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    20 November 2012, Volume 32 Issue 6
    Developmental Anatomy of the Floral Nectaries in Salvia deserta Schang
    GOU Jun;WANG Hong*;ZHANG Wei-Hong;WANG Jiang
    2012, 32(6):  641-645.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.001
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    The floral nectary of Salvia deserta Schang from Xinjiang locates on the based ovary receptacle,which belongs to plate receptacle nectary. The top of the floral nectary is divided into 4 slices which differ in size distinctly.The nectary is composed of epidermis and nectariferous tissue belonging to structural nectary.Histochemistry staining shows obvious changes of starch grains,so the nectary also belongs to starch nectary.During the nectary development,there are obvious morphological changes of vacuole and obvious changes of starch grains and protein as well.However,no significant change of PAS reaction and Hematoxylin staining of lipids was observed.The pre-nectar comes from the adjacent phloem and then transports to nectariferous tissue by parenchyma cells.The nectar is gathered and synthesized in nectariferous tissue and is excreted from the epidermal cells and modified stoma at last.
    Cytology Research on the Flower and Embryo Development of Emmenopterys henryi Oliv
    LI Li-Ping;LI Zheng-Yan;WANG Yu-Bing;LIANG Hong-Wei;CHEN Fa-Ju*
    2012, 32(6):  646-650.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.002
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    Emmenopterys henryi Oliv, one of the China’s unique species, belongs to Rubiaceae. It is an endangered endemic single species genus plant. A detailed morphological description of megasporogenesis, microsporogenesis, and the development of the embryo in the rare endangered plant E.henryi is presented. The ovule is anatropous, single-integument, and crassinucellate. The megaspore mother cells undergo miosis and develop into a linear tetrad. The large one at chalazal end is functional megaspore and developed into a polygonum type of embryo sac after the third mitotic division. Each anther of E.henryi is with four sacs. The meioses of microspore mother cell is normal and cytokinesis is modified simultaneous type, and tetrads are tetrahedral. The pollen grains are monocolpate and two celled at shedding. The embryogeny passed through zygote, proembryo, globular embryo, heart and torpedo stages. When the seeds are ripe, embryo is not completely mature. Through the study we found that there is no abnormal phenomenon in the megasporogenesis, microsporogenesis process and the embryo stays in torpedo stage.
    Floral Organogenesis and Development of Impatiens longicornuta(Balsaminaceae)
    CAI Xiu-Zhen;LIU Ke-Ming*;CONG Yi-Yan
    2012, 32(6):  651-656.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.003
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    In the present study, the floral morphology and development patterns of Impatiens longicornuta Y. L. Chen (Balsaminaceae) has been examined under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for a better understanding of floral evolution in the genus. I.longicornuta is zygomorphic flower; lateral sepals 2; lower sepal deeply saccate, abruptly constricted into an incurved spur, mouth oblique, tip acuminate; upper petal cucullate, crista apically with a long cornu; stamens 5; ovary superior; gynoecium 5-carpellate, syncarpous. Initiation of five sepal primordial is not consistent in order. The order of initiation is from two lateral sepals to adaxial primordium and two anterolateral sepals. Their development is not synchronous also. The two anterolateral sepals stay rudimentary and disappear in later stages. The anterior petal arises firstly, and then the four lateral petal primordia are initiated in two successive pairs and fused at the base in later stages. Five stamen primordia initiate nearly at the same time. Five carpel primordia arise simultaneously in whorl. The perianth of Impatiens is pentamerous and the standard is not petal but sepal actually. The floral organogenesis data of I.longicornuta shows the important systematic and evolutional significance.
    Effect of Shading on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Saxifrage stolonifera Curt.
