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    20 May 2013, Volume 33 Issue 3
    A New Species of Ilex from Fujian Province
    LIN Qin-Wen;ZHENG Shi-Qun;LIN Mu-Mu*;WU Jin-Pin;QIU Yun-Xing;WANG Xiao-Xia
    2013, 33(3):  257-259.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.001
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    A new species of the genus Ilex L., I.chuguangii M.M.Lin, from Fujian province of China, is described. The new species is related to I.formosana Maxim. However it is distinguished by its leaf surface puberulent, along the midrib dense; lateral veins of 7 to 9, above emarginated, below is not obvious; fruit puberulent and fine tumor, persistent style of thin the disk.
    Microsporogenesis and Development of Male Gametophyte in Flueggea suffruticosa(Pall.) Baill.
    WEI Yuan;SHEN Guang-Shuang;LIU Jing;HE Zhen-Zhen;SHI Fu-Chen*;LI Hou-Hun
    2013, 33(3):  260-265.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.002
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    Microsporogenesis and the development of male gametophyte of the staminate flower in Flueggea suffruticosa(Pall.) Baill. were observed by using the method of paraffin sections. The results show that each staminate flower of F.suffruticosa has five stamens which are tetrasporangiate. There are also a few flowers with four stamens and one of the stamens has 7-8 pollen sacs. However, the development of different stamens or the pollen sacs in the same anther are not synchronous. The development of anther wall is the basic type, which is composed of epidermis, endothecium, middle layers (2 layers) and tapetum. The tapetum is of glandular type. The cytokinesis in meiosis of the microspore mother cells is simultaneous type. Most of the microspore tetrads are tetrahedral and a few of them are symmetrical. The microsporocytes are mostly normal while some are abnormal and degenerate at tetrad stage. The mature pollen grain is binuclear type and spherical in shape with three germ furrows. It also has been found that a pistillode without overy and much crystal in calyx and anther. These results could provide basic data for the research of reproductive biology and pollination biology in Euphorbiaceae.
    Morphology Structure of Leaf Epidermis of Genus Spiraea in Heilongjiang Province
    WANG Meng;WANG Lei;CHEN Xi;XING Yi;YIN Hua;ZHANG Da-Wei*
    2013, 33(3):  266-270.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.003
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    A study on morphology structure of epidermis of the genus Spiraea in Heilongjiang province was conducted with scanning clectron microscope (SEM). The result shows that epidermal cells are irregular-shaped and polygonal, the anticlinal wall are strait-arched, sinuated, sinuolate; most of species do not have trichomes, only a little species have trichomes on upper epidermal cells or lower epidermis cells and only the cells of upper epidermal have trichomes; Stomatal apparatus are located in the lower epidermis, all of them are anomocytic, cyclocytic and atypical actinocytic; the inner margin of the outer stomatal rim is glabrous, candida, sinuous and sinuolate; uni-layered outer stomatal rim or double layer; having not T-pieces at the polar region of guard cells, having notably T-pieces at the polar of guard cells. The result provides morphological basis of phylogeny and taxonomic significance for the Spiraea plants of Heilongjiang province.
    New Observation of Megaspore Morphological Characteristics in Isoetes yunguiensis
    LI Xiao-Dong;SUN Hao;ZHANG Da-Wei;LIU Bao-Dong*
    2013, 33(3):  271-273.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.004
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    New megaspore morphological characteristics of the protected plant—Isoetes yunguiensis were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result indicates: globular granule on megaspore surface; inapparent reticulate ornamentation; inapparent reticulate ornamentation with big size. Megaspore of the old ligulate heterosporophyte are easy to significantly change in size, ornamentaion and fissure.
