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    20 July 2011, Volume 31 Issue 4
    Two New Species of Paederia(Rubiaceae) from Mountain Emei,Sichuan
    ZHU Zheng-Yin;ZHU Shi-Jie
    2011, 31(4):  385-388.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.001
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    Two new species of Paederia Linn.,Paederia emeiensis Z.Y.Zhu et S.J.Zhu and P.changguan Z.Y.Zhu et S.J.Zhu,from Mountain Emei,Sichuan,China are described.
    Docynia longiunguis Q.Luo et J.L.Liu,a New Species of Docynia Dcne. from China
    LUO Qiang;LIU Jian-Lin;CAI Guang-Ze
    2011, 31(4):  389-391.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.002
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    Docynia longiunguis Q.Luo et J.L.Liu, a new species of Docynia Dcne. from Xichang City, Sichuan, China, was described in this paper. The new species appears to be similar to Docynia indica(Will.) Dcne. and Docynia delavayi(Franch.) Schneid., but differs by having bigger flowers, 3.5-4 cm in diameter, petals 20-25 mm long and 12-16 mm wide, with unguis at base, 5-9 mm long, stamens 46-53, ovaries 5-6(7), styles 5-6(7), fruits 3-4.5 cm in diameter.
    Microsporogenesis and Male Gametophyte Development of Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid
    WANG Ding-Kang;SUN Gui-Fang;ZHAI Shu-Hua;ZHAO Zheng;WANG Bin
    2011, 31(4):  392-396.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.003
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    Using traditional paraffin wax section, fluorescence microscopy, cytochemistry and TEM techniques, the microsporogenesis and male gametophyte development of Cynanchum otophyllum Schneid were observed in detail. The results showed that the anthers are 2-locular; the archesporium is hypodermal in origin and differentiates at two places; the archesporial cells divide periclinally to form a primary parietal layer and the primary sporogenous layer; the parietal layer then divides to form the tapetum; the tapetum is formed by 1-2 layers cells and is of the secretory type, it provides food materials to the developing microspores and the secretion to form the membrane of pollinium; the primary sporogenous cells function directly as the microspore mother cells; there are some starch grains, protein, endoplasm, chloroplast, lipocyte and vacuole existed in mature pollens; the membrane of pollen and pollinium contains protein and lipid; the nucleus of the microspore divides to produce the vegetative and generative nuclei; no true cell plate is formed but the cells are separated by a clear concave space; the generative cell is lenticular in outline and smaller in size than the vegetative cell.
    Optimization of Method for Extraction and Isolation of β-conglycinin from Soybean Seed
    SI Xiao-Xia;WANG Zhi;HUO Fei;SHI Tong-Lin;FU Yue-Jun;TIAN Huai-Dong*
    2011, 31(4):  397-402.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.004
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    β-conglycinin, one of the major storage proteins in soybean seeds, greatly influences the quality of soybean seed proteins. However, increasing the purity of the protein has always been one main problem affecting its characterization and identification. In this study, the purity of β-conglycinin was obviously increased by performing condition optimization of the two key links in the process of extraction and isolation of the protein, based on the method reported by Liu et al. Firstly, SBS at increased concentrations was added to the protein solution before the removing of glycinin (11S), the effect of concentration increase on the purity of β-conglycinin was analyzed, and the optimal concentration was determined as 0.03 mmol·L-1; Secondly, the mixed glycinin was removed once more by the water precipitation/centrifugation method before precipitating β-conglycinin. The purity of β-conglycinin finally increased to 98% after optimization. The results have important significance for the characterization and identification of β-conglycinin in the genetic research and breeding for soybean proteins.
    Floral Biology and Breeding System of Endangered Plant Scutellaria tsinyunensis Endemic to Chongqing,China
    LIU Kai-Quan;DENG Hong-Ping*
    2011, 31(4):  403-407.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.005
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    Scutellaria tsinyunensis is an endangered plant species endemic to Jinyun Mountain in Chongqing, China. This paper focuses on the floral biology and breeding system of S.tsinyunensis by using yield observation, stigma receptivity test, pollen-ovule ratio, out-crossing index, and fruit set under a serious pollination treatments. The results show that the floral display and floral design of S.tsinyunensis have a type of pollination syndrome fit for insects without nectary, Bombus and Syrphidae are the main pollinators. P/O ratios were 7 618±390, indicated that the breeding system was xenogamy. S.tsinyunensis is a self-incompatibility species demonstrated by the pollen transfer experiments. Besides the sexual interference and lower pollen viability and stigma receptivity, the limit of climate to pollination and no enough pollinator visiting contribute to the lower percentage of fruit setting, which is only about 20.08%. Considered the lower fruit set number (about 5.6/plant) and lower percentage of seed germination (only about 3%), the lower ability of reproduction may be the direct reason for the endangered status of S.tsinyunensis.