    HE An-Na;;LIN Wen-Qiang;YAO Yi
    2012, 32(6):  657-661.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.004
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    The effects of shading on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic physiology and chlorophyll fluorescence of Saxifrage stolonifera were study to provide a theoretical basis for large-scale cultivation of S.stolonifera. The results showed that, the contents of chlorophyll were enhanced, activity of antioxidant enzymes was the highest, light saturation point (LSP), maximum net photosynthetic rate (Amax) and the average diurnal variation was the highest without “siesta”, quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSⅡ), intrinsic photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) were enhanced, non-photochemical quenching (qN) was minimum in 50% light transmittance condition. This indicates the optimum light condition of S.stolonifera in the region of Huaihua is the transmittance of about 50%.
    Biological Characteristics of Artificial Planting 1-Year-Old Saussurea involucrate in Low Altitude Region
    NING Hui-Xia;Nurbolt;LIU Ming;WANG Hui;KANG Xi-Liang;WANG Xiao-Jun*
    2012, 32(6):  662-668.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.005
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    Our objective was to investigate the important biological characteristics of annual artificial planting Saussurea involucrate in low altitude region (567 m). We hope that these results can provide essential referential materials for the utilization and protection of this kind of resource. Experiment in the present research was carried out on the ecological adaptation of S.involucrate such as leaf number, leaf length, root length and single plant fresh weight of annual artificial plant in low altitude region. The characteristics of annual plant growth of S.involucrate in low altitude were that it grew slowly after being sowed 45 d, then became fast, and reached a moderate stable rate after 70 d. Its emergence rate could be improved by sowing with covered straw mat. Its growth had a great drought-enduring characteristic. Annual plant of S.involucrate could be cut twice, and its leaf length and leaf number could grow to the size of an original plant after cutting approximately in 20 d, but the plexus amplitude was significantly smaller. Its regeneration could be promoted by cutting, which was also helpful to avoid the high temperature weather and pest outbreaks.
    Effects of Endophyte-infected Leymus chinensis on Seed Germination of Stipa krylovii
    WU Lian-Jie;JING Yuan-Fang;REN An-Zhi*;GAO Yu-Bao
    2012, 32(6):  669-674.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.006
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    Leymus chinensis and Stipa krylovii, two dominant species in the Inner Mongolia Steppe, were used as the experimental materials. The aim of this study was to test whether endophyte infection of L.chinensis would influence seed germination of S.krylovii when treated with organs in vitro or the whole plant. The results showed that endophyte infection could change the effects of host plant L.chinensis on seed germination of S.krylovii, the effect was related to grass organs, treatment methods and concentrations. Compared with endophyte-free (E-) leaves, endophyte-infected (E+) green leaves significantly increased seed germination rate of S.krylovii in lower concentration while decreased radicle growth of S.krylovii in higher concentration. E+ dead leaves could reduce radicle growth of S.krylovii more than E- leaves while E+ rhizome increased the germination rate more than E- leaves. As for the whole plant, endophyte infection had no significant effect on seed germination of S.krylovii. When treated with the same concentration, grass powder exhibited a stronger reduction in seed germination and seedling growth than water extract, and green leaves exhibited a stronger reduction in seed germination and seedling growth than dead leaves.
    Allelopathic Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Platyciadus orientalis Different Organs on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Pinus tabulaeformis
    WANG Dong-Mei;LI Deng-Wu;CAO Zhe
    2012, 32(6):  675-679.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.007
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    Using petri dish bioassay, the allelopathic effects of roots, branches, leaves, seeds extracts and volatile oil of Platycladus orientalis were studied on the seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus tabulaeformis. The results showed that P.orientalis had allelochemicals, and all extracts had allelopathic effects on the seed gremination and seedling growth. Furthermore, the promotion effect of extracts on seedling growth at low concentration (2 mg·mL-1) was stronger than the inhibition at high concentration (30 mg·mL-1). The aqueous extracts of roots promoted the seedling root and shoot fresh weight growth by 79.78% and 376.60%, respectively at 2 mg·mL-1 concentration; The aqueous extracts of leaves exhibited the strongest promotion effect on the growth of seedlings by 102.41%; The aqueous extracts of branches exhibited the strongest promotion effect on the seed germination by 65.63%. On the contrary, all extracts had no obviously allelopathic effects at high concentration (30 mg·mL-1) except the roots and branches aqueous extracts on the seed germination (87.50%) and the growth of seedlings fresh weight (85.11%). The volatile oil of P.orientalis had significant promotion effect on the seed germination by 70.37%. It indicated that mixed planting P.orientalis and P.tabulaeformis in proper proportion and pattern could have promotion effect on the growth of P.tabulaeformis and forest production.
