicroscope observation showed that there were two regeneration patterns (direct and indirect) and four development stages (globular, heartshape, torpedo-shape and cotyledonary) for somatic embryogenesis of the species. Microscopic observation showed that the somatic embryos had bipolarity, and cotyledonary somatic embryos had fully-developed structure.
    Gametophytic Development and Apogamy of the Fern Onychium siliculosum(Desv.) C. Chr.
    DAI Xiao-Fei;CAO Jian-Guo*;HUANG Wu-Jie;Zhong Xiao-Ye;LI Xin-Guo
    2010, 30(2):  180-184.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.010
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    The gametophytic development and apogamy of the fern Onychium siliculosum(Desv.) C. Chr. were observed by microscope and semithin section technique. The results exhibited that the spores are tawny, tetrahedral, and trilete. During the period of germination a rhizoid was produced firstly, then the prothallial initial cells. The germination was of the Vittaria-type. The prothallial cells, after experiencing the stages of filament and thallus, developed into prothallium. The pattern of the prothallial development was Ceratopteris-type. The filaments were rich in branches and they formed cluster prothallia. Antheridia were generated on the prothallia, but no archegonia were formed through repeated experiments. This species belonged to obligate apogamy. The observation of semithin section showed that the apogamous embryo is caused by the divisions of a group of small cells, which originated from the gametophytic cells behind the apical notch of the prothallium. The apogamous bud was differentiated first from the small cells, and then the root. The apogamous bud and the embryo root were connected by the differentiated vessels which also connected the gametphyte and the sporephyte.
    Observation on the Systematic Characteristics of Gametophyte in Sinephropteris delavayi
    JI Hong-Ling;SHI Lei;SUN Shu-Hong;LIU Bao-Dong*
    2010, 30(2):  185-190.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.011
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    Gametophytic development of Sinephropteris delavayi(Franch.) Mickel in Brittonia was first studied by the microscope. The spores germinate at about 6 days after cultured. The germ filiaments developments are uniseriate and can forked into 2~3 branches. The meristem of prothallial is unconspicuous. Mature prothallu are approximately cordate. We also discussed the characteristic of meristem, hair and sexual organs so that can show the reasonable view of Mickel who divided into an unique genus S.delavayi.
    In Vitro Conservation of Rare and Endangered Emmenopterys henryi Oliv. Germplasm
    HONG Sen-Rong;YIN Ming-Hua*
    2010, 30(2):  191-196.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.012
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    The effects of culture temperature, inorganic salts level, sucrose, mannitol and plant growth inhibitor PP333 on in vitro conservation of Emmenopterys henryi Oliv. stems with a bud in MS basic medium were studied using singlefactor experiments and orthogonal experimental method. The results showed that the survival rate of E.henryi Oliv. stems with a bud cultured in 1/2MS medium containing 2.0 mg·L-1 KT, 2.0 mg·L-1 6-BA, 0.1 mg·L-1 NAA, 50 g·L-1 sucrose and 10 g·L-1 mannitol and stored at 9℃ low temperature was up to 80%. PP333 also had a significant effect on in vitro conservation of E.henryi Oliv., the most suitable concentration of PP333 was 6 mg·L-1, the survival rate after 180 d was over 95%. After morphological indexes measuring, physiological and biochemical indexes determination and RAPD analysis detection, the genetic variation of E.henryi Oliv. conservation in vitro plantlets did not appear. The results provided a simple and effective way for in vitro conservation of the rare and endangered plants E.henryi Oliv. germplasm.
