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    20 July 2013, Volume 33 Issue 4
    Biosystematic Relationships and Leaf Anatomical Characteristics of Plants of Three Genera in Hordeinae(Poaceae)
    SU Xu;LIU Yu-Ping;CHEN Ke-Long;
    2013, 33(4):  385-390.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.001
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    The transverse sections of leaf blades of the major species of Psathyrostachys, Critesion and Hordelymus in Hordeinae were examined. The result shows: (1)The leaf blade consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular bundle, which is isobilateral leaf. It belongs to the typical festucoid type. Namely, shape, magnitude and arrangement of lower epidermises are symmetrical, while those of upper epidermises are asymmetric. The mesophyll is not distinguished into palisade tissue and spongy tissue. They have double layer bundle sheath. The ambient mesophyll cells arranged irregularly and sclerenchyma is joined to epidermis. There are also obvious differences existing on the transverse section characteristics of leaf blades including protuberant extent of upper epidermises, thickness of cell-walls in lower epidermises, thickness between the strands in middle part of mesophyll, number of vascular bundles, midrib diameter in horizontal, etc. (2)According to the evolutionary trends of transverse section characteristics of three genera, their evolutionary positions and relationships were inferred. The results show that Psathyrostachys is the most primitive one among these three genera, Critesion is slightly more advanced than the former, and Hordelymus is the most advanced of them; Psathyrostachys might produce immediately Critesion, whereas Hordelymus might derive immediately form Critesion. The biosystematic relationships of these three genera are corroborated by the evolutionary trend of external morphology.
    Species Diversity of Floor Bryophytes in Different Vegetations in Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve,Beijing,China
    TIAN Ye-Lin;WANG Wen-He;YAN Ting-Yu;LI Jun-Qing
    2013, 33(4):  398-403.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.003
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    By means of species similarity coefficient and species diversity index, the characteristics of species diversity of floor bryophytes in the Baihua Mountain National Nature Reserve in Beijing were studied. The results showed that there were 65 floor species (including subspecies and varieties) belonging to 31 genera of 13 families. Species composition, dominant families and dominant species were different in 8 kinds of vegetation, Pottiaceae and Bryaceae were the absolute families in meadow and shrub, but the Entodontaceae was the most common family in forest vegetation. The species similarity between Pinus tabulaeformis forest and deciduous broadleaved forest was the highest (0.516 3), but meadow and Vitex negundo shrub between mostly forest vegetation were zero. The growth base was the most important environment factor related to the distribution of floor bryophytes, and the humidity, herbage coverage, litter coverage were also related to the distribution of the bryophytes on floor. Betula platyphylla forest and deciduous broadleaved forest were the center of bryophyte diversity and the key area for the bryophyte diversity conversation.
    Anatomical Structure of Vegetative Organs of Phalaris arundinacea L. in Relation to Drought Resistance,Waterlogging Resistance and Use Value
    Si-riguleng;WANG Ming-Jiu*;E-erdunhua
    2013, 33(4):  391-397.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.002
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    Paraffin wax section technique was applied for microscopic observation of vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf), to study the drought and waterlogging resistance and use value of Phalaris arundinacea L. The results showed that the structure of the root, from outside to inside, was as follows: epidermis, cortex, bundle sheath, primary phloem and primary xylem. Stem was composed of epidermis, ground tissues and vascular bundles. Leaf was composed of epidermis, mesophyll cells and veins. Good ventilation organization visible in root cortex cell gaps and air cavity, primary xylem epigenetic catheter and medullary cavity were the main microscopic characteristics of waterlogging resistance. The hornificated epidermis of stem and leaves and its abundant bulliform cell groups were the main anatomical structure reasons for drought resistance. Tightly arranged mesophyll cells which contained large amounts of chloroplasts reduced transpiration and enhanced photosynthesis to ensure plant’s photosynthesis even under drought conditions. A large numbers of wood fibers in vascular bundles of stem and leaves which support the plant, were major microscopic characteristics of trampling resistance. There were large areas of sclerenchyma cells in root epidermis and vascular tissues. Stem ground tissues and vascular bundles and leaves veins which were abundant in lignin and cellulose are the necessary characteristics of a new bioenergy plant.