    Alleviation of SNP on Growth Inhibition and Root Oxidative Damage Caused by Lanthanum in Ryegrass Seedlings
    LIU Jian-Xin;WANG Rui-Juan;JIA Hai-Yan;
    2012, 32(6):  680-684.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.008
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    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to study the effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the growth and root reactive oxygen species metabolism in ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seedlings under 300 μmol·L-1 LaCl3 stress. The results showed that under the stress, spraying 50 μmol·L-1 SNP significantly inhibited the transportation of lanthanum (La) from root to shoot in ryegrass seedlings, alleviated the inhibition effect of La on the seedlings growth, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, significantly decreased peroxidase activity, the contents of reduced glutathione, proline, H2O2 and malondialdehyde, and O2 production rate as well as plasma membrane relative permeability in the seedling roots, but had no effect on catalase activity and ascorbic acid content. The results indicated that NO could alleviate the growth inhibition of ryegrass seedlings caused by high concentration La stress via adjusting the root reactive oxygen species metabolism.
    Tissue Culture and Plant Regeneration of Rumex gmelini Turcz.
    WU Bai-Yan;XIE Yan-Mei;WANG Zhen-Yue*
    2012, 32(6):  685-688.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.009
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    With the hypocotyls and seedling rhizomes of Rumex gmelini Turcz. as explants, the tissue culture of R.gmelini was studied by adding different concentrations of 6-BA and 2,4-D into MS basic mediums. The results showed that the better materials for multiple shoot clumps induction were seedling rhizomes; the best medium for multiple shoot clumps induction was MS+6-BA 3.0 mg·L-1+2,4-D 0.1 mg·L-1, the induction rate was 81.2%; the rooting medium was MS basic mediums without hormones, the rooting rate could get 92%, and under this conditions the plant regeneration could be obtained rapidly. After transplantation, about 80% of these seedlings could survive.
    Effect of Chitosan Coating on Seed Germination and Salt-tolerance of Brassica napus L.
    WANG Yan-Jun;WANG Mei-Yan;HUANG Rong-Rong
    2012, 32(6):  689-694.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.010
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    In this study, Brassica napus L. seeds was treated by different concentrations of chitosan coating and the effect on rape seed germination and seedling salinity tolerance at different concentrations of salt stress on seed germination was studied. The germination potential, germination rate, biomass (fresh weight, dry weight, root length, shoot length) were measured, and the chlorophyll content, contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar were analyzed. The results showed that chitosan coating could increase germination potential, germination rate, biomass, salttolerance index of rapeseed seedling, chlorophyll content, contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar. The promotion effect of 0.25 g·L-1 chitosan coating on seed germination was better, and 0.50 g·L-1 of chitosan coating could increase the salt tolerance of rape seedling better.
    Isolation and Homologous Genetic Transformation of DFR in Saussurea involucrata Kar.et Kir.
    QIN Jian-Bing;TANG Ya-Ping;ZENG Wei-Jun*
    2012, 32(6):  695-700.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.011
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    The dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) is an important enzyme in plant secondary metabolites and catalyzes the key step in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. DFR gene (GenBank Accession JN092126) was cloned from Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir. by RT-PCR and RACE. The cDNA sequence of DFR was consisted of 1 029 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 343 amino acid, the deduced DFR protein has high homology with S.medusa (92% identity). Homology analysis showed that deduced DFR protein has the special domain regioselectivity towards NADPH. DFR gene of S.involucrata was under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, homologous transformation was conducted using an Agrobacter-ium rihizogenes-mediated transformation system. The results of UV spectrophotometry showed that Sinvolucrata callus after suspension culture had an obviously higher average content of total flavonoids than non-transgenic callus. This study will improve the products of medicinal compositions and realize the synthesis of anthocyanins in S.involucrata.