    Elytrigia Genome Structure of Hybrid Octoploid Trititrigia and Agropyron glaucum
    YAN Xiao-Dan;ZHANG Yan-Ming;LI Ji-Lin*
    2010, 30(2):  197-201.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.013
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    The intergeneric hybrid was obtained for the first time among Maicao 8th, Maicao 9th, Form 2nd of Octoploid Trititrigia and Agropyron glaucum. The seed-setting rate of crossing generation reached 31.49%, 39.28% and 10.41% respectively. Interstitial type of parents was showed on F_1 hybrid, the plants were very big and flourish, its ear length ranged from 20 cm to 30 cm, the number of spikelet from 25 to 30. The hybrid could survived without coverage during the winter in Harbin, because it was perennial plants and could resist the cold. After scrutinizing the meiosis of pollen mother cells in F_1 hybrids, the results were concluded as follows: the chromosomes were paired unusually, with high rate of univalent and appearing multibivalent. At F_1 PMC MI, the chromosome configurations were 9.5Ⅰ+16.98Ⅱ+0.27Ⅲ, 13.6Ⅰ+14.01Ⅱ+0.87Ⅲ and 11.2Ⅰ+16.8Ⅱ+0.08Ⅲ, respectively. The variable range of bivalent was 13 to 18, univalent was 11 to 17, and multivalent was 0.08 to 0.087, most of bivalents were bar shaped. We could speculate that part of homologous chromosome were in relationship and the others were non-homologous genomes, there was also relationship in some chromosome among homologous. Ph gene in chromosome of 5B of wheat may be inhibited by the chromosome E.
    Genetic Diversity of Lindera aggregata Populations in Zhejiang Province
    GU Jing-Jing;JIN Ze-Xin*;LI Jun-Min
    2010, 30(2):  202-207.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.014
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    Eight populations of Lindera aggregata were collected from Zhejiang Province and the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation were analyzed by using inter-simple sequence repeat(ISSR) molecular makers. 12 relaible primers were selected from total 100 primers and 125 loci were detected in 160 individuals. 100 loci were polymorphic and the percentage of polymorphic loci(P) at species level was 80% with an average of 60.5% at population level. The genetic diversity estimated by Shannon information index(I) and Nei’s gene index(h) was 0.376 2 and 0.246 4, respectively, while those at population level averaged 0.317 3 and 0.213 1, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance(ANOVA) showed that only 11.44% of the total variation was distributed among populations, while 88.56% was distributed among individuals within population. The gene differentiation coefficient(Gst) and the gene flow(Nm) was 0.134 9 and 3.205 2, respectively. The pair-wise genetic distance averaged 0.049 4. By using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean(UPGMA), the eight populations could be divided into two groups. Shuimokeng, Shangpan and Cangshan populations collected in Taizhou city were clustered into one group and the other five populations were clustered into the other group.
    Genetic Diversity and Genetic Variation of Populations Endangered Tree Cercidiphyllum japonicum
    WANG Jing;ZHANG Xiao-Ping*;LI Wen-Liang;WANG Lei;WU Jian-Xun;CHEN Yi-Kun
    2010, 30(2):  208-214.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.015
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    By using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers technique, this paper studied the genetic diversity and variation of ten populations of Cercidiphyllum japonicum. The results showed that at species level, the percentage of polymorphic loci (P) was 69.59%, Shannon’s index (I) was 0.351 4 and Nei’s gene diversity (H) was 0.231 3, indicating a high level of genetic diversity. Whereas, at population level, they were only 30.61%, 0.173 3 and 0.115 6, respectively, suggesting a low level of genetic diversity. Genetic variation analysis showed that the coefficient of gene differentiation is 0.500 3 and the gene flow is 0.527 3 among populations, demonstrating a relatively high level genetic variation among the populations. Cluster analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. The high genetic variance among populations and the low genetic diversity within population could be attributed to the habitat fragmentation and the limited gene flow among populations.
    Dormancy Mechanism and Bioactivity of Hydroquinone Extracted from Seed of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle
    LI Meng-Fei;LI Wei;DU Wei;LI Jin-Juan
    2010, 30(2):  215-220.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.016
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    Ethyl ether extract from seed of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle was separated and identified by GC-MS, nineteen compounds existed including fatty acid, alkenes and others, most of which had been proved to possess inhibition activities that might be the primary reason of unhealthy germination of P.hexandrum Royle seed. Hydroquinone was firstly identified in this experiment and its bioactivity had never been reported in the reference before. The further study of its bioactivity was conducted on wheat and in vitro culture of P.hexandrum Royle seed. The results showed that hydroquinone(1×10-1~1.0 mg·L-1) played a positive role and shortened the cycle in growth and development, which indicates that hydroquinone has similarity to auxin on plant growth and development.
