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    20 November 2009, Volume 29 Issue 6
    The Mniaceae in Bailong River Basin of Gansu,China
    REN Zhao-Jie;YU Ning-Ning;SHAO Na;DU Chao;ZHAO Zun-Tian*
    2009, 29(6):  641-646.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.001
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    Twentytwo species in four genera of Mniaceae are reported from Bailong River Basin of Gansu. Four of them, Plagiomnium venustum, Rhizomnium magnifolium, R.striatulum and R.tuomikoskii are reported from Gansu for the first time. The keys to the genera and species and distribution and habitats for each species are presented. Meanwhile the geographical elements of family Mniaceae are analyzed.
    Pollen Morphology of Eight Species of Dianthus from Xinjiang
    DONG Lian-Xin;GUAN Xue-Lian
    2009, 29(6):  647-650.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.002
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    In the present study, the pollen morphology of eight species of Dianthus L. in Xinjiang was observed under the scanning electron microscope(SEM). In these species, the pollen grains are monad, spherical. The size of pollen grains ranges from 30.5 μm to 44.0 μm. The number of round aperture is 12 to 16. The diameter of aperture is from 4.0 μm to 7.0 μm, it has pore membrane with some thorns and exine of pollen with thorn-like and hole-like patterns, the surface with or without perforation. The size of pollen, exine ornamentation and characteristics of aperture are different to some extent among these different species. This shows their important taxonomic significances.
    Peristome Morphology of Bryum Hedw. (Musci:Bryaceae) and Its Taxonomic Significance
    LI Li-Bo;ZHAO Jian-Cheng*
    2009, 29(6):  651-658.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.003
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    Peristome morphology of 12 species of the genus Bryum Hedw. were observed by LM and SEM. The results show that based on the tropism of dentium the 12 species could be divided into three types: approximately erection; dentium insert between two processus; excurvature of dentium. According to cilia of the genus the 12 species may also be divided into three groups. Meanwhile, the clustering analysis and principal components analysis of these species have been made by the software STATISTICA 6.0. The result showed that the dentium charactenstics, like tropism of dentium and the development state of cilia, can be the standards to classify the plants in Bryum among species. The paper gives new information on the system evolution study on the characteristics of moss peristome.
    Anatomical Study on Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. Roots
    ZHENG Li;CAI Xia*;HU Zheng-Hai
    2009, 29(6):  659-664.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.004
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    The development of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd. root was studied with paraffin sectioning and the structure of the annual and the perennial taproots were compared and analyzed. It was shown that the development of B.scorzonerifolium root could be divided into four stages: promeristem, primary meristem, primary structure and secondary stages of growth.The promeristems consist of three groups of initial cells,which have the cytological characteristics of typical meristem cells;the primary meristems are composed of calyptrogens, primordial epidermises, periblems and pleromes. The primary structures include epidermis, cortex and stele. The primary xylem is diarch, triarch is few. The secondary structures include periderm, pericyclic parenchymna cycle and secondary vascular tissue, from the outside to the inside. The secondary growth mainly relies on the activities of vascular cambium and cork cambium; the cork cambium formed from pericyclic cells that resumed their dividing capabilities.The perennial root have the similar structure to the annual one, but there were some differences in the quantity of cells and structure of each parts. Secretory canals of annual root are only distributed in the pericyclic parenchymna, but they are distributed both in the pericyclic parenchymna and the secondary phloem in perennial roots.
    Embryogenesis of Swertia bimaculata
    HUANG Heng-Yu;LONG Hua;YI Ting-Ting;LI Li*
    2009, 29(6):  665-673.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.005
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    The megasporogenesis, the development of female gametophyte, embryo and endosperm of Swertia bimaculata were studied. The main results can be concluded as follows: The ovary is bicarpellate, unilocular with 4 rows of ovules located at the parietal placentation. The ovule is unitegmic, tenuinucellar and ana-campylotropous. The chalazal megaspore in linear tetrad becomes the functional megaspore. The development of embryo sac is of the Polygonum type. Three antipodal cells have multiseriate nuclei and distinct haustorium, and persist like a layer of “outer endosperm” just out of the endosperm nucleus layer. Fertilization is porogamous and of premitotic syngamy type. The development of endosperm conforms to Nuclear type and the embryogeny corresponds to the Solanad type. The embryo is at the globular stage when seeds are released from the capsule. The dividing and persisting of antipodal cell in some annual Gentianaceous plants is of significance in reproductive adaptation and evolution.