    Profiles of Purine Metabolism and Purine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Schima and Eurya Plants
    DENG Wei-Wei;JIN Yang;YUAN Yan;ZHANG Zheng-Zhu*
    2013, 33(4):  410-415.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.005
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    The metabolic fate of [8-14C] adenine and [8-14C] xanthine was examined in leaves of Schima mertensiana and Eurya japonica which produce small amounts of caffeine and theophylline. The profiles of purine metabolism in Schima and Eurya plants are similar. In both species, the radioactivity from [8-14C] adenine was incorporated into purine nucleotides, RNA, ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid) and CO2. Only 6%-7% of the radioactivity taken up by the leaf disks was incorporated into methylxanthines (3-methylxanthine, 7-methylxantosine, 7-methyxanthine and theophylline) after 24 h incubation. Like other plant species, almost all radioactivity from [8-14C]xanthine was incorporated into the purine catabolites (CO2 and ureides), only small amounts of radioactivity were found in 3-methylxanthine and theophylline. We conclude that Schima and Eurya plants have N-methyltransferase activity for caffeine and theophylline biosynthesis, even though the activity is very low. The profiles of purine metabolism and purine alkaloid biosynthesis in Schima and Eurya plants were discussed.
    Effect of Organic and Inorganic Carbon on Extracellular Enzyme Activity of Acid Phosphatase and Proteases in Three Kinds of Fungal Hyphae
    LI Yan-Hong;JIANG Yong;WANG Wen-Jie;ZHANG Bao-You*
    2013, 33(4):  404-409.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.004
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    Most researches have manifested that mycorrhizal fungi can promote plant nutrient absorption and improve plant growth, but the effects of the hyphae on soil nutrient exploitation were less reported. Through laboratory control test of 3 kinds of fungi, Lactarius deliciosus, Russula integra and Gomphidius viscidus in this paper, N, P related extracellular enzymes exuding from variable fungal hyphaes (acid phosphatase and proteases) was found. In most cases, each enzymatic activity of these 2 enzymes was the highest in 2 weeks culture in MMN medium, while short (one week) or long (3 weeks) may reduce their activities. However, different fungus significantly differed in the enzyme activity, and G.viscidus had the lowest activity of acid phosphatase, while the highest in protease activity. No significant difference was found in the other two fungus; Secondly, addition of organic carbon (humic acid, HA) and inorganic carbon (calcium carbonate) could significantly affect the activities of acid phosphatase and protease. When HA was added, the activity of acid phosphatase steadily increased in 3 fungus, while fungusspecific patterns were found in protease activity, i.e., continuous increasing activity of protease in L.deliciosus protease was observed, while less HA-sensitivity was found in R. integr and G.viscidus; Thirdly, small amount of calcium carbonate addition could enhance the exudation of these two enzymes of acid phosphatase and protease, while adding more may reduce the enzymatic activities (e.g. 0.1 g). To sum up, fungal hyphaes can secrete acidic phosphatase and acid protease, and these enzymes may promote the activation of ineffective organic P and N and enhance plant growth. Soil organic carbon accumulation and depletion of inorganic carbon could directly increase the extracellular enzyme secretions of all tested fungal hyphae, showing the function of hyphae in soil carbon cycle.
    Relationship between Crown Diameter and Diameter at Breast Height of Cunninghamia lanceolata Scenery and Recreation Forest
    MEI Guang-Yi;SUN Yu-Jun*;XU Hao
    2013, 33(4):  416-420.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.006
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    The aim of this study is to provide scientific basis for intermediate cutting by determining standard density (stem number) of Chinese fir scenery and recreation forest. Thirty nine sample plots and 2 906 trees of Chinese fir plantation in Jiangle national forest in Fujian province were measured to build crown diameter and diameter at breast height (DBH) and their relationship and analyze the application of the relationship in the forest space, stand density and thinning intensity. The results showed that: the correlation coefficient (R2) is 0.919 5 among 2-43 cm DBH, which was significantly linear. The simulation accuracy among 2-35 cm DBH was high, but among 35-43 cm DBH was low. The analytical result of cd/D in firs of various sizes showed that cd/D decreased gradually with the increase of DBH, and it would finally tend to be a constant.