    Purification,Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Alkaline Solution Extracted Polysaccharide from Tremella fuciformis Berk
    HONG Ge;LIU Pei-Xun;GAO Xiao-Rong;SHEN Xiu;XU Wen-Qing
    2010, 30(2):  221-227.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.017
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    Tremella fuciformis Berk(TFB) is widely distributed in southwest China. Its sporocarps are used as traditional Chinese medicine for nourishing yin and promoting fluid production, moistening lung and relieving cough. In this study, a polysaccharide with the molecular weight of 58962, named TFBP-A, was isolated from the fermentation product of TFB by alkaline solution. Its antioxidant activity was evaluated using three in vitro assay experiments including hydroxyl free radicals scavenging, superoxide anion free radicals elimination and red cells hemolysis inhibition. TFBP-A showed scavenging activity to hydroxyl free radicals and the EC50 was 0.191 mg·mL-1; while it could also eliminate superoxide anion free radicals and the highest eliminating ratio was 53.0%; it could still inhibit red cells hemolysis aroused by H2O2 and the inhibition ratio was 78.6%. These results suggest that TFBP-A has certain antioxidant activity.
    Cold Resistance of 4 types of Central Plains Tree Peony Cultivars in Harbin Area
    REN Li;YUE Hua*
    2010, 30(2):  228-237.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.018
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    Through cold stress treatment on the following varities: ‘Doulv’, ‘Luoyang Hong’,‘Shouan Hong’ and ‘Yaohuang’ which belong to central plains tree peony cultivars, the relative conductivity, malonaldehyde, soluble sugar and soluble protein of their roots and branches were measured, finally the dynamic change law of physiological index were obtained, and the anatomical structure of roots was observed. The results are as follows: ‘Doulv’ performs the strongest cold resistance, and ‘Luoyang Hong’ shows the weakest. The relative conductivity, malonaldehyde, soluble sugar and soluble protein show significant correlation. Anatomy showed that roots’ tissue included 3 layers: epiderm, cortex and stele. Starch grains in phloem increased obviously in deep dormancy compared with growth period, the quantity of starch grains increased in peony’s roots expressed important relation to cold resistance of central plains tree peony. This research can provide theoretical basis for popularization and application of central plains tree peony cultivars in cold area.
    Variation Trends of Soil Moisture and Salinity During the Growth Season of the Wild Apocynum venentum L. in West Jinlin
    CHU Jing-Hua;HAN Guo-Jun
    2010, 30(2):  238-242.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.019
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    The variation trends of moisture and salinity within the 0~50 cm depth soil, in which the wild Apocynum venentum L. distributed in the West Jilin, were studied. The results showed that there are three different kinds of distribution regions in horizontal pattern, the concentrated regions, the marginal regions and the blanked regions. The soil moisture trends are similar in concentrated regions and marginal regions; the soil moisture in the blanked regions is higher than those in the other two regions; the fluctuation range of soil moisture decreases with the increase of the soil depth in the vertical pattern. The soil salinity is different in horizontal pattern. The salinity in the blanked regions is dramatically higher than those in the other two regions, within which the salinity in the marginal regions is higher than that in the concentrated regions. In the vertical pattern, the fluctuation range of salinity in the concentrated regions decreases with the increase of soil depth; in the blanked regions and the marginal regions, the soil salinity is not only much higher but also has a larger fluctuation range in the soil depth of 20~30 cm than those in the depth of 0~20 cm and 30~50 cm. In horizontal pattern, the soil pH value in marginal regions is higher than those in the concentrated regions. In the vertical pattern, the soil pH value in the depth of 20~30 cm of the concentrated regions as well as in the marginal regions is higher than those in the depth of 0~20 cm and 30~50 cm; the soil pH value of the blanked regions has a negative correlation with the increase of soil depth. The ranges of moisture content, the soil salinity and the pH value for the normal growth of A.venentum L. are respective 9%~20%, 0.05%~0.25% and 7.8~9.4. A.venentum L. can not grow normally under the following conditions that the soil moisture content is below 5% or over 21%, the soil salinity is over 0.35% and the pH value is over 9.8. A.venentum L. has developed root system, which can store much water to adapt to the drought environment. This plant grows well when it is cultivated by the using of ridges, which are 20 cm to 30 cm high. A.venentum L., whose seedlings can bear high soil salinity and pH value, is a kind of economic plant which can adapt to the drought and alkali-saline environment.
