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    20 September 2011, Volume 31 Issue 5
    Leaf Epidermal Micro-morphology Characteristics of Wild Cerasus humilis(Bge.) Sok. of Yanshan Mountains
    REN Yan-Jun;MA Jian-Jun*;QIN Su-Ping;DU Bin
    2011, 31(5):  513-517.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.001
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    The leaf epidermal micro-morphology characteristics of wild Cerasus humilis(Bge.) Sok. including seeded and grafted types living in Yanshan Mountains were observed with Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the upper and lower epidermal cells morphology can be divided into two types, one type was concave and connected like a honeycomb and the other type was ridgy and nearly circle. The upper epidermal cells were covered with striated cutin. There were some epidermal trichomes but no stomata on the upper epidermis, while on the lower epidermis only stomata distributed. The stomata extruded from epidermal cells which belong to irregular type. The average length, width, size and density of stomata were 8.22±1.30 μm, 2.55±0.65 μm, 21.64±8.60 μm2 and 836.23±197.16 mm-2, respectively. Stomata characteristics indicated significant differences in different plants and different epidermal cell morphology, which can be used as basis for seed-selection and research on anti-drought stress of wild C.humilis(Bge.) Sok.
    Morphogenesis and Developmental Law of Glandular Hairs of Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth
    ZHU Guang-Long;ZHAO Ting;KANG Dong-Dong;WEI Xue-Zhi*
    2011, 31(5):  518-523.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.002
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    The paraffin sectionning and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the morphogenesis and law of development of Elsholtzia stauntoni Benth. The results showed that glandular hairs of E.stauntoni Benth has two main types of trichomes: trichomes without secreting cells and trichomes with secreting cells. The former include: single-cell mastoid trichomes, 2-3 cells tubular trichomes, 2-3 cells ramose trichomes and multicellular tubular trichomes. The latter include peltate and capitate hairs. The mature capitate glandular hairs comprise one, two or four secretory cells and its head is spherical or half spherical. The head of mature peltate glandular hairs comprises eight to twelve secretory cells and the secretory cells expand to a shield-shaped head. The glandular hairs of E.stauntoni Benth mainly occur greatly on younger leaves and start to generate from the first pair of younger leaves of stem apex. The morphogenesis of new glandular hairs can be observed to occur from young leaves stage to mature stage, however, only a relatively small amount occurs in maturation stage.
    Comparative Anatomy of Stems and Leaves of Six Species(Encalypta Hedw.)from Xinjiang
    WANG Hong;SUO Fei-Ya;WANG Jian-Hong;Ruxiangul·Wuxur;MAMTIMIN·Sulayman*
    2011, 31(5):  524-530.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.003
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    The stem and leaf anatomy of seven species of Encalypta Hedw. from Xinjiang were investigated using paraffin section and SEM methods. The results showed: Most warts of Encalypta alpina Smith. were diamond or like leg-bone and densely covered on the surface of the leaves. Ornamentation of the warts was longitudinal ridge and goose pimples. The transverse section of the stem of Encalypta ciliata was pentagon. Stem cross-section was pentagon. The ridge of central axis cells was thickened. Crude warts distributed intensively on the depressed epidermal cell wall of back leaf. The transverse section of stem of Encalypta spathulata C.Mull. did not appear central cylinder sheath. Warts clustered and forked in the proximal. The epidermal cell wall of back leaf was not depressed. Encalypta vulgaris Hedw. did not have leaf tip. Hydraulic conductivity cells of central ribs were large. The epidermal cell wall was smoother and depressed strongly. The papilla was not obvious on the wall. The inner and external epidermis of the stem of Encalypta tianschanica j.c.zhao were different distinctly. Cytoplasm of inner cortex was dense. Branching crude warts of back leaf distributed intensively, and the star shaped crude warts of ventral leaf mostly distributed intensively on the lightly depressed cell wall. Wall of central rib cells of Encalypta tibetana C.Mull. was thickened. Leaves have layer upon layer of dense, irregularly branching crude warts. Back leaf was partly covered by band-like appurtenances. The size, position, status and ornamentation of warts of the six species plants were different. The number of layer of central rib cells, the size and status of hydraulic conductivity cells were also different. The investigation and observation of these subtle characteristics can be used for taxonomy of Encalypta Hedw..
    Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of the Seedlings of Sinocalycanthus chinensis Hybrid Progeny
    QI Cai-Hong;JIN Ze-Xin*;XU Xing-Li;LU Jie;WANG Xing-Long;
    2011, 31(5):  531-536.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.004
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    The wild resources of Sinocalycanthus chinensis the Class Ⅱ protected plant in China, are limited. S.chinensis in Daming Mountain was pollinated by the pollens of S.chinensis in Tashajiang, Baishui, Qingliangfeng and Shunxiwu, respectively. The hybrid progeny was named as TSJ, BS, QLF and SXW, respectively. Natural progeny in Daming Mountain was used as control (DMS). The growth and photosynthetic characteristics of hybrid progeny were compared with natural progeny. The results showed that there were significant differences in the growth and physiological properties between hybrid and natural progeny. The leaves number, total leaf area, leaf length and total biomass per plant were the highest in SXW, and there were significant differences with the other hybrid and natural progeny. The plant height and total leaf perimeter per plant were also the highest in SXW, being significantly different with natural progeny. The daily average net photosynthetic rate of SXW hybrid progeny was significantly higher than the other hybrid progeny. The light saturation point was the highest in SXW, being significantly different with natural progeny. This might be one of the reasons why the seedlings of SXW hybrid progeny grew much faster. Whether SXW hybrids have a strong adaptive ability needs further and deeper studies.
    Construction of ihpRNA Expression Vector of Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus CP Protein Gene and Genetic Transformation in Tabacco
    ZHANG Yu-Liang;XIONG Guo-Ru;WANG Jian-Hua;ZHANG Shu-Zhen;GUAN Mei-Hua;YANG Wen-Jun;LIU Zhi-Xin*
    2011, 31(5):  537-542.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.005
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    To improve the sugarcane resistance against disease, a suagrcane yellow leaf virus CP protein mediated RNA interference technology was set up. In the paper, a RNAi expression vector harboring CP protein gene fragment of sugarcane yellow leaf virus was constructed. On the basis of the complete genome sequence of sugarcane yellow leaf virus Hainan isolate (GenBank accession no. HQ342888), two pairs of specific primers, CPsf1/CPsr1 and CPasf1/CPasr1, containing different enzyme sites were designed. With the template of pMD19-T/CP plasmid constructed and middle vector of pRNAi1017, positive sense strand and antisense strand were obtained, which were separately inserted into the plant expressional vector pCAMBIA2300. The RNAi vector p2300-CP-F-R containing a hairpin structure was confirmed by the digestion of restriction enzyme PstⅠ. The p2300-CP-F-R was transformed into tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. The results revealed that 12 transgenic tobacco plants were obtained by PCR, Southern blot and semiquantitative RT-PCR. The CP gene was succeeded in being integrated into genome of tobacco and transcripted. This work laid the foundation for breeding of plant mediated RNAi technology in sugarcane against disease.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of the CsMYB Gene from Citrus sinensis Infected by Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus
    HU Xiu-Feng;YIN You-Ping;SHI Xiao-Gang;LI Yan-Fang;WANG Zhong-Kang*
    2011, 31(5):  543-549.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.006
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    In the present study, according to the results of Citrus sinensis SSH library analysis, primers of one up-regulation expressed EST sequence were designed, a MYB type gene was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). This gene was named as CsMYB, and submitted in GenBank (accession No. HQ841074). The full-length cDNA sequence of CsMYB is 1 306 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 909 bp and the typical 26 bp poly-A. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the gene putatively encodes a protein which has 302 amino acids with molecular weight 32.97 kD, and its theoretical pI is 8.5. The CsMYB gene contains two typical conserved motifs: R2 and R3. The gene expression profile under the treatment of Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus(Las) was investigated by Real-time qPCR. The results showed that CsMYB gene expression varied at different times infected by Las, and was different in huanglongbing development progresses. Therefore, the CsMYB gene is speculated to be a transcription factor and possibly to be involved in the procedure induced defense of Las.