    Allometric Characteristics of Terminal Twigs of Tamarix ramosissima and Haloxylon ammodendron
    LI Zhi-Bo;LI Ping-Heng;WANG Quan;*;XU Lu;
    2013, 33(3):  274-281.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.005
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    Two representative desert plants, Tamarix ramosissima and Haloxylon ammodendron, both utilize green assimilating branches to conduct photosynthesis instead of leaves which greatly reduced. There are few studies on the relationship between twigs and the assimilating branch for these two dominant species in the central Asia up to now. In this study, regression equations of twig mass and assimilating branch area within terminal twigs were given, and biomass allocation as well as the relationship between twig size and assimilating branch area within terminal twigs of T.ramosissima and H.ammodendron have been investigated in detail with the aim of investigating the two plant’s difference in relationship of twigsize to assimilating branch size. Taking stem diameter as independent variable, the regression equations on twig mass and assimilating branch area using power function have high correlation, and the power exponent of T.ramosissima is bigger than that of H.ammodendron, indicating that the twig mass and assimilating branch area increase of T.ramosissima is bigger than that of H.ammodendron with increasing twig size. Isometric relationships were found between twig mass and stem mass, twig mass and assimilating branch mass, as well as between stem mass and assimilating branch mass of T.ramosissima, suggesting that its biomass allocation to assimilating branch or stem is independent on twig size. On the other hand, significant allometric relationships were established for twig mass and assimilating branch mass, twig mass and stem mass, as well as stem mass and assimilating branch mass of H.ammodendron, and its stem has preference to biomass allocation with increasing twig size, indicating that this species has greater demand for stem that play a role in support and water transportation. In addition, significant allometric relationships were also obtained for assimilating branch area and twig cross-sectional area (slope>1.0), and assimilating branch area with stem mass (slope<1.0) in terms of T.ramosissima, indicating that there are two different variation tendencies of the proportion of assimilating branch area with twig size which is represented by twig cross-sectional area and stem mass, respectively. As a comparison, both allometric equations for H.ammodendron have slopes significantly smaller than 1.0, indicating that the proportion of assimilating branch area decrease with increasing twig size for this species.
    Comparison of Leaf Structures in the Green and Yellow Parts of Liriodendron tulipifera ‘Aureo marginatum’
    LUO Yu-Lan;ZHANG Guo-Bing;ZHANG Ai-Ming
    2013, 33(3):  282-286.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.006
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    The variety used in this research was Liriodendron tulipifera ‘Aureo marginatum’. The differences in chlorophyll content, leaf anatomical structure and chloroplast ultrastructure between the green part and yellow part were analyzed. The result showed that chlorophyll contents in the yellow part were lower than those in the green part. The ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b in the yellow part was higher than that in the green part. In the green part, the cells of palisade tissue were slender and arranged densely, and there were more normal chloroplasts which were ellipse. However, in the yellow part, the structure of palisade tissue became loose, there were some abnormal chloroplasts, the grains in the chloroplast were disintegrated, and more starch grains appeared in the chloroplasts.
    Effect of Space Mutantion on Morphological Parameters,Photosynthetic Capacities as well as Contents and Compositions of Secondary Metabolites of Rosmarinus officinalis L.
    WANG Hong-Zheng;GUO Xiao-Rui;TANG Zhong-Hua;YU Jing-Hua;ZU Yuan-Gang;ZHANG Xue-Ke;*
    2013, 33(3):  287-293.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.007
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    Taking the rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) without mutation as control, the changes of morphological parameters, photosynthesis and secondary metabolites in the line mutated by the retrievable satellite were investigated. The results showed that the morphological parameters of rosemary, including plant height, canopy size, number of branches, branch length and aboveground biomass, were significantly increased by the space mutation. Especially, the aboveground biomass of mutant line, which restricted the recoverable amount of rosemary, was 1.24 times than the control. Further study demonstrated that the improvement of photosynthesis capacity was an important reason of the change of morphological parameters in mutant rosemary, because significant increasing of chlorophyll content, maximum net photosynthesis rate, apparent quantum yield, and declining of light compensation point were found in mutant rosemary. The contents of carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and essential oil, three mayor biological active substances, were significantly higher in mutant rosemary than in control. In addition, differences in component proportion were detected between the essential oils from mutant line and control. All the above results indicated that beneficial mutation of both biological and economic yields could be obtained in space mutagenesis of rosemary. It means that space mutagenesis breeding is feasible for rosemary.