    Correlation Analysis between Genome Size and Seed Characteristics in Poaceae Plants
    LI Gui-Shuang;CAO Bo;BAI Cheng-Ke*
    2012, 32(6):  701-706.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.012
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    The relationship between characteristics of genome size (ploidy, chromosome number, C-value and GS) and seed (1000-seed weight, oil content and protein content), which were searched from Plant C-value Database and Seed Mass Information Database, was analyzed by ANOVA and regression model for 282 species in Poaceae. The results showed that the C-value and 1000-seed weight changed from 0.35 to 19.7 pg and from 0.05 to 252 g, and the means were 4.14 pg and 7.1 g, respectively. With the ploidy increasing, the C-values increased significantly from diploid to octoploid, but the GS and mean DNA content of each chromosome decreased significantly from diploid to hexaploid (p<0.05). The C-value of Bromus and Festuca showed similar change as Poaceae, but GS did not decrease significantly. Linear correlation analysis showed that there were significantly positive correlations between C-value and ploidy, number of chromosome, GS and mean DNA content of each chromosome, but there were significantly negative correlations between GS and number of chromosome and ploidy (p<0.01). Regression analysis showed that there was significantly positive correlation between GS and 1000-seed weight (p<0.01), but there was almost no correlation between C-value and 1000-seed weight. There was significantly negative correlation between C-value and oil content of seeds, but no correlation between C-value and protein content. There was higher species in Poaceae increased their C-values primarily by ploidy doubling in the phylogeny and evolution history, but at the same time, the C-value was stopped to increase infinitely through reducing GS and mean DNA content. This study will give some reference to study the relationship between genome size evolution and plant phylogeny.
    Fruit Growth and Anatomical Characteristics of Calanthe tsoongiana T. Tang et F.T.Wang
    LIAN Jing-Jing;LI Quan-Jian;WANG Cai-Xia;LIU Fen;TIAN Min
    2012, 32(6):  707-711.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.013
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    The capsules of Calanthe tsoongiana T. Tang et F. T. Wang. in different development stages were collected and the growth dynamic of the fruits was studied. The anatomical development was observed by the method of paraffin sections. The results showed that the first 40 days is the fastest growth period of capsules. C.tsoongiana is tricarpellate, showing a pattern of six valves in cross section: three fertile and three sterile. The six half-carpels remain joined at the apex. The increase in the fruit diameter results mainly from cell division between valves and the increased volume of mesocarp cells and not from the number of cell layers. The volume of exocarp and endocarp remain unchanged in different development stages. In the mature fruit of C.tsoongiana, only a few cells show parietal thickening. The precursor cells of the dehiscence line become lignified on their cell walls in mature fruits, the fertile and sterile valves contract in opposite directions, resulting in a longitudinal rupture.
    Niche Analysis of Pinus tabulaeformis Community Dominant Species in Wulu Mountain Nature Reserve
    LIU Xiao-Ning;ZHANG Qin-Qi;YAN Ming;MIAO Yan-Ming;LI Xiao-Li;BI Run-Cheng*
    2012, 32(6):  712-716.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.014
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    According to the data of 57 plots, Pinus tabulaeformis community from Wulu Mountain Nature Reserve was classified by TWINSPIN cluster analysis. Shannon-Wiener, Hurbert niche width and niche overlap of Morisita Index of the type of tree and shrub were calculated by utilizing the type of association as a resource axis. The results showed that P.tabulaeformis, Quercus wutainnesis and Acer ginnala had larger Shannon-Wiener values which were 1.656, 1.404 and 1.047, respectively and Hurbert niche width values were 0.948, 0.735 and 0.386, respectively, in the tree layer. Cotoneaster multiflorus, Spiraea pubescens, and Viburnum schensianum had larger Shannon-Wiener values which were 1.562, 1.401 and 1.300, respectively and Hurbert niche breadth values were 0.512, 0.447 and 0.389, respectively, in the shrub layer. The niche overlapping of tree layer included three degrees which consisted of high overlap, moderate overlap and low overlap, high overlap accounted for 6% (>0.8), moderate overlap accounted for 10% (0.6-0.8) and low overlap accounted for 84%. Besides, the niche overlapping of shrub layer also included three degrees which consisted of high overlap, moderate overlap and low overlap, high degree overlap accounted for 7% (>0.8), moderate overlap accounted for 10.39% (0.6-0.8), and low overlap accounted for 82.25%. As succession proceeding, P.tabuliformis had higher adaptability and the ability of using resources, and lower inter-specific competition in the local environment. However, the niches of some species obviously tended to specialize, the community was in the polled stage.