    Bracts and bracteoles Morphology of Pleurospermum Hoffm. in Kun-Lun Mountains and Its Taxonomic Significance
    FENG Ying;WU Yu-Hu;SHEN Guan-Mian
    2009, 29(6):  674-680.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.006
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    Bracts, rays, bracteoles and fruit ribs morphology of 10 species of Pleurospermum Hoffm growing in Kun-Lun Mountains were observed using a stereomicroscope, and a key to the species is provided. The results show that the species can be divided into three groups in terms of their morphology: (1)Bracts and bracteoles are all lanceolate; (2)Bracts and bracteoles are all leaflike, apex pinnatifid; (3)Bracteoles are different from bracts. So the shapes of Bracts and bracteoles provide new evidence for taxonomy. These properties can be regarded as the taxonomic bases among the species of Pleurospermum Hoffm.
    Embryology of Juglans mandshurica Maxim.(Ⅰ) the Microsporogenesis,and the Development of Male Gametophytes
    MENG Ying;WANG Xiu-Hua*;WANG Cong-Hong
    2009, 29(6):  681-684.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.007
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    Microsporogenesis and development of male gametophytes were systenatically studied. Microspore mother cells (pollen mother cells) possess four pollen sacs, the pollen sac includes the epidermis,fibrous layer,middle layer and tapetum.Anther wall development belongs to the basical type.The tapetum belongs to galandular type. Pollen grains middle layer and tapetum dispear gradually during the pollen development.The cytokinesis after meiotic division of PMCs is simultaneous and the microspore arrangement in the tetrad is tetrahedral.Later,terads are divided into to 4 single-cell.Mature pollen is 2-cells type.
    Dynamic Variation and Resorption of Nutrient Elements in the Leaves of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge
    YIN Li-Ming;WANG Li-Hua*;LIU Bo;
    2009, 29(6):  685-691.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.008
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    The contents and resorption efficiencies of N, P, K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in the leaves of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. N, P, and K declined throughout the growing season. This was probably a consequence of “dilution effect” and resorption of nutrients. Mg presented a single peak curve, which was probably resulted from physiological functions. Fe and Mn presented “V”-shaped trends, Cu “W” and Zn “N”. These phenomena may be related to nutrient absorption characteristics of the trees and phenological periods. Overall, the order of contents was N>P>K>Mg>Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu. But the order differed with time. Positive correlations occurred significantly between macroelements. By contrast, there was no significant correlation between microelements except Fe and Zn. A negative correlation occurred significantly between Fe and N. It was probably caused by antagonistic actions. The C/N ratio increased significantly. However, the N/P ratio decreased insignificantly. Nutrient resorption efficiency was in the order of Mg>N>K>P, with significant difference. Microelements can not be absorbed because of their poor mobility. The nutrient resorption efficiency of N, P, K, Mg reflects the higher ability of nutrient conservation and use efficiency.
    Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of Chorispora bungeana CbMAPK3 Gene
    ZHANG Teng-Guo;LIU Yu-Bing;SUN Kun;YANG Ning;AN Li-Zhe*
    2009, 29(6):  692-695.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.009
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    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a central role in transfer information from diverse receptors/sensors to a wide range of cellular responses in plants. CbMAPK3 cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR from Chorispora bungeana leaf, then was cloned into pET-30a vector to construct recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a-CbMAPK3. The pET-30a-CbMAPK3 was transformed to E.coli strain of BL21. After induced by IPTG, a 46 kD recombinant protein was expressed and separated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and detected by western blot. The research provides a base for further studying on the protein structure and function of CbMAPK3.
    Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Guizhou Wild Barley Using SSR Markers Ralated to Malting Quality
    QIAN Gang;WANG Da-Zhong;LUO Su-Yuan;TANG Xian-Chun
    2009, 29(6):  696-700.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.010
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    6 SSR markers ralated to traits of diastatic power and enzyme extraction of malting quality were applied to analyze genetic diversity in one hundred and three accessions of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from Guizhou. As shown in the present study, a total of 38 alleles were detected with an average of 6.33 per SSR primer pair. Our results indicated that locus GMS001 was effectively applied to detect DNA variation among Guizhou wild barleys, based on higher values of polymorphism information content(PIC) as compared with those of Australian barley cultivars. The dendrogram by UPGMA cluster analysis revealed that the selected SSR markers may be applied to separate phenotype and resource classification of 103 materials obtained from Guizhou. Namely, genetic diversity of the wild barley obtained from Zunyi district was abundant, as compared with materials from the other districts. Moreover, more significant genetic difference was observed in six-row wild barley than in -row material. It is suggested that choice of beer barley parents should be performed among populations of six-rowed wild barley in Guizhou, based on their abundant genetic diversity.
    Effects of Drought Stress on Protective Enzyme Activities and Seedling Growth in Populus bachofenii×P.pyramidalis ROZ
    CUI Xiao-Tao;YANG Ling;SHEN Hai-Long*
    2009, 29(6):  701-707.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.011
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    Populus bachofenii×P.pyramidalis ROZ is a new fast-growing timber production and ornamental variety introduced from Russia. Its permeation of plasma membranes and the activity of protective enzymes were studied by taking 1 year old tissue-culture derived plants as test materials that were treated by different drought stress. The results illustrated that the permeation of plasma membranes of P.bachofenii×P.pyramidalis ROZ was increased under drought stress condition, its relative electric conductivity increased along with the decrease of soil moisture and the time prolong of drought stress. Meanwhile, the membrane permeability and the protective enzyme activities after restoration of water supply were restored to the level under normal condition. Therefore, P.bachofenii×P.pyramidalis ROZ had good ability to adapt to drought stress in case that field moisture content was 20%~95%(the absolute volume moisture content was 11.5%~43.7%), and the absolute optimum volume moisture content was 27.6%~29.9%.
    Dynamic Transformation of the Substances of Osmotic Adjustment in Winter Wheat under Iso-osmotic Salt and Drought Stresses
    CHEN Cheng-Sheng;XIE Zhi-Xia;LIU Xiao-Jing*
    2009, 29(6):  708-713.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.012
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    A hydroponic method was used to investigate the effect of drought and salt stresses on the distribution rule of Na+ and K+ in shoots and roots and the dynamic transformation of soluble sugars, soluble protein and proline in leaves of drought-and salt-tolerant winter wheat cultivar Cang-6001. The results showed that the accumulation rule of soluble sugars and protein in leaves was similar, which were increased with prolonging stress time, but decreased in the later period of stress treatments. When the concentration of PEG or NaCl was increased, the time that sugars and protein began to decrease advanced; proline was increased quickly firstly and decreased quickly after reaching peak value,but increased once again in the later period of drought stress condition, which was increased with increased NaCl concentration and prolonging stress time under salt stress condition; the content of Na+ in plant was decreased with increased PEG concentration but increased with increased NaCl concentration, the content of K+ were decreased with increased PEG or NaCl concentration, and the speed of fall was faster in root than in shoot.
    Effects of Pb2+ Stress on Physiological Characteristics of Two Wheat Seedlings
    WEI Xue-Ling;SHI Ru-Xia;YANG Ying-Li*;WANG Xiao-Wei;ZHANG Yuan-Yuan;LIU Yan;ZHANG Hui
    2009, 29(6):  714-720.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.013
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    The changes of chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzymes and osmotic regulations were investigated in two wheat seedlings, Xi Han and Ning Chun, treated with different concentrations of Pb(NO3)2. The results showed that there was no significant change of chlorophyll content and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in two wheat seedlings exposed to lower Pb(NO3)2 concentration, while the amount of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll decreased and SOD activity significantly increased when wheat seedlings were subjected to higher Pb(NO3)2 concentration. The destroy to chlorophyll of Ning Chun was more serious than that of Xi Han in responses to the same Pb(NO3)2 stress. Different concentration of Pb(NO3)2 induced enhanced activities of catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase, but no significant changes in malondialdehyde(MDA) content. In addition, the amount of proline increased by Pb(NO3)2 in two wheat seedlings in a concentrationdependent manner, but no change in soluble sugar content. The results suggested that chlorophyll content was destroyed and the activities of antioxidases and the amount of proline were enhanced in wheat seedlings under the stress of Pb(NO3)2, thus the stronger effects of antioxidanted role and osmotic regulations existed and enhanced wheat seedlings tolerance to Pb2+ stress. Therefore, there was no significant difference in MDA content between the control and Pb(NO3)2-stressed wheat seedlings.