    Cloning of miR417 Gene from Halostachys caspica and Its Effects on the Rates of Seed Germination and Seedling Survival
    BAO Qian;XU Tao;ZHANG Fu-Chun*
    2011, 31(4):  408-413.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.006
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    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulating factor in plant. A series of researches show that expression of miR417 can be controlled by salt stress. In high salt conditions, miR417 of Arabidopsis has negatively regulating roles on the rate of the seed germination and seedling survival. According to the miRNA417 sequence analysis of known plants in miRbase database, the pre-miR417 has been successfully cloned from halophyte Halostachys caspica by the PCR technique in the present study. After the construction of plant expression vector pCAMBIA1301, the recombinant plasmid was transformed to Arabidopsis thaliana. The result indicated that the over-expression lines of HcmiR417 and miRNA417 had lower rates of seed germination and seedling survival than those of the wild type, but there was no significant difference between the two transformed lines. It primarily suggests that HcmiR417 plays a negative role in the seed germination and seedling survival, while the function of miRNA has no difference between Arabidopsis and H.caspica.
    Isolation and Analysis of Day-night Differential Expressed ESTs from Paraquilegia microphylla
    LIU De-Tuan;LI Wan-Sha;ZHA Hong-Guang;YANG Yong-Ping;HU Xiang-Yang*
    2011, 31(4):  414-421.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.007
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    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) based on magnetic beads technology was used to screen day-night differential expression genes of Paraquilegia microphylla living on the scree of the Baima snow mountain of Tibetan plateau. The daytime sample was used as tester and nighttime sample as driver for further analysis. Finally, 96 differential ESTs between two samples were sequenced. Sequences were analyzed with BlastX, Blast2go and KEGG. The results indicated that most differential expression proteins are related to material and energy metabolism, biosynthetic process, have nucleic acid binding, protein binding and transferase activity; and a few are responsive to stress, etc. These results will provide some prerequisites for further researches on alpine plants under harsh environments.
    Cloning and Characterization of ACC Synthase FhACS1 Gene from Fressia
    YUAN Yuan;WANG Yue;TANG Dong-Qin*;LIAN Fang-Qing
    2011, 31(4):  422-428.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.008
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    The full-length DNA and coding DNA sequence (CDS) of a new 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase FhACS1 gene was cloned from Fressia hybrida ‘Shangnong Jinhuanghou’ for the first time. DNA sequence of FhACS1 was 2 576 bp long including 433 bp of 5′-UTR and 373 bp of 3′-UTR. Start codon and stop codon located at 434 and 2 201 nt, respectively. This gene contained 3 introns and 4 exons. The full length of CDS is 1 371 bp, encoding a 51.2 kDa protein with 457 amino acid residues. The results showed that FhACS1 contained seven conserved domains of ACS proteins, which was highly homologous to ACS of Musa acuminata with amino acid sequence homology of 85%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that FhACS1 gene in Fressia was closely related to BaACS(BAC56949.1) in bamboo, OsACS1(AAA33888.1) in rice, and MaACS1(AAQ13435) in banana. Several putative cis-elements responding to phytohormones(ABA, GA and CTK) and stress (dehydration and cold) in FhACS1 were predicted using online promoter analysis software.