    Evolution and Function Analysis of miR396 Gene Family
    ZHAI Jun-Miao;LUAN Yu-Shi*;CUI Juan-Juan
    2013, 33(4):  421-428.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.007
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    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding RNAs with about 22 nucleotides emerging as a key regulator of gene activity at post-transcriptional level in eukaryotic cells. They negatively target mRNA that containing highly complementary sequences by either cleavage or translational repression. In this study, we analyzed the miR396 gene family in miRBase by utilizing bioinformatics methods. The results showed that miR396 was quite conserved in plant; it originated from ancient ancestor and experienced significant complex evolution; target prediction indicated miR396 mainly regulated GRF. Promoter analysis identified many stress-related cis-acting elements in the upstream region of miR396 genes, such as light, heat, anoxic, hormone, drought and biotic responses, which can bind transcription factors and participate in the regulatory activities of miR396 during stress. Our survey established foundation for deeply elucidate the regulatory mechanism of miRNA.
    Geographical Distribution Pattern of Racomitrium(Grimmiaceae,Bryophyta) in the World and Its Evolutionary Significance
    XU Ming;YU Jing*;GUO Shui-Liang;CAO Tong
    2013, 33(4):  441-447.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.010
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    Based on the distribution data of 84 species of the genus Racomitrium in 20 geographical unites (suggested by “Index Muscorum”)in the world, Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and 3-Dimensional scatter plots were applied to study the distribution pattern of the genus. The results showed that 20 geographical units in relation to the distribution of Racomitrium in the world could be divided into north hemisphere region and south hemisphere region. The north hemisphere region (mainly from Laurasia) includes Am.1, Eur., As.1, As.2, As.3, As.5, Afr.1 and Oc., while the south region (mainly from Gondwana) includes Am.2, Am.3, Am.4, Am.5, Am.6, Afr.2, Afr.3, Afr.4, Austr.1, Austr.2, As.4, Ant.. The floristic characteristics of the two regions were also analyzed. The results show that the flora of the genus Racomitrium between North and South Hemispheres are obviously different. The groups of Niphotrichum and Codriophorus with lamina papillae mainly distributed in the North Hemisphere, and the taxa of the genus without lamina papillae widely distributed on both the hemispheres. Based on the distribution patterns of the genus Ptychomitrium in the world, the origination of the genus was also speculated, and it is possible that the genus Racomitrium originated before the division of the Pangaea, and the ancestors of Racomitrium are those without laminal papilliae.
    Reproductive Ecology of the Distylous Species of Polygonum jucundum
    CUI Mei-Chen;LÜFeng-Jü;CHEN Ming-Lin*
    2013, 33(4):  429-434.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.008
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    Polygomum jucundum has typical herkogamy phenomenon. In this paper, the numbers of the pins and thrums, the differences in height of stigma and anther; as well as the seedsetting percentage were statisticed in certain regions of Anhui province. Meanwhile, the morphs ratio was observed; and aniline bule staining technique was used to identify self-incompatibility of pins and thrums. The results showed that (1) the two morphs ratio is 1∶1; (2) the setting percentage of pins is higher than thums; (3) the pollen can germinate on stigma by self-pollination, but the tube cannot reach the ovary.