    Cloning and Bioinformatic Analysis of StSnRK2.2 Gene in Solanum tuberosum
    FAN A-Qi;;MAO Juan;;LIU Si-Yan;;ZHANG Jun-Lian;;WANG Di;*;BAI Jiang-Ping;
    2013, 33(3):  294-301.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.008
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    The full-length cDNA sequence of SnRK2.2 in Solanum tuberosum (longshu 3) was successfully cloned by PCR. The gene was named StSnRK2.2 and has been submitted to Genbank with the accession number (GI:404435144). The bioinformatic analysis showed that the StSnRK2.2 has a complete opening reading frame (ORF) sequence contains 1 020 bp, which encoding 339 amino acids. The predicted protein molecular weight is 38.33 kDa and the theoretical pI is 5.93. The secondary structure of StSnRK2.2 indicated that about 43.36% of amino acids formed into alpha helix, 16.22% in extended strand, 6.78% in beta turn and 33.63% in random coil. There are no obviously classical signal peptide and transmembrane domain. The subcellular analysis indicated that the protein might play roles in the cell nucleus. Polygenetic analysis showed that the sequence is very close to the SnRK2 member in tobacco, the similar coefficient is as high as 90.56%. According to the amino acids sequence analysis, as a Ser/Thr protein kinase, the protein contains thirteen potential serine phosphatase sites, four threonine sites and four tyrosine sites. The results suggested that the gene product of StSnRK2.2 might be an important protein kinase related to the drought/stresses tolerance of potato plant.
    Influence of Air-dried Sewage Sludge Mixed Medium on Ecophysiology of Turfgrass
    ZHANG Qian;ZHAO Shu-Lan;DUO Li-An;*
    2013, 33(3):  302-307.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.009
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    Turfgrasses were planted in mixed medium with air-dried sewage sludge and soil, and the ecophysiological characteristics of two turfgrass cultivars Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea were investigated. The results showed that the mixed medium with different proportions of air-dried sewage sludge and soil had positive effect on the increments of dry matter yield, plant height and chlorophyll content of turfgrass. As compared with control, the dry matter yield of L.perenne and F.arundinacea increased by 148.8%-193.0% and 148.6%-159.6%, respectively. The total chlorophyll contents of two turfgrasses were 64.2%-103.0% and 44.8%-54.5% higher than that of control, respectively. Meanwhile, the addition of air-dried sewage sludge in turf medium significantly increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities. The maximums of CAT and POD for L.perenne were observed in the treatment of sludge: soil (3∶13), which were 132.7% and 33.2% higher than that of control, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in CAT and POD activities among three treatments of F.arundinacea. Malonaldehyde (MDA) content of L.perenne increased in mixed medium of sewage sludge and soil as well as relative electrical conductivity. For F.arundinacea, MDA content and relative electrical conductivity had no significant difference between the treatment of S100 (700 g soil+100 g sewage sludge) and control. Based on the above analyses, mixed air-dried sewage sludge and soil as turfgrass medium can not only promote turfgrass growth, but also shorten the time of sewage sludge composting and reduce the cost of sewage sludge reutilization.
    Cloning a Homologous Linalool Synthase Gene of Lavandula latifolia and Construction of Plant Expression Vector
    ZHAO Zhong-Xin;WANG Jian*;LI Qin;SHANG Xiao
    2013, 33(3):  308-316.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.010
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    In this study, a full length cDNA encoding linalool synthase was successfully cloned from the fresh leaves of Lavandula latifolia, with newly gene-specific primers by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR technology. The sequence was 1 809 bp and contained a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1 809 bp encoding 602 amino acids, and the protein sequences exhibited the highest similarity (98%) with L.latifolia linalool synthase announced on NCBI, with the differences of 21 nucleotide and 11 amino acid, respectively. The gene was named as Lslis. The sequence analysis showed that: Lslis presented three typical conserved motifs of many terpene synthases. There was a peptide sequence DDXXD which is essential for the enzymatic activity of linalool synthase. The molecular weight and isoeletric point of Lslis were predicted to be 70.36 kD and 5.66, respectively. Most of the amino acid sequences of Lslis were hydrophilic regions, which was hydrophilic polypeptide. The results of predicted secondary structure for Lllis and Lslis showed that both the most structures kept consistent, but Lslis had less a α helix to Lllis, which has been promulgated on NCBI. The PCR product was cloned into pMD18-T vector. The Lslis gene expression vector was constructed successfully, having the aid of intermediate plant expression vector pCAMBIA1303. Reconbinant expression vector was identified by PCR analysis, PCR indicated plant vector was transferred into A.tumefaciens.
    Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene from the Halophyte Halocnermum strobilaceum(Pall.)(Chenopodiaceae)
    GAO Tian-Peng;WANG Chun-Yan;XU Hong-Wei;SUN Hai-Li;ZHANG Ming;ZHANG Qing;SHI Xiao-Ni
    2013, 33(3):  317-324.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.011
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    According to the published sequences of BADH cDNA of several other plants of Chenopodiaceae, two primers have been designed to amplify the fragments of BADH cDNA from Halocnermum strobilaceum(Pall.) Bieb. through RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). A 1 503 bp fragment containing entire betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) coding region of 501 amino acids (aa) has been obtained. Nucleotide sequence of HsBADH was similar to the corresponding fragment of BADH cDNA of several other plants, such as Kalidium foliatum, Atriplex centralasiatica, Atriplex hortensis, Spinacia oleracea, Suaeda liaotungensis, Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris, Oryza sativa, etc. Encoded protein by HsBADH and BADH protein from above mentioned plants also shared 89% and 70% identity at the amino acid level. The result showed that BADH gene was conserved, especially in Chenopodiaceae and encoded functional protein may play an important role in high plants during salt stress. Real-time fluorescence quantitative gene expression analysis showed that the level of BADH mRNA in plants treated with different NaCl concentrations was higher than that in the control plants, suggesting that the accumulation of betaine catalyzed by betaine alde-hyde dehydrogenase as an effective osmolyte is important for H.strobilaceum(Pall.) Bieb. during salt stress. The study provided material for further exploring salt tolerant mechanisms of H.strobilaceum(Pall.) Bieb. in physiological and molecular aspects.
    Enhanced Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation of E.coli by Overexpressed AtGCS from Arabidopsis thaliana
    LIU Da-Li;MAO Zi-Jun;AN Zhi-Gang*;MA Long-Biao;LU Zhen-Qiang
    2013, 33(3):  325-329.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.012
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    GSH is one of the most ubiquitous proteins known to provide protection against toxic heavy metals. A gene-AtGCS encoding Arabidopsis γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase was introduced into E.coli (BL21) by over-expression of TrxA-AtGCS fusion protein to analyze the capacity to enhance heavy metal tolerance of transformed E.coli. As a comparison, strain over-expressing only TrxA was used as a control. The results showed that the growth of E.coli cells by over-expressing TrxA-AtGCS was much better than the control cells expressing TrxA under 1 mmol·L-1 Cd2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ heavy metal stresses. Meanwhile, more than 5 times’ bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and more than 4 times’ GSH content were observed in the strain over-expressing TrxA-AtGCS relatively to control cells, especially under cadmium ions with 10 times’ accumulation in cells over-expressing TrxA-AtGCS. It could be concluded that over-expression of AtGCS offered a promising heavy metal resistance of E.coli with superior heavy metal accumulation and GSH content.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of C Function CjAGL6 Gene cDNA from Camellia japonica ‘Jinpanlizhi’
    SUN Ying-Kun;LI Ji-Yuan;YIN Heng-Fu*;FAN Zheng-Qi;ZHOU Xing-Wen
    2013, 33(3):  330-338.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.013
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    MADS-box gene family has played important roles in the floral organs development. In order to investigate the function of A-class genes for double flower development in Camellia japonica, a 888 bp full-length cDNA sequence of AG homologous gene was cloned from early flower bud of C.japonica ‘Jinpanlizhi’, named CjAGL6(GenBank accession JX657333). It contains an opening reading frame of 747 bp, a 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of 37 bp, a 3′-UTR of 141 bp. Amino acids sequence alignment showed that CjAGL6 gene encodes the protein with 248 amino acids, and the homology is more than 76% with Actinidia chinensis and Diospyros digyna. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the relative expression level of this gene was as follows: later flower bud>medium flower bud>early flower bud>squaring stage, it increased slowly at the initial stage and then sharply decreased to the lowest. In different floral organs of ‘Jinpanlizhi’, the highest expression was in style, next in petalody stamens, upper stamens and ovary, the lowest in sepals and petalody sepals. The tendency was the high expression in inter floral organs and the low in outer floral organs. The forming of double flower is the synergistic result of multiple genes. CjAGL6 gene may have some functions in this process.