    Characterization of Immunodominant Membrane Protein Gene from Peanut Witches’ Broom Phytoplasma and Bait Plasmid Construction
    YANG Wen-Jun;ZHANG Yu-Liang;WANG Jian-Hua;YU Nai-Tong;LIN Zhan-Song;LIU Zhi-Xin*
    2011, 31(4):  429-435.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.009
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    The molecular mechanisms involving insect-vector-phytoplasma-host-plant relationships were poorly understood. Our study focused on a cell-surface membrane protein of the phytoplasma named immunodominant membrane protein (Imp). The objective of experiment was to get the basic information between the mechanism of phytoplasma-host-plant relationships. The target ORF had been amplified using primers designed based on the conserved regions of imp gene from phytoplasma. The amplified gene was analyzed for phylogenetic tree, and the encoding protein was analyzed for transmembrane region, hydrophilic and hydrophobic region in this study. The imp gene was inserted into pBT vector including λcI gene. Construction of the pBT-Imp plasmid can be used for experiment followed by conformed that imp-λcI fusing protein was expressed by IPTG induction, western blot and self-validation testing. The immunodominant membrane protein gene from peanut witches’ broom (PnWB) phytoplasma was 519 bp in length, encoding a predicted protein of 172 amino acids. Homology analysis of sequence from PnWB and 17 phytoplasma showed that imp gene of PnWB phytoplasma closely related to SPWB and WBDL phytoplasma, with homology rate of nucleotide being 99.9% and 79.8%, amino acids sequence, being 100% and 70.2%. Analysis of protein structure showed that the protein from PnWB phytoplasma possesses a region with C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane anchor and N-terminal hydrophilic characterization, possibly internal to the phytoplasma cell.
    Genetic Variation and Phylogeography of Picea likiangensis Inferred from RAPD Markers
    PENG Xiao-Li;WU Wang-Ze
    2011, 31(4):  436-442.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.010
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    The geographical isolations in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region were suggested to have played an important role in the high diversification of plants occurring there. It remains elusive whether this mechanism had also contributed to the morphological differentiation and the following speciation of the wind-pollinated conifers. In this study, we investigated the within-specific diversity and phylogenetic relationships of different variants within Picea likiangensis, a dominant forest species in this region based on random amplify polymorphism (RAPD) markers. Our results suggested that this species has a high overall genetic diversity with mean percentage of polymorphic loci at p=85.42%. Consistent with the initial expectation, a high level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on Nei’s genetic diversity (Gst=0.256) and AMOVA analysis (Phist=0.236). However, gene flow among populations are limited (Nm=1.453 2), far lower than reported for other conifers with the wide distribution ranges from the other regions. Three morphological variants respectively in the south, the north and the west show no corresponding clusters according to UPGMA analyses. However, this clustering pattern further suggests multiple origins of the north variants from the south one. It is a probable scenario if considering that more than one of refugia probably existed for this species in the south during the glacial stages and that the postglacial recolonizations from different refugia toward the north occurred. The intra-specific morphological differentiation in this species might reflect the ecological adaptation to the current environmental gradients.
    Numeric Dynamics of Endangered Plant Euonymus chloranthoides Populations after Habitat Fragmentation
    LIN Yong-Hui;HE Xing-Bing;TIAN Qi-Jian;HU Wen-Yong;CHEN Ling;HE Ping
    2011, 31(4):  443-450.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.011
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    Numeric dynamics of endangered plant Euonymus chloranthoides populations, only distributed in Chongqing, China, in the fragmented habitats including Beiwenquan, Jigongshan and Dongwenquan were analyzed in this study using static life table, fecundity schedule and Leslie’s matrix model. Static life table showed that the maximum age classes of plant individual in these three populations were 14, 13 and 9, respectively. Compared with the other two populations, Beiwenquan population had much more seedlings, but seedling population had higher disappearance rate (Kx). Fecundity schedule showed that the net reproductive rates (R0) were higher than 1, and the intrinsic rates of increase (rm) were higher than 0, indicating E.chloranthoides population could accomplish self-regeneration and was expanding. Numeric dynamics of E.chloranthoides population was predicted using Leslie’s matrix model. The result showed that the number of these three populations exhibited increasing trend in the future 20 years, which was consistent with the result of fecundity schedule. The endangering of E.chloranthoides was probably resulted from habitat fragmentation.