    Effects of Cd,Zn and Their interactions on Accumulation,Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms of Heavy Metals in Spartina alterniflora
    PAN Xiu;SHI Fu-Chen*;LIU Li-Min;CHAI Min-Wei;LIU Fu-Chun
    2012, 32(6):  717-723.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.015
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    A pot culture experiment was carried out to study the effects of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) singly and in combination on the accumulation, subcellular distribution of Cd and Zn in Spartina alterniflora, and the chemical forms of Cd and Zn in leaves of S.alterniflora were also determined. The results showed that the content of Cd in shoots and roots of S.alterniflora under Cd-Zn treatment was significantly higher than Cd treatment. Cd content in roots was significantly lower under Cd-Zn treatment than Zn treatment, while there was no significant difference for shoots. These results showed that Zn accelerated the uptake of Cd, while Cd restained the uptake of Zn. Cd accumulation was significantly higher in shoots under Cd-Zn treatment than Cd treatment, while the trend was opposite in roots. Zn accumulation was greatly higher in shoots and roots under Zn treatment than control and Cd-Zn treatment. Cd was mainly accumulated in cell wall under Cd treatment, while it was mainly accumulated in cytoplasmic supernatant under Cd-Zn treatment. Zn was mainly accumulated in cytoplasmic supernatant under Zn and Cd-Zn treatments, and the subcellular distribution of Zn presented the following order: cytoplasmic supernatant>cell wall>cell organelle. These results indicated an interaction between Cd and Zn at subcellular level. Most of the Cd and Zn in leaves of S.alterniflora was extracted by 1 mol·L-1 NaCl, indicating most Cd and Zn was integrated with pectates and protein.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of BnHMGB2 Gene in Brassica napus
    ZHANG Teng-Guo;WANG Juan;WANG Yuan-Yuan;WANG Ning;CHANG Yan;ZHANG Yan;CHEN Qiong-Qiong;SUN Wan-Cang
    2012, 32(6):  724-730.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.016
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    A new cDNA BnHMGB2 was isolated from Brassica napus long you6 by RACE. The cloned full-length cDNA was 823 bp, contained a 438 bp ORF, a 5′untranslated region (5-UTR) of 131 bp, and a 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of 253 bp. The nucleotide sequence of BnHMGB2 was 87.4% identical with the Arabidopsis thaliana AtHMGB2, so it was named BnHMGB2(GenBank accession: JN807314). BnHMGB2 encoded a protein of 145 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of about 15.9 KDa and with a PI of 5.63. Analysis by real-time RT-PCR indicated that BnHMGB2 was expressed in root, stem, leaf and hypocotyl of B.napus and relatively higher abundance was observed in root tissue. Sequence analysis indicated that the BnMKK2 protein exhibited closest homology to MAPKK which is responded to cold stress, and BnHMGB2 played an important role in defending cold stress.