    Observation on Spatial Structure of Rhizophora stylosa Prop Roots in Techeng Island
    ZHOU Yuan-Man;HUNG Jian-Jian;WANG Ping;LIU Zhi-Mei;LIU Mei-Xin;HAN Wei-Dong
    2013, 33(4):  435-440.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.009
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    The objective of this study is to investigate the spatial structure of Rhizophora stylosa prop roots in different community types in terms of 3 parameters of the uniform angle index, neighborhood comparison and nearest neighbor by setting the location of R.stylosa prop roots. The results showed that the average uniform angle indices of R.stylosa pure forest, R.stylosa+Avicennia marina and R.stylosa+Bruguiera gymnoihiza savigny mixed forests were 0.772, 0.692 and 0.636, respectively, which were larger than the values of 0.475-0.517 when they are arranged evenly which showed the aggregated distribution pattern. The diameter neighborhood comparison and height neighborhood comparison of R.stylosa prop roots were all around 0.5. By analyzing R.stylosa prop roots and their close prop roots, the main brace roots and minor brace roots were distributed uniformly according to the diameter neighborhood comparison. There was a good uniform in evaluating the growth potential of R.stylosa prop roots and their close prop roots in terms of the diameter neighborhood comparison and height neighborhood comparison. R.stylosa prop roots in 3 community types had the nearest neighbors of 2.83, 1.00 and 2.24 cm, and the average neighbors of 10.54, 9.07 and 8.63 cm, respectively. The determination of the spatial relationship between R.stylosa prop roots and their close prop roots has positive effects on the efficient protection of R.stylosa.
    Primary Study on Antheridiogen System of Dryopteris uniformis
    SONG Pei-Lan;ZHOU Shi-Yun;CAO Jian-Guo;DAI Xi-Ling*
    2013, 33(4):  448-453.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.011
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    This paper mainly studies the antheridiogen system of Dryopteris uniformis, which affecting the spore germination and gametophyte development of D.uniformis and Ceratopteris thalictroides. The result shows that: the gametophytes of D.uniformis can form antheridiogen, which could restrain the spore germination percentage of its own species. The restraining action of antheridiogen to the spore germination becomes stronger as the gametophyte grows more mature. Antheridiogen of D.uniformis can promote male gametophyte formation of itself. In the light, the antheridiogen of D.uniformis have no obvious influence on spore germination and gametophyte promotes C.thalictroides. However, in the dark situation, the antheridiogen of D.uniformis promotes spores to germinate much earlier. However, it does not make any influence on its ultimate germination percentage and sex differentiation. The present study indicated that the antheridioen system of D.uniformis differs from that of C.thalictroides.
    Interspecific Association of Dominant Species of Amaranthus retroflexus L. Community
    ZHAO Cai-Li;ZHANG Feng;PANG Chun-Hua*;WANG Hui-Min;FAN Xiao
    2013, 33(4):  454-460.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.012
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    Based on the data of 95 plots obtained from investigation, by using χ2-test for 2×2 contingency table, Pearson coefficient and Spearman rank coefficient, the interspecific association and correlation among 300 species-pairs of 25 dominant plant species of Amaranthus retroflexus L. community in Shanxi were analyzed. The results indicated that: 1)The plant community was negative association, the structure of the community was scattered, few species pairs showed significant or highly significant association. 2)Only combine χ2-test with correlation index can reflect the interspecific relationship more accurately. 3)Spearman rank correlation coefficient was more sensitive. Compared with χ2-test and Pearson correlation coefficient, the result of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was more reasonable. 4)According to the adaptability to the environment and the relationships between plants and environment, 25 species were divided into four ecological species groups, with the same resource utilization ways and ecological requirements of the species in each group.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of SikGLP Gene in Sasussured involucrata Kar. et Kir
    LIU Chao;ZHANG Lin-Hua;QIU Hong-Lin;WANG Ai-Ying;HU Yuan-Lei;ZHU Jian-Bo*
    2013, 33(4):  461-467.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.013
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    A novel germin-like protein gene clone was analyzed from a cDNA library of Sasussured involucrate, named SikGLP. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the SikGLP gene contains a 633 bp open reading frame encoding 210 amino acids with a theoretical molecular mass of 21.6 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.81. SikGLP was a hydrophobic protein and contained a signal peptide. Multiple sequence alignment of GLP proteins revealed that the GLP gene shares high identities in sequence, and possesses typical characteristics of plant germin-like proteins. Phylogenetic analysis among 17 species indicated that SikGLP was clustered with Vitis vinifera. Real time-PCR analysis showed that the expression of SikGLP gene by low temperature, MV and PEG stresses. It may plays a role in improving resistance capacity of early stress.