    Establishment and Optimization of Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation of Suspension Embryogenic Callus of Alfalfa
    SHEN Yu-Hua;LI Wang-Feng;JIN Tai-Cheng;CHANG Qing;YIN Dong-Xu;WANG De-Li;LIU Li-Xia*
    2009, 29(6):  721-727.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.014
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    Genotype is a key restrictive factor for genetic transformation in alfalfa. A high frequency-regeneration potential alfalfa cultivar named Gongnong No.1 was screened from 7 cultivars by embryonic callus inducing test, and was successfully used in establishing a high efficiency genetic transformation system. Additionally, we analyzed several factors affecting the genetic transformation and optimized the suspension culture conditions, and established sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system in alfalfa primarily. The suspension callus from alfalfa hypocotyls were taken as explants, as concentration was determined at 100 μmol·L-1, sonication treatment time was 8 s, kanamycin concentration was 30 mg·L-1 and co-culture time was 4 days. Conclusively, large numbers of transgenic plants were obtained by the transformation system. Molecular analysis confirmed that exogenous vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene from Suaeda corniculata was integrated into the genome of alfalfa.
    Effects of Nitrogen and Potassium on Dynamic Accumulation of Lignin and Cellulose in Neosinocalamus affinis
    HU Shang-Lian;CAO Ying;LU Xue-Qin;HAN Ying;JIA Ju-Qing;SUN Xia;ZHANG Meng
    2009, 29(6):  728-733.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.015
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    The effects of nitrogen and potassium on the distribution and dynamic accumulation of lignin and cellulose in Neosinocalamus affinis were studied through the different combinations of nitrogen and potassium applications. It aims to provide theoretical evidence for the quality cultivation of N.affinis. The results show that the dynamic accumulation of lignin and cellulose were the same as the control. The tendency of dynamic accumulation of lignin in N.affinis was firstly raised and then declined, but that of cellulose was raised. The distribution of lignin and cellulose was different. The bottom of stem was the highest, the top was the lowest. The lignin content could decrease 1.05%~3.97% through the application of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers, but the cellulose could increase 1.25%~3.36%, when compared with control. The contribution of nitrogen, potassium and time on the total changes of lignin and cellulose contents in N.affinis was N×K>N>TIME>K>N×K×TIME>N×TIME>K×TIME. The positive relationship of lignin content with cellulose content was not significant (r=0.020 4).
    Ecological Characteristics of Bryophyte Communities from Karst Rock Desertification Peak Cluster in Zhenfeng of Guizhou Province
    LIU Rong-Xiang;WANG Zhi-Hui;ZHANG Zhao-Hui;*
    2009, 29(6):  734-741.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.016
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    The composition and ecological characteristics of bryophyte communities were investigated from three peak clusters of karst rock desertification in Zhenfeng county, Guizhou province. There are 21 types of bryophyte communities in the area, in which pure communities take up 83.3% and those with more than two species take up 26.7%. The predominant communities are Anomodetum, Hyophiletum and Trichostometum. There are only two lifeforms which are Wefts and Short turfs occurred on the area owing to the dry and strong light environment. In karst rock desertification peak cluster, bryophyte communities are rich in peak and scarce in bottom. The results indicate that the Anomodetum has the potential value to control rock desertification contributing to its highest ecological dominance presenting all sites.
    Physiological and Ecological Responses of Festuca arundinacea L. in the Compost Medium after Leaching
    LIU Qing;ZHAO Shu-Lan;DUO Li-An*;LIU Xiang-Jun
    2009, 29(6):  742-746.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.017
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    Festuca arundinacea L. was planted in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost which was leached by different amount of water. Seed germination and physio-ecological indices were investigated. The results showed that F.arundinacea in the leached compost was better than in the control(pure compost without leaching) through the growth index. In the treatment of 1∶1 leaching proportion, the maximum germination rate increased 89.6% as compared with the control. The determination of the activity of protective enzymes(SOD, POD, CAT), the content of proline and the accumulation of MDA indicated that the stress of compost after leaching was less than pure compost without leaching, and the leached compost was more favorable for turf growth. Considering of growth and physiological indices of F.arundinacea, the optimum proportion for compost leaching was the mass ratio of water to compost=2∶1.