    Cloning,Sequence Analysis and Prokaryotic Expression of an Alcohol Acyltransferase(AAT) Gene in Tomato(Solanum lycopersicum)
    CAO Ying;HU Shang-Lian;ZHANG Hui-Ying;TANG Xiao-Feng;LIU Yong-Sheng
    2012, 32(6):  731-736.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.017
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    Volatile esters are important aromatic compounds accumulated in many ripe fruits. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) plays a key role in the formation of volatile esters. In the present study, a full-length cDNA sequence homologous with other plant AAT genes was isolated by RT-PCR from tomato ripe fruit, and named as SlAAT1(GenBank Accession No.JN398667). Results of sequence analyses showed SlAAT1 encodes a 442-amino acid protein, which exhibits conserved features of the BAHD family of acetyl transferase, such as HxxxD and DFGWG motifs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SlAAT1 is very closely related to the apple MpAAT1, Clarkia breweri BEBT, and tobacco Hsr201. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coil BL21 (DE3) to express the SlAAT1-His6 protein in the optimized condition (22℃, 0.8 mmol·L-1 IPTG). The purified recombinant SlAAT1 protein was shown to have acetyltransferase activity, suggesting its role in volatile ester formation.
    Isolation and Expression of Flowering Locus T(FT) Gene in Betula platyphylla
    MA Li-Li;QIU Li-Li;FU Yang-Wei;JING Rui-Rui;LIU Xue-Mei*
    2012, 32(6):  737-743.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.018
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    Flowering Locus T (FT) gene and its homologues play an important role in promotion flowering plants and changes in developmental stage. The full cDNA of FT gene was isolated from Betula platyphylla Suk. by methods of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Results showed that FT gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 525 bp encoding 174 amino acids. Molecular weight of the deduced protein of BplFT is 19.6 kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point is 7.73. The FT conserved protein domain of PEBP was confirmed in the sequence, so the isolated gene was named as BplFT, and registered in GenBank with accession number JQ409561. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 74%-93% of identity with other sixteen plant species, the maximum identity was with Ficus carica(93%) and minimum identity with Arabidopsis thaliana(74%). A phylogenetic tree was constructed according to multiple sequences alignment of all the seventeen plant species. Transcription expression of BplFT was analyzed by qRT-PCR in different tissues and periods in B.platyphylla. Results showed that BplFT was more highly expressed in vegetative organs than in floral organs, expression quantity was higher in mature tissues than in young tissues, the highest expression is in mature stem. It inferred that BplFT gene play an important role in mature tissues development and transfactor may involved in the formation of secondary cell wall in Betula. In addition, a natural male inflorescence-abnormal mutant of B.platyphylla was used for transcription analysis of BplFT. Results showed that BplFT gene is expressed up-regulatedly in female inflorescences, male inflorescences, young leaves and young shoots, which predicted that BplFT should not only be involved in the development of vegetative tissues, but also play some roles in the development of floral organs.
    Response of AtsHsp17.6-CⅠ and AtsHsp17.6-CⅡ of Arabidopsis thaliana L. to Abiotic Stress
    ZENG Wei-Jun;YUAN Hui;QIN Jian-Bing*
    2012, 32(6):  744-749.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.019
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    Small heat shock proteins are main products of plants under heat shock stress and have close relationships to the thermotolerance of plant cells. It was showed that two small heat shock protein genes of Arabidopsis thaliana L., AtsHsp17.6-CⅠ and AtsHsp17.6-CⅡ also can be induced by other heavy metal ions, such as Ni+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Al3+, etc. Osmotic and oxidative stress can also induce their expression. Two kinds of constructions with the two genes under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were induced into the genome of A.thaliana L. respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the constitutive expression of the two genes in transgenic plants. It was showed that AtsHsp17.6-CⅡ gene was over-expressed in A.thaliana, the transgenic plants have acquired stress-tolerance to 6 μmol·L-1 Cd2+ and 0.4% NaCl. Thus, they appear to play major role in maintaining cell function and survival during multiple stress or facilitating recovery from stress.