    Expressional Analysis of MvNHX1 in Medicago varia Xinmu-1 and Enhancing the Salt Tolerance of Tobacco
    ZHANG Hua;ZHANG Fu-Chun*;ZHANG Yu-Liang;ZHANG Bo;CHEN Quan-Jian
    2011, 31(5):  550-557.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.007
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    The total RNA of Medicago varia xinmu-1 was extracted, the cDNA fragment amplified by RT-PCR using special primer was linked into pMD19-T vector and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α. By sequencing the positive clone, the MvNHX1(EU375310) is 1 626 bp long. RT-PCR and real-time PCR assays showed that the level of MvNHX1 transcription was up-regulated and reached a steady higher level in the seedlings after high salinity treatment. The MvNHX1 gene was transformed into tobacco via agrobacterium mediation after the plant expression vectors pBI121-MvNHX1 was successfully constructed. The germination rate and biomass of the transgenic tobacco were taller than those of the control group under NaCl stress, indicating that the MvNHX1 can enhance the salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco.
    igh Efficient Polyploid Induction of Cymbidium hybridium
    JI Bi-Xia;CHEN Da-Wei;ZHANG Chen-Chen;MIN Di;HUANG Wen-Jing;WANG Yu;*
    2011, 31(5):  558-562.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.008
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    The shoots of Cymbidium hybridium were soaked in colchicine solutions at different concentrations and treatment times to induce doubling of body cell chromosome. Ploidy levels were identified by morphological and cytological traits. The results showed that the treated shoots of C.hybridium with 0.05% colchicine for 24 h had a higher inducing rate which was up to 28.2%. The external morphology, the number of chloroplast as well as the number and size of stomata were obviously different between the diploid and polyploid. The nucleus of polyploid cell was obviously bigger and the number of chromosome was increased.
    Effect of N+ Implantation on the Inducement of Polyploid Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus(Bge.) Hsiao
    ZHANG Li-Zhen;LI Qian-Zhong*;YANG Lin-Yuan;WU Cheng-Yan
    2011, 31(5):  563-568.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.009
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    A new method of improving induction rate of polyploid through chemical induction combined with physical mutation were proposed by using the diploid Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus(Bge.) Hsiao seeds as the materials and N+ beam as the mutagenic agent. The results indicated that N+ implantation showed significant biological effects. The effects of N+ implantation combined with colchicine on inducing polyploidy of Astragalus were obvious, 44.4% doubling rate was obtained by being treated by the combination of N+ ion implantation dose 2.6×1016 N+/cm2 and colchicine concentration 100 mg·L-1 for 5 d. The best result of 46.2% was obtained by using the combination of N+ implantation dose 5.2×1016 N+/cm2 and colchicine concentration 100 mg·L-1 for 10 d. They were higher than the control group of maximum induction rate 13.9% of colchicine concentration 100 mg·L-1, treatment time 15 d. Cell chromosome identification results showed that the polyploid is tetraploid.
    Tissue Culture and Industrialized Seedling Production of Cinnamomum camphora Trees with High Content of Borneo Camphor
    LIU Xiu-Fang;LIN Wen-Ge*;SU Ming-Hua
    2011, 31(5):  569-574.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.010
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    The techniques of tissue culture of Cinnamomum camphora(Linn.) Pves were developed from the explants taken from young sprouting branches at the base of plus tree with high contents of borneo camphor. The results showed that the adventitious buds were induced at the induction rate of 93% on modified MS supplemented with BA 2.0 mg·L-1 and NAA 0.1 mg·L-1. The modified MS adding BA 2.0 mg·L-1 and NAA 0.05 mg·L-1 was the optimized subculture medium with multiplication coefficient being 5.57 and the growth cycle being 30 d. The shoots grew well under the conditions of temperature 25℃, illumination intensity 3 000 lx and illumination time 11 h. They rooted in 12 d on 1/2 MS adding IBA 0.5 mg·L-1, IAA 0.4 mg·L-1 and sucrose 20 g·L-1 with rooting rate reaching up to 97.33%, and the number of roots being 3 to 5. The plantlets were transplanted in mixture medium with peat and perlite(3∶1), and the survival rate was 86.2%. These techniques could be used in industrialized seedling production for the chemical form of this species.