    Effects of Seasonal Snow Cover on Carbon,Nitrogen Accumulation and Distribution of Two Dominant Plants in the Alpine Meadow in Eastern Tibetan Plateau
    LIU Lin;WU Yan;SUN Geng;WU Ning*;ZHANG Lin;XU Jun-Jun
    2011, 31(4):  451-460.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.012
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    Based on the natural snow distribution, an experiment comparing three snow regimes of different snow depths and durations at an altitude of 4,100 m in the Minshan Range on the eastern Tibetan Plateau were conducted. These three snow regimes included a shallow and short duration snowpack (SS), a moderate snow depth and medium duration snowpack (MS), as well as a deep and long duration snowpack (DS). The results showed that deep snowcover promoted the biomass, carbon and nitrogen contents accumulation of Polygonum macrophyllum and Carex atrofusca and made the quantity and quality of their litter better. Moreover, the pattern on the accumulation and distribution of carbon and nitrogen in these two plants had some differences. Deep snowcover only promoted the roots growth and the accumulation of carbon and nitrogen contents in P.macrophyllum(forb), whereas it enhanced the aboveground and belowground biomass, carbon and nitrogen contents of C.atrofusca(graminoid). Deep snowcover enhanced the seed biomass, carbon and nitrogen contents of C.atrofusca, which might be a positive effect on seed reproduction ability. Thus, it was speculated that increased snow depth might enhance the competition of C.atrofusca and ultimately lead to the change in primary production and its structure, species component of vegetation community in the alpine meadow in eastern Tibetan Plateau.
    Comparison of 5 Species C4 Enzymes Activities, Pigments Contents and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters in Leaf and Branch Chlorenchyma of 3 Species C3 Woody Plants
    WANG Ying;WANG Wen-Jie;XU Hui-Nan;ZHENG Guang-Yu;SUN Wei;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2011, 31(4):  461-466.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.013
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    All these 3 species of clove, poplar and larch showed that the contents of Chl.a+b in leaf were significantly higher than those in branch, Chl.a/b had no significant differences in clove and larch(p>0.05), but Chl.a/b in branch of poplar was significantly lower than that in leaf(p<0.05). When expressed as unit of chlorophyll, the activities of PEPC, PEPCK, PPDK, NADP-ME, NADP-MDH in branch of clove were respectively 2.4 times, 4.1 times, 3.2 times, 4.5 times and 1.9 times of those in leaf; in branch of poplar were respectively 2.1 times, 15 times, 6.3 times, 6.3 times and 2.8 times of those in leaf, and the corresponding values for larch were respectively 6.8 times, 6.3 times, 4.3 times, 4 times and 5.5 times. However, the differences in enzymes activities between leaf and branch at fresh weight unit were much smaller comparing with so large differences in chlorophyll unit. Inter-species comparison showed that 5 enzymes in poplar leaf and branch were significantly higher than clove and larch. The fact that C4 enzymatic activities in branch chlorenchyma were much higher than leaf shows that C4 enzyme-related biochemical processes may exist in the woody chlorenchyma. Electronic transportation rate and PSⅡ efficiency of branch in clove and larch were greater than leaf and contrary tendency was found in poplar. Correlation analysis between photosynthetic parameters and C4 enzymes showed that the high C4 enzymatic activities generally had no influence on the chlorophyll fluorescence indices(p>0.05), indicating the complexity of C4 enzymes functions on the photosynthesis of branch chlorenchyma and C3 leaf.
    Comparison on the Physio-ecological Characteristics of Quercus variabilis Seedlings from Various Latitude Sites
    LIU Jian-Feng;XIAO Wen-Fa;XIONG Ding-Peng;LEI Jing-Ping*;WANG Peng-Cheng
    2011, 31(4):  467-471.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.014
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    To detect the latitudinal variances in seedlings leaf characteristics and biomass allocation patterns, three natural distribution populations of Quercus variabilis were selected from the southern (Anning county, Yunnan province, YN), central (Hefeng county, Hubei province, HB) and north boundary (Zhuanghe county, Liaoning province, LN). The leaf size, chlorophyll content, nitrogen content, light response parameters and the whole plant biomass allocation were measured. The results showed that: leaf length and width, the ratio of leaf length to width, and leaf area of relative high-latitude groups (LN) were greater than these of low-latitude groups (HB and YN). Leaf chlorophyll content and nitrogen content were found to increase with latitude. The high-latitude group (LN) had higher apparent quantum efficiency (α) and dark respiration rate (Rd), while the low-latitude populations (YN) showed higher maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax) and lower light compensation point (LCP). High-latitude group (LN) invested more matter into the aboveground biomass than the HB and the YN groups, which put more photosynthetic production into the roots.