    Simultaneous Determination of 4 Flavonoids in Extracts of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaves by HPLC
    ZHANG Xue-Ke;MA Chun-Hui;YANG Lei*;MENG Qing-Huan;WANG Hong-Zheng;ZU Yuan-Gang
    2013, 33(4):  490-493.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.017
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    In this study, 4 flavonoids in Phyllostachys pubescens extracts i.e. orientin, vitexin, vitexin-4′-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2′-O-rhamnose glycoside were simultaneously detected. The HPLC detected conditions were as follows: Kromasil-C18 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm×250 mm, Akzol Nobel, Sweden), mobile phase was tetrahydrofuran∶acetonitrile∶methanol∶0.5% aqueous acetic acid (10.3∶1∶0.7∶88), isocratic elution, the detection wavelength was 360 nm, column temperature was 25℃, and 1.0 mL·min-1 flow velocity. The average recoveries of orientin, vitexin, vitexin-4′-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2′-O-rhamnose glycoside were 98.5%, 98.1%, 99.1%, and 98.7%, respectively. The relative standard deviations were 0.8%, 0.7%, 0.8% and 0.6%(n=5), respectively. This HPLC method has been proved to be a method with high efficiency, rapid analysis, high sensitivity and good reproducibility for detection of flavonoids in P.pubescens extracts.
    Provenance Selection of Juglans mandshurica Maxim. and the Effects of Environmental Factors
    YUAN Xian-Lei;QI Yong-Hui;LIU Zhong-Ling;ZHOU Zhi-Jun;MAO Zi-Jun*
    2013, 33(4):  468-476.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.014
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    A selective experiment on 13 Juglans mandshurica provenances was conducted in Linkou and Xinglong of Heilongjiang province by investigating the growth of one-year-old seedlings. The results showed significant differences in height and basal diameter growth of the provenances in the two test-sites. The excellent provenances adapted to Linkou area was Suiyang, Helong, Maoershan and Huinan. The excellent provenances were Fusong, Helong, Xinglong and Suiyang in Xinglong area. There was a significant correlation between the seed diameter and basal diameter growth of J.mandshurica in Linkou area. It could be regarded as the index of reflecting the basal diameter growth. The relationship between the growths of seed and seeding could be best described by the linear model. The correlations between the one-year-old seedlings growth of J.mandshurica and the main environmental factors of 13 provenances as well as two test-sites were analyzed. The results showed the height of one-year-old seedlings has a significantly negative correlation with the latitude and the annual temperature of locations. The provenances of J.mandshurica may be appropriately planting northwards.
    Effects of Roadside Slope Gradient on Plant Diversity during Revegetation
    LI Cheng-Jun;SUN Qi;CHEN Zhang;PANG Liang;HU Xing;LONG Feng*
    2013, 33(4):  477-483.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.015
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    For the purpose of determining the effects of slope gradient on its plant community diversity, some investigations were conducted with the Line Transect Method in 2010 along five roads surrounding Chengdu city. A total of 101 slope quadrats were investigated. These slopes have an altitude between 300-400 m and the same soil texture. The results showed that: (1)within the quadrats, there were 142 species of plants, belonging to 61 families and 121 genera. Sixteen genera and 19 species belonged to Compositae; Gramineae had 14 genera and 16 species; Leguminosae consisted of 9 genera and 11 species; Rosaceae had 4 genera and 7 species. These four families totally had 43 genera and 53 species, which account for 37% of the total species; (2)slope gradient had significant effect (P<0.05) on the species diversity of shrub and herb layer of both sunny and shady slopes; (3)community evenness index of shady slope was significantly influenced by slope gradient (P<0.05); to the richness of sunny slope community, its influence was significant. Analysis showed that the influence of gradient on the community diversity of roadside slopes surrounding the Chengdu Plain was significant; on the slopes where gradients were below 35°, vegetation community recovered well and the diversity of community was high; when the gradient was above 35°, diversity indexes declined rapidly, which made vegetation restoration harder.
    Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of in vitro Release of Folate-Conjugated Carboplatin and Paclitaxel -loaded Bovine Serum Albumin Tumor-targeting Nanoparticles
    SHAN Chang;ZU Yuan-Gang*;ZHAO Xiu-Hua;SANG Mei
    2013, 33(4):  484-489.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.016
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    Paclitaxel under the trade name Taxol, is a natural compounds isolated and purified from the trees of the Taxus(Taxaceae L.) belonging to taxus(Taxus L.). Paclitaxel and carboplatin are anti-cancer drugs currently with high clinical utility rates, which often used in combination on the clinical treatment of different types of cancer. Coupling folic acid in bovine serum albumin as a drug carrier, surface coating using nano-particle and solvent technology, folate-targeted carboplatin-paclitaxel albumin nanoparticles were prepared, and the in vitro release properties of targeted drug were studied. Research results are as follows: the mean grain size of carboplatin-paclitaxel albumin nanoparticles was 199.4 nm, the zeta electric potential was -30.90 mV; the envelope rates were 91.4% for carboplatin and 56.1% for paclitaxel, respectively; the drug loading capacity was 21%. It was proven that within 12 h a good stability was maintained through the reconstitution of the fa-carboplatin-paclitaxel albumin nanoparticles. In addition, the folic acid-carboplatin-paclitaxel albumin nanoparticles showed an evident slow-release effect as compared with the carboplatin and paclitaxel original powder, the in vitro release time was up to 120 h.
    Induction of Defensive Enzymes in Leaves of Rosa rugosa ‘plena’ by Mechanical Wounding
    YAN Jun-Xin;GUAN Hua-Nan;CHI De-Fu*;ZHANG Yong-Qiang;ZHANG Dan
    2013, 33(4):  499-503.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.019
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    In order to study the induced insect resistance of Rosa rugosa ‘plena’, the influence on the activity changes of defensive enzymes in leaves of R.rugosa ‘plena’ induced by mechanical wounding was studied. The results showed that the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase(PAL), polyphenol oxidase(PPO) and peroxidase(POD), were all increased by mechanical wounding, the activities of PPO, POD were first increased, and then decreased, the higher PAL activities remained longer than the other enzymes. T3(mechanical wounding, 3 holes per leaf) treatment was the most appropriate damage degree, the activities of PAL, PPO and POD reached their maximal levels on the 7th, 3rd and 5th days induced by T3 treatment respectively. Hence, it could be concluded that appropriate wounding could induce higher defensive enzyme activities to improve the defensive capability of R.rugosa ‘plena’.
    Ionic Liquids-based Microwave-assisted Extraction of Biochanin A and Genistein from Dalbergia odorifera T.Chen Leaves
    MA Fei-Yue;DUAN Kai-Fang;WANG Xi-Qing;QIN Ming-Cong;LI Ji;FU Yu-Jie*
    2013, 33(4):  494-498.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.018
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    In the present research, single-factor experiments and a three-variable, three-level Box-Behnken design were performed to study the ionic liquidsbased microwave-assisted extraction of biochanin A and genistein from D. odorifera T. Chen leaves. The optimum parameters were: 1.00 mol·L-1[C4MIM]Br, extraction temperature 56℃, liquid/solid ratio 18∶1 mL·g-1, extraction time 11 min, irradiation power 300 W. Under the optimal conditions, the average extraction yields of biochanin A and genistein were 1.598 and 0.939 mg·g-1, respectively.