    Variation in Fruit Characteristics of the Chinese Endemic Species Calligonum ebi-nuricum in Population
    KANG Xiao-Shan;PAN Bo-Rong*;ZHANG Yong-Zhi;DUAN Shi-Min;SHI Wei;
    2009, 29(6):  747-752.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.018
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    In this paper, the fruits morphological characteristics of 12 individual plants in the same population of Calligonum ebi-nuricums, which are growing in Jinghe of Xinjiang Province,are studied by numerical analysis. The results show that the morphological variation of 11 morphological traits, including length of beak, length of fruit, width of fruit, shape of fruit, length of achene, width of achene, shape of achene, length of bristle, the length of bristle of head, the distance between ribs and the distance between bristles, existed both within plant and amang plants, and the degree of variation within plant were lesser than amang plants. There is obvious correlation in indices of the fruits and the achene sizes(p<0.01). However, the shape of achene and the distance between ribs are negatively correlated (r=-0.297**,p<0.01), which means width of achene increases with the distance between ribs. It was concluded that the shape of the fruits and achenes could be used for species classification; and those characteristics with greater plasticity were less useful in distinguishing the sibling species with sympatric distribution. This result can be referred to classify of other species in Calligonum.
    The Localization Characteristics of Rhubarb Polysaccharide in Stems and Leaves of Rheum tanguticum Maxim.et Balf.var.liupanshanense Cheng et kao
    ZHANG Ying-Cai;LI Li
    2009, 29(6):  753-756.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.019
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    The storage and distribution laws of rhubarb polysaccharide in the stems and leaves of Rheum tanguticum Maxim.et Balf. var. liupanshanense Cheng et kao were studied by histochemical methods.The results showed that the distribution of rhubarb polysaccharide in stems and leaves was diverse.Rhubarb polysaccharide of the stems existed in the cortex,xylem parenchyma,phloem parenchyma of vascular bundle,pith ray and pith.With the gradual maturity of the stems,the content of rhubarb polysaccharide increased to certain degree.The epidermis,mesophyll tissue and vein of leaves accumulated a small amount of rhubarb polysaccharide.The ground tissue outside the bundle of petiole accumulated a small amount of rhubarb polysaccharide.In general,the distribution of rhubarb polysaccharide in stems and leaves was deficient.
    Research on Tissue Culture Regeneration of Hemerocallis middendorfii
    LI Xiu-Hua;DU Zhen;WU Yin-Yu;YAN Gui-Qin*
    2009, 29(6):  757-762.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.020
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    Using Hemerocallis middendorfii’s 6 varieties as experimental materials, we the investigated effects of hormone combination, types of explants, genotype and culture media on rooting of adventitious shoot. The results showed that, the best medium of Little bumble bee for callus and adventitious shoot differentiation was MS+1 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA, its callus induction rate, differentiation rate and mean shoot number per explant was 63.33%,91.11% and 5.86, respectively; however, the above indexes varied from genotype to genotype; scape was the best explant for inducing adventitious shoot in the three;1/2MS+0.2 mg·L-1 NAA was optimal for root formation of regenerated shoots, with 81.11% rooting rate and 6.08 roots per shoot; the conclusion was that we successfully established plant regeneration of three genotypes, mean shoot number per explant was all more than 4 and Stelladaorp was the most, which was 6.88.
    Antimicrobial Activity of Nitellopsis obtusa(Charophyta) and Optimization of Extraction Conditions
    CAI Jin;XIE Shu-Lian*;FENG Jia
    2009, 29(6):  763-768.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2009.06.021
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    The antimicrobial activity and extraction conditions of Nitellopsis obtusa was studied. The results showed that the ethanol extracts had obvious antimicrobial activities to Staphylococcus aurous, Bacillus subtilis and indistinctive activities to Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus flavus. Single factor test of extraction conditions of N.obtusa was also carried of by measuring the size of anti-microbe circle diameter. Through orthogonal design and experiments, it indicated that antibacterial activity was significantly influenced by the material to solvent ratio and extraction temperature of the extracts of N.obtusa, especially to S.aurous and B.subtilis. The optimum extraction conditions of N.obtusa were obtained the material to solvent ratio 1∶20, extraction temperature 85℃, 50% ethanol solution and 6 hours extraction time.