    Preliminary Report on Somatic Embryogenesis from Stem of Quercus acutissima Carr. and Histological Observation
    LIAO Jing;FANG Yan-Ming*;YU Mu-Kui
    2011, 31(5):  575-578.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.011
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    The explants were collected in April and June from the same mother plant. The medium MS+6-BA 1 mg·L-1+IBA 1 mg·L-1 supplemented with L-glutamine 1 000 mg·L-1 and proline 500 mg·L-1 was used for somatic embryogenesis. The results showed that the better acquisition time is April. The histological study revealed that the cells of embryonic were small in size and dense in cytoplasm, which were significantly different with the cells of non-embryonic callus. The histological origin of somatic embryos was internal callus, subepidermal cells or surface of primary embryogenic complex. Observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the structure differences between embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were distinct. We found that the cells of embryogenic callus were equal in size and had the shape of ball. There were cell masses consisting of many embrgogenic cells. The cells of non-embryogenic callus had no regular shape. There was interspace between them and cannot form cell masses.
    Preliminary Study on In vitro Conservation of Dioscorea bulbifera L. Virus-free Plantlet Germplasm and its Genetic Stability and Virus Change
    YIN Ming-Hua;HONG Sen-Rong*
    2011, 31(5):  579-584.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.012
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    The effect of inorganic salts level, sucrose, mannitol and plant growth inhibitor PP333 on In vitro conservation of Dioscorea bulbifera L. virus-free plantlet stems with a bud in MS basic medium was studied using single-factor experiments and orthogonal experimental method. The results showed that the survival rate of D.bulbifera L. virus-free plantlet stems with a bud which cultured on 1/4MS medium containing 2.0 mg·L-1 KT, 0.5 mg·L-1 NAA, 30 g·L-1 sucrose, 20 g·L-1 mannitol and 4 mg·L-1 PP333 and stored at 25±1℃ temperature was over 90%. After morphological indexes measurement, physiological and biochemical indexes determination and RT-PCR analysis, the genetic variation and PVY of In vitro conservation D.bulbifera L. virus-free plantlets were not detected. The results provided a simple and effective way for In vitro conservation of D.bulbifera L. virus-free plantlets germplasm.
    Genetic Diversity and Genetic Differentiation for Paulownia fortunei Provenances
    MO Wen-Juan;YUAN De-Yi*;LI Fang-Dong;QIAO Jie;LI Rong-Xing;LUO Jian;WANG LU-Hong
    2011, 31(5):  585-591.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.013
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    Thirty-eight provenances of Paulownia fortunei were used to detect the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis. The results showed that: (1)A total 95 DNA fragments were amplified using 9 primers with unambiguous unique polymorphic bands screened from 100 ISSR primers, polymorphic loci of which were 88 (PPB=92.63%). (2)At the species level, the mean values of effective number of alleles (Ne) , Nei’s gene diversity index (H) and Shannon’s Information index (I) among provenances were 1.391 0, 0.242 4 and 0.376 5, respectively, the percentages of polymorphic loci (PPL) among different provenances were between 32.63% (Fuzhou, Jiangxi) and 56.84% (Wu Zhou, Guangxi and Jiu Jiang, Jiangxi) with an average of 47.16%; Gene flow among populations (Nm) was 0.912 7, the coefficient of population differentiation (Gst) was 0.353 9, which estimated that the genetic variation between provenances account for 35.39%, indicating that the genetic variation between provenances was higher than that of within provenances. (3)Genetic identity ranged from 0.39 to 0.82, reflecting the relatively wide genetic basis among P.fortunei provenances. Thirty-eight provenances of P.fortunei could be divided into 3 major groups obviously based on the UPGMA cluster analysis. A rotated PCoA plot with the markers as observations was constructed to determine 4 big groups. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) for ISSR data did not give the same result with the UPGMA cluster, the corresponding discussion was made in the paper. The test also illustrated that there was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among provenances.