    Temperature Influences on the Allelopathy Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Trifolium repens L.
    HE Yang-Yan;MA Dan-Wei*;LI Qun;WANG Ya-Nan;TIAN Jia-Qiao;CHENG Wei-Wei
    2010, 30(2):  243-247.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.020
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    The allelopathy effect of aqueous extracts from Trifolium repens L. on root tip cells of Vicia faba under different temperature (5℃,25℃ and 35℃) stresses was investigated by using micronucleus assay and chromosome aberration assay. The results indicated that the mitotic index of V.faba root tip cells treated by low concentration of aqueous extracts increased and it decreased at high concentration, the aqueous extracts of T.repens also caused various types of chromosome aberrations such as micronucleus, chromosome fragment, chromosomal bridge and lagging chromosome,and micronucleus and aberration rates increased along with concentration of extracts. This research showed the allelopathy effects of aqueous extracts from T.repens by different temperature treatments were different, the low temperature group (5℃) was the strongest, high temperature group (35℃) was second, normal temperature(25℃)was the smallest, which was probably due to temperature stress changed and increased the secondary metabolites of T.repens, increased genetic toxicity of the aqueous extracts of this plant.
    Autotoxicity of Root Exudates of Fritillaria pallidiflora Schvek
    WANG Ying;KAISAR Sulayman*;LI Jin;ZHANG Yun-Ling;ZHU Guo-Qiang;Ayibieke
    2010, 30(2):  248-252.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.021
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    Plant roots could secrete exudates which contain root-specific metabolites. Those metabolites have critical effect on the growth of the plant itself. Germination and early seedling growth bioassays were used to assess the autotoxicity potential of root exudates from Fritillaria pallidiflora Schvek in the present paper. The results indicated that the germination percentage, radical and hypocotyl length were inhibited by 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione, phenols, and their mixtures, which are the main constituents of root exudates. The root exudates collected by the continuous cyclic device had effect on seed germination, and the autotoxicity were increased with higher concentration in a certain range and decreased beyond the range. The root exudates autotoxicity on its early seedling growth increased with higher concentration, however, they promoted the hypocotyl length of F.pallidiflora at lower concentration.
    Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Blueberry Pomace Extracts
    GAO Chang;CHENG Da-Hai*;GAO Xin;ZHAO Er-Feng
    2010, 30(2):  253-256.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2010.02.022
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    Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of blueberry pomace extracts were studied in the present study. Water, 40% ethanol and cellulase-ultrasonic-assisted extraction were used to extract blueberry pomace in this study. Folin-Ciocalteu method was employed for total phenol contents determination. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts and cellulase-ultrasonic-assisted extracts were determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay and O2 free radical scavenging assay. Results showed that total phenolic content of cellulase-ultrasonic-assisted extracts (425.36±15.2 mg GAE·100 g-1 DW) was much higher than that of aqueous extracts (169.46±9.7 mg GAE·100 g-1 DW) and ethanol extracts (218.39±12.5 mg GAE·100 g-1 DW). The antioxidant activity of cellulase-ultrasonic-assisted extracts in the DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide radical scavenging assay were 2.67±0.13 g Vc·100 g-1 DW and 2.48±0.14 g Vc·100 g-1 DW, respectively. These values were much lower than those of the aqueous extracts and ethanol extracts.