    Nano-paclitaxel Transport by Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Cells
    XU Chao;;JIANG Shou-Gang;;GONG Xian-Feng;ZU Yuan-Gang;*
    2013, 33(3):  339-345.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.014
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    Many studies had proved that oral administration of paclitaxel was poorly absorbed and easy to cause hypersensitivity reactions. For this reason, we produced a new nano-paclitaxel by paclitaxel granule wrapped with mannitol and Human Serum Albumin (HSA), which had better water solubility and lower systemic toxicity. In order to research the absorption of nano-paclitaxel after oral administration, the transepithelial flux of nano-paclitaxel was studied using the human colonic cell line Caco-2 cells. The flux of nano-paclitaxel (at a concentration range of 0.5-20 μmol·L-1) across the Caco-2 cell layer was linear with time for up to 3 h. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for the apical to basolateral transport of nano-paclitaxel (20.9±2.1×10-6 cm·s-1; N=3) and the apparent maximal concentration (KM) of the active efflux component (14.00 μmol·L-1) were relatively high, suggesting that nano-paclitaxel may have a better absorption rate in the intestinal tract.
    Optimization of SRAP System for Guangxi Wild Rhodomyrtus tomentosa(Ait.) Hassk.
    QIU Wen-Wu;WEI Chi-Zhang;GUO Ling-Fei;YANG Xiang-Yan;QIN Zhen-Shi;WANG Wen-Ling*
    2013, 33(3):  346-350.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.015
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    By the method of uniform design, the reaction system for SRAP marker in Rhodomyrtus tomentosa(Ait.) Hassk. was established and optimized. The results showed that an optimal 25 μL reaction system of SRAP for R.tomentosa included 2.5 μL 10×PCR buffer, 1.0 U Taq DNA polymerase, 20 ng template DNA, 0.2 mmol·L-1 dNTPs, 0.3 μmol·L-1 primer and 2.5 mmol·L-1 Mg2+. This optimum reaction system was applied to fingerprint 8 varieties of R.tomentosa accessions by Me1-Em11 primers and produced clear polymorphic patterns. It showed that the optimized system could be effectively applied in the germplasm identification and genetic diversity analysis of R.tomentosa.
    Life-form and Diversity of Sexual System of Invasive Alien Plants in China
    ZHANG Si-Si;XIAO Yi-An;*
    2013, 33(3):  351-359.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.016
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    The life-form and breeding systems of alien plants in China, including their fruit type, flower size, flower color and flowering duration, were deeply analyzed in this paper. The results show that there are 137 species of alien invasive plants which belong to 30 families and 94 genera in China, of which Asteraceae (46 species), Poaceae (26 species), Fabaceae (11 species), Amaranthaceae (10 species) and Brassicaceae (6 species) accounted for 72.3% of China’s invasive plants. The analysis results of plant life forms show that the number of herbaceous plant is the largest, which has 130 types and the ratio of total species is 94.8%; and only 3 species, 2 species, and 2 species of shrub, tree and vine, which accounts for 2.2%, 1.5%, 1.5% respectively. Compared with some region of the world, the proportion of the invasion of woody (trees and shrubs) plant is lower in China. In terms of breeding way, there are 88 species whose main breeding way is seed reproduction, accounting for 64.2% of the whole invasive species, while 43 species breed with both cloning and seed reproduction, accounting for 31.4%. In the perspective of flower, 63.5% species produce relative small and bright color flowers which are favor for pollination by insects. They also has relative shorter flowering, and 66.4% species has a flowering time less than 5 months. All these characteristics could be benefit for plant invasion. In addition, 95.6% of total invasive plants have dry fruits, of which 62 species have achene; while only 4.4% of all invasive plants have fleshly fruits. The results show that the species with herbaceous and seed reproduction, small flower and short-flowering are easier to enter into China.