    Monitoring the Vegetation Recovery at Landslides along the Minjiang River Valley after 5.12 Earthquake using NDVI:a Case Study of the Yingxiu-Wenchuan Section
    XU Ji-Ceng;LU Tao;SHI Fu-Sun;TANG Bin*;MU Nan
    2012, 32(6):  750-755.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.020
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    The Wenchuan Earthquake (Richter scale 8) on May 12, 2008 caused widespread ecosystem damages in the Minjiang River Basin. It is important to evaluate the natural vegetation recovery process and provide basic information on ecological aspects of the recovering environment after the earthquake. To circumvent weather limits of remote sensing and to meet the need for regional observation analyses, three Landsat TM images pre- and post-earthquake in the Minjiang arid valley were used for analysis. The post-earthquake vegetation cover values were compared to the pre-earthquake value to determine the extent to which the vegetation was damaged in relation to the pre-earthquake pattern, and the rate of recovery was evaluated. Spatial characteristics of vegetation loss and natural recovery pattern were analyzed in relation to elevation, slope and aspect. The results showed that (1) the landslides caused by the earthquake was 5 413.95 hm2, accounted for 34.74% of the total area; (2) there is a good correlation between recovery rate and both slope and elevation; (3) after three years, the average vegetation recovery rate reached 66.71%. Our study also showed that there was a high congruency between recovery rate and both slope and elevation, and the recovery patterns were complicated.
    Microwave-assisted Extraction of Genistein from Pigeon Pea[Cajanus cajan(L.) Millsp.] Roots
    PENG Xiao;DUAN Ming-Hui;PAN You-Zhi;ZHANG Dong-Yang;DUAN Xi-Hua;*
    2012, 32(6):  756-759.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.021
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    Based on the preliminary experiments, a three-variable, three-level Box-Behnken design was performed to study microwave-assisted extraction of genistein from the roots of pigeon pea. The optimum parameters were as follows: extraction temperature 68 ℃, liquid/solid ratio 32∶1 mL·g-1, ethanol concentration 78%, extraction power 700 W and extraction time 15 min. Under the optimal conditions, the average extraction yield of genistein was 0.465±0.032 mg·g-1. This study is significant for the application of microwave extraction technology and utilization of the pigeon pea root.
    Research Progress of Phenol-formaldehyde Resin
    ZHANG Xue-Ke;LIU Wen-Jun;ZHU Ming-Hua*;ZHANG Bao-You;MENG Ling-Jun;XIANG Feng-Ying;GAO Yue;
    2012, 32(6):  760-764.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.022
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    The development history, species, the synthesis mechanism and progress of phenol-formaldehyde resin were summarized. Because lignin molecule has phenolic hydroxyl group and aldehyde group, the use of lignin can not only improve the adhesive properties, but also reduce the dosage of phenol and formaldehyde emission. The purposes of waste utilization and the environmental protection are achieved by this method. The research progress of new modified phenol-formaldehyde resin was mainly discussed, especially for lignin modified phenol-formaldehyde resin. The development trend and prospect of new type phenol-formaldehyde resin composite were forecasted.
    Optimization of Cellulase-assisted Extraction Process of Total Flavonoids from Pigeon Pea Leaves Using Response Surface Methodology
    WANG Qiu-Xue;GU Cheng-Bo;*;FU Li-Nan;LI Wang;YUAN Xiao-Han;ZU Yuan-Gang;FU Yu-Jie;
    2012, 32(6):  765-769.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2012.06.023
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    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the cellulase-assisted extraction process of total flavonoids (TF) from pigeon pea leaves. The amount of enzyme, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature, time and pH were selected as influencing factors and TF yield as the response value based on single factor trials. The experiment mathematical model was established according to Box-Behnken central composite experiment design and was analyzed by RSM. The results showed the optimal extraction conditions were as follows:enzyme amount 8.65 mg, extraction temperature 33.88℃, extraction time 2.02 h and extraction pH 5.02. The predicted value of TF yield was 4.86% under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value was 4.88%. The optimal extraction conditions were stable and reliable, and would provide experimental basis for the future development of TF in pigeon pea leaves.