    Interspecific Relationships among the Dominant Weeds Species of Tobacco Field in Guizhou Province
    LI Zu-Ren;XU Shuang;YAN Sheng-Lu;HU Nan;LIAO Hai-Min*
    2013, 33(4):  512-516.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.022
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    Based on the datasets from sampling plots, the interspecific relationships among dominant weeds species of tobacco field in Guizhou province were studied by using the methods of variance analysis, Pearson’s correlation and X2-test. The results indicated that: ①The total associations among all the dominant weeds species of tobacco field in Guizhou are remarkably positively significant in stable state; ②There were positive associations for 21 pair-species, negative associations for 23 pair-species and no association between Stellaria media (L.) Cyr. and Polygonum nepalense Meisn. by Pearson point correlation coefficient; ③The remarkably significantly positive interspecific associations were found between Galinsoga parviflora Cav. and Digitaria sanguinalis(L.) Scop., G.parviflora and P.nepalense, the remarkably positive interspecific associations were found between G.parviflora and Commelina communis L., D.sanguinalis and P.nepalense and the others were unremarkable. The study arms to realize and master the distribution of tobacco field weeds in community and change the trend of tobacco field weeds, and supply the basic data for tobacco field weeds control.
    Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Peony Episperm and ABTS Radical Scavenging Activity
    MENG Qing-Huan;WANG Hua;WANG Hong-Zheng;WU Wei-Wei;ZHONG Chen;ZU Yuan-Gang;*
    2013, 33(4):  504-507.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.020
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    The optimum homogenate extraction technique of total flavonoids from Paeonia ostii episperm was studied by orthogonal test. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: 80% ethanol, ratio of solvent to material 20∶1, two times homogenate, and each 4 min. Under this conditions, the content of flavonoids in P.ostii episperm was 52.19 mg·g-1. ABTS radical scavenging experiment showed that flavonoids from P.ostii episperm had significant effects, which was higher than BHT, but less than VC. In addition, we have realized the practical process of making waste into useful material.
    Effects of Biomagnetic Effect on the Bioactive Metabolite Production in Fruiting Body of Cordyceps militaris
    ZHAO Bo;ZHANG Gu-Cai*;LIN Lian-Nan;WANG Ting-Yu;ZHANG Gu-Zhen;WU Xian;ZHANG Qiu-Shuang;BAO Ying
    2013, 33(4):  508-511.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.021
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    We carried magnetic treatment for 9 times on ordinary water with field strength of 0.1, 0.25, 0.4T,while treating the series connection(SC)3 times, in flow velocity for 1.0 m·s-1 and the distance of 30 cm,respectively to culture. Furthermore,the influence of different magnetic field strength on biological efficiency, cordycepin, cordycepic acid(D-mannitol), polysaccharide by the fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris were investigated. Under the same condition,the 0.4T treatment was favorable for and cordycepic acid production and fruiting body growth,which increased 7.29 % and 15.37% compared with the contrast ,respectively. The 0.25T treatment was favorable for cordycepin production of C.militaris,which increased 11.31% compared with the contrast. The 0.1T treatment was favorable for polysaccharide production in the fruiting body of C.militaris,which increased 14.80% compared with the contrast. ANOVA showed that different magnetized water had significant effect on fruiting body growth and active substance production. Besides, the influence rules of magnetized water on different substance existed differences.
    Design and Development for the primers of EST-SSR Marker of Armeniaca cathayana
    QIN Yue;FU Da-Li;*;WU Shuo;LIU Meng-Pei;ZHU Gao-Pu;ZHAO Han;MA Lu-Yi
    2013, 33(4):  517-520.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.04.023
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    Along with the progress of biological science, ESTs (expressed sequence tags) have become an important resource for SSR (simple sequence repeat) marker development. 22 458 ESTs of Rosaceae from the database of dbEST were screened, then using SSRHunter1.3 software, 22 527 SSRs were selected out. 61 EST-SSR primers were designed and synthesized through Primer 5.0 software. All primer pairs were designed for polymorphism analysis in 8 genotypes of Armeniaca cathayana. Ten primer pairs showed the amplification and polymorphisms, whose sequences were recorded, which would lay a technical foundation in molecular marker assisted selection breeding for A.cathayana.