    Quantitative Classification and Ordination of Roadside Slope Vegetation in Sichuan Basin
    PANG Liang;LI Shao-Cao;LONG Feng;LUO Shuang;LI Cheng-Jun;SUN Hai-Long*
    2013, 33(3):  360-366.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.017
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    In order to understand the composition and structure of the roadside slope vegetation in Sichuan Basin, we use TWINSPAN, which is a wildly used approach of quantitative classification, to analyze the data from the survey of the slope vegetation along 14 roads, which include railways, express ways and highways. We also use canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to assess the impact of environment variables on the species composition and structure of the vegetation, such as the road age, the altitude, the gradient, the aspect, the soil thickness and the weathering degree. The results show that the roadside slope vegetation of Sichuan Basin is divided into 8 associations. The ordination diagram can well reflect the adaptability of these associations to specific environmental conditions. Monte Carlo permutation test shows that the correlation between species and environmental variables is extremely significant. In quantitative environmental variables, explanatory contribution of road age, altitude, degree of weathering, gradient, aspect and soil thickness are 17.45%, 14.62%, 14.53%,13.11%,11.78% and11.60%, respectively. The former four are rarely affected by random error, and the significance level is 1% (P<0.01). In terms of aspect, the significance level is 5% (P<0.05). Explanatory ability of soil thickness is largely affected by random error, and it showed no significant difference (P>0.05).
    Aqueous Two-phase System(ATPS) Extraction of Hyperin
    JIN Yan;YAO Xiao-Hui;DUAN Ming-Hui;ZHANG Dong-Yang;FU Yu-Jie;*
    2013, 33(3):  367-370.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.018
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    Based on the preliminary experiments, a three-variable, three-level Box-Behnken design was performed to study the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) extraction of hyperin from Pyrola calliantha H. Andr.. The optimum parameters were as follows: extraction temperature 50℃, liquid /solid ratio 36∶1, (NH4)2SO4 concentration 22%, extraction time 22 min, extraction power 300 W and three extraction cycles. Under the optimal conditions, the average extraction yield of hyperin was 0.982 mg·g-1 and the purity was 0.443%. This study is significant for the application of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) extraction technology and utilization of P.calliantha H. Andr..
    Selection and Application of Green Plants in Heilongjiang Provincial Expressways
    ZHANG Jie;ZHOU Xiao-Qing;XU Hui
    2013, 33(3):  371-378.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.019
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    To probe the greening current situation of high ways in Heilongjiang province and to select green plants based on different highway site conditions, green plants and their applications in Heilongjiang Provincial expressways were respectively expounded from the view of the geographic area and structure of highway, which provide reference for the greening highways in Heilongjiang Province. The results showed that total green plants are 46 species commonly used, 30 kinds of woody plants commonly used, 16 kinds of herbs commonly used on high ways in Heilongjiang province. Selection of green plant materials for highways is affected by natural conditions in Heilongjiang province, species of plant are monotonous, the majority of highway greening lacks its own characteristics; due to seasonal factors, it lacks green landscape in Heilongjiang province highways in winter, seldom evergreen tree species; relatively undiversified highway landscape level, seldomly use cover plants.
    Preliminary Discussion on the Destruction and Restoration of Primary Korean Pine Forest in Maoershan Experimental Forest Farm of Northeast Forestry University
    DING Zhuang
    2013, 33(3):  379-384.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2013.03.020
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    In accordance with the relevant historical data and the restoration forest resources data, the status of Korean pine primitive forest before destruction in Maoershan experimental forest farm was analyzed. This forest was dense and the amount of growing stock was about 300 m3/ha, this primary forest experienced the regime establishment and change, but was protected and developed due to sparse population, low levels of productivity. In 1896-1945, the forest was destroyed by the predatory logging of Czar Russia and Japanese militarists. The primary forest was wiped and razed to the barren ridge with only 54.9 m3/ha forest maintained. In order to change the status, and make the rapid recovery of forest resources, forest workers took the restoration ecology theory as the basis to make a comprehensive survey, adjust the structure, and introduce the Korean pine populations in 1958. After 50 years, the mixed needle-deciduous forests were established, the restoration effect was significant.