    The Effects of Supplementary UV-B Radiation and Nitrogen Levels on the Growth and Physiological Metabolism of Catharanthus roseus
    GUO Xiao-Rui;WANG Hong-Ling;WANG Hua-Nan;DUAN Xi-Hua*
    2011, 31(5):  592-596.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.014
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    The increased UV-B radiation and nitrogen deposition have become two important environmental factors affecting plant growth. Here, a medical plant Catharanthus roseus was subjected to altered UV-B and nitrogen level to study their influence in a sole or combined way on growth and vinblastine production. Our results showed that the UV-B exerted an obviously adverse effect on plant growth and biomass accumulation. The UV-B stress also led to physiological damages, for instance, the elevated MDA content. The increased supply with nitrogen nutrition could largely alleviate the inhibitory effects and damage symptom induced by UV-B stress. The UV-B absorbing compounds were enhanced remarkably by the supplementary UV-B radiation, and it was increased further when the nitrogen nutrition were supplied. The vinblastine content was increased markedly in the supplementary UV-B radiation, and which were increased further when the nitrogen supply increased. It was concluded that an increased nitrogen supply could not only alleviate the inhibitory effect of UV stress on plant growth, but enhance vinblastine accumulation in plants. We proposed that enrichment of nitrogen nutrition provide more N source for alkaloid synthesis induced by UV-B radiation, eventually resulting in increased alkaloid content.
    Drought Resistance of Cinnamomum camphora Seedlings Inoculated with Different AM Fungi in Karst Soil
    HE Yue-Jun;ZHONG Zhang-Cheng*
    2011, 31(5):  597-602.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.015
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    Drought resistance of Cinnamomum camphora seedlings inoculated with different AM fungi (Glomus etunicatum and G.lamellosum) under drought stress in Karst soil was studied in this paper. The 80 d-old seedlings were exposed to four drought stress treatments of 60 days: severe (35%~45% of field capacity, FC), moderate (50%~60% of FC), mild (65%~75% of FC) and well watered (80%~90% of FC). Biomass accumulation of individual plants and osmoregulation in the leaves were measured in this paper. The results showed that: (1)Biomass of seedlings significantly increased after the AM fungus inoculation. The order of effects on biomass showed moderate>mild>well watered>severe in all water treatments, G.etunicatum>G.lamellosum as well. There were significant differences in seedlings biomass between well watered condition and severe water stress but not between moderate and mild water stress. (2)It represented a better mycorrhizal dependency of plants under moderate water stress compared with all the other water conditions while differences in dependency were significant under severe stress but the others were not, mycorrhizal dependency of C.camphora inoculted G.etunicatum was higher than G.lamellosum in all water treatments. (3)Compared with non-inoculated plants, concentration of soluble sugar, soluble protein and proline were higher while malondialdehyde was lower in leaves of inoculated plants. There was a tendency of G.lamellosum>G.etunicatum>ck for soluble sugar, soluble protein and proline in leaves under well watered condition, however it changed G.etunicatum>G.lamellosum>ck while water decreased. The concentration difference in malondialdehyde was not significant. However, it decreased rapidly in G.etunicatum compared to G.lamellosum while enhancing water stress. The ranks of malondialdehyde contents were G.etunicatum<G.lamellosum<ck with the enhancement of water stress. There were significant differences among three inoculation treatments under severe water stress. Analysis of correlations of metabolic substances showed that there was extremely significant correlation between soluble sugar and proline while significantly negative correlation between protein and malondialdehyde in host plants leaves. (4) The differentiation of AM fungus on drought resistance was distinct when water stress was aggravated. As a whole, drought resistance of G.etunicatum was better than G.lamellosum species in Karst area restoration.
    Population Structure and Spatial Distribution Pattern of Celtis sinensis in Fangshan of Nanjing
    JIN Ya-Qin;LI Dong-Lin;SUN Xiao-Long;LIU Ru
    2011, 31(5):  603-609.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.016
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    Using the contiguous grid quadrats, the population structure and distribution pattern of Celtis sinensis from Fangshan National Geology Park in Nanjing were studied. The results showed that: (1)The size class structure of the population was basically the same, i.e. the seedlings number of Ⅰ and Ⅱ classes was less, hence, the young seedlings reservoir was very few. The individual distribution of population was focused at Ⅲ and Ⅳ classes, the number over Ⅳ class reduced gradually. (2)From the static life table of the population, it was found that the mortality of Ⅰ and Ⅱ classes was negative because the seedlings number of Ⅰ and Ⅱ classes was less, and the mortality of Ⅶ and Ⅷ classes was the most. In most of the populations, the young trees were too few to provide enough recruitment, resulting in the ageing phenomena, and the population was declining. (3)The spatial pattern of seven sampling plots showed aggregative distribution through testing the cluster-intensity coefficient for instance K-value of negative binomial, dispersal index (C), index of dispersion pattern (Iδ), Cassie index (Ca), clumping index (I), index of mean crowding (m*) and index of patchiness (m*/m), but there were certain differences among seven sampling plots about their aggregative degrees.
    Wild Plant Resources in Ung Kong Islands,Hong Kong
    MENG Yu-Fang;WANG Fa-Guo;XING Fu-Wu;DAI Jian-Yue;*
    2011, 31(5):  610-617.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.017
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    According to the vegetation investigation and related references of Ung Kong islands in Hong Kong, plant resources of the islands were studied. The vegetation is not affected by human activities, wild resource utilization is not enough. The results showed a total of 166 vascular species, belonging to 138 genera and 69 families, including 10 species in 7 genera of 6 families of ferns, 2 species in 2 genera of 2 families of gymnosperms, and 160 species in 126 genera of 63 families of angiosperms. According to their economic utility, there were 103 medicinal plants, 107 ornamental plants, 21 edible plants, 23 forage and pasture plants, 17 timber plants, 22 oil plants, 25 aromatic plants, 13 textile plants, 11 tannic plants and 26 poisonous plants, which have high potential of development and utilization. On this basis, the vegetation and multiple plants resources were analyzed and suggestions were given, aiming at better conservation and sustainable utilization of the plants resources.
    Comparative Study on Ultrasonic Extraction and Solvent Reflux Extraction of Oil from Cucurbita moschata Kernels
    DU Xin-Xuan;ZU Yuan-Gang*;ZHAO Xiu-Hua;ZU Shu-Chong
    2011, 31(5):  618-622.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.018
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    Ultrasonic extraction and traditional reflux extraction of oil from Cucurbita moschata kernels were studied with orthogonal method. The influencing factors, including ratio of material to solvent, extraction time and ultrasonic power were researched in the experiment. The optimal conditions were obtained as follows: ratio of material to solvent 1∶15(w/v), extraction time 0.5 h and ultrasonic power 250 W, the yields of reflux extraction and optimum ultrasonic extraction were 49.9% and 50.8%, respectively. The oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The results indicated no obvious difference between two extracts, and the oil extracted by ultrasonic extraction had the lower acid value (1.51 mg·g-1) compared to reflux method (3.25 mg·g-1). The above results show that ultrasonic extraction is more convenient and time-saving, and the oil extracted by this method has the lower acid value.
    An Overview on the Potential Quaternary Glacial Refugia of Plants in China Mainland
    CHEN Dong-Mei;KANG Hong-Zhang;LIU Chun-Jiang*
    2011, 31(5):  623-632.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.019
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    The study on quaternary glacial refugia of plants is important to understand the current distribution pattern and future speciation of plants. This is one of the hot topics in global change ecology. In this paper, we briefed the glacial extent of the quaternary glaciations and the influences on the distribution of plants in China mainland. The features of potential quaternary glacial refugia of plants, in particular, biodiversity and the existence of relict species in some special localities in China mainland, were discussed. We also introduced the application of the fossil pollen records and molecular biology technology in identifying glacial refugia of plants and some important work made in China in this field. In this review, a comparison with work carried in other countries was also made with an aim at promoting the related studies in China.
    Progress on Plant Genes Involved in Biosynthetic Pathway of Anthocyanins
    SHI Shao-Chuan;GAO Yi-Ke*;ZHANG Xiu-Hai;SUN Jia-Qi;ZHAO Ling-Li;WANG Ye
    2011, 31(5):  633-640.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.05.020
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    Anthocyanins, responsible for a series of flower color changes from red to blue in most plants, are the principal pigment in flowers with important nutritional and medical usages. At present, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins is understood continuously, and many enzymes and genes are obtained. A lot of new transgenic plants with commercial values have been created. In this paper, the current advances in research of key genes in the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins are briefly reviewed and the progress on the application of these genes in plant genetic engineering is discussed. Prospectives of the study on the anthocyanins genes are elucidated in the end.