    Withintwig Biomass Allocation in Evergreen and Deciduous Broadleaved Species:Allometric Scaling Analyses
    YANG Dong-Mei;MAO Lin-Can;PENG Guo-Quan*
    2011, 31(4):  472-477.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.015
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    Biomass allocation in current-year shoots (twigs) is an important parameter categorizing plant life history strategies, and it is an important driving factor for plant net carbon obtaining. In this study, the scaling relationships of biomass allocation within twigs of evergreen and deciduous species at Gongga mountain were estimated using standardized major axis estimation(SMA) and the phylogenetically independent contrast analysis(PIC) methods. The results indicated: Isometric relationships were found between twig mass and stem mass, leaf mass and lamina mass, as well as between stem mass and leaf mass, suggesting that the biomass allocation to either leaves or laminas were independent of twig mass; allometric relationships were found between petiole mass and leaf mass, as well as between petiole mass and twig mass, indicating the importance of leaf petioles to the within-twig biomass allocation; evergreen species tended to have a greater petiole mass at a given twig or lamina mass than deciduous species. Our results indicate that petioles serve as an adverse forcing on the maximization of lamina biomass and the allometric relationship between lamina and lamina support varies with species type.
    Tissue Distribution of 6 Kinds of Transport Heavy Metal Pollutants in Platanus hispanica Leaves and Annual Branches
    WANG Ai-Xia;FANG Yan-Ming*
    2011, 31(4):  478-488.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.016
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    Common street trees Platanus hispanica in Nanjing were used to study the distribution of six heavy metal elements (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn) in their leaves and annual branches tissue on both sides of the road in the heavy traffic areas and the relatively clean areas, in order to determine the distribution mechanism of heavy metal elements in tissues and their possible mechanisms to resist heavy metals. The results showed that leaves and annual branches of P.hispanica could absorb heavy metal pollutants to different extent depending on the kinds of heavy metals and tree tissues. Heavy metal contents in tissues of two kinds of organs in pollution regions were obviously higher than control sites (except Ni). Accumulation ability of leaf tissues to heavy metals is lower epidermis>upper epidermis, and sponge tissue>palisade tissue. Annual branches of P.hispanica have picon, wax and trichomes, therefore it can absorb heavy metal elements. The surface systems of branches that contacts directly with air pollutants are the main tissues to monitor and instruct, and heavy metals accumulated in the epidermis entered into the cortex and marrow by picon. It is related with the transport pathway of heavy metal elements, and the specific transport mechanism is to be further investigated. Finally, based on the experimental results, this study suggested that leaves and epidermis of stems were suitable for heavy metal pollution monitoring in the atmosphere, and both materials were easily collected with small damage. Therefore, it is strongly suggested to use leaves and barks of P.hispanica in air pollution monitoring.
    Analyses of the Genetic Relationships Among 22 Species of Manglietia Plants Using ISSR Markers
    XIAO Li;LI Xiao-Ling;WANG Yu-Bing;WANG Xi-Qun;CHEN Fa-Ju*
    2011, 31(4):  489-494.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.017
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    The genetic relationships among 22 species of Manglietia plants were analyzed by using inter-simple sequence repeat(ISSR) molecular-marked technique. Ten ISSR primers were selected to assess the genomes of 22 species of Manglietia plants. The result showed that a total of 595 DNA bands were amplified and 562 of which (94.45%) were polymorphic. According to the Nei-Li genetic similarity of 0.68, UPGMA method cluster analysis indicated that these 22 species were classified into 6 cluster groups, and they were classified into 12 sub-cluster groups with the genetic similarity of 0.70. The Nei-Li genetic similarities of 22 species of Manglietia ranged from 0.605 (between M.yuyuanensis and M.conifera) to 0.956 (between M.hookeri and M.wangii). The average genetic similarity is 0.698, which suggests that Manglietia have a plenty of inter-species diversity. The genetic similarity coefficient between M.hookeri and M.wangii is 0.956, and their genetic relationship is actually the closest. The result supports the classification of M.patungensis, M.yuyuanensis and M.forrestii as independent species respectively.
    Analysis of Genetic Diversity between Island and Mainland Natural Populations of Chenopodium album L. in Dalian Area by ISSR
    ZHANG Heng-Qing;TIAN Fei-Fei;JIA Jun-Ling;TAN Kun;DU Yang;FANG Xiao-Di;WU Jin-Mei
    2011, 31(4):  495-498.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.018
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    Using ISSR method, the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 100 individuals in four natural populations of Chenopodium album L. distributed in Dalian surrounding were studied in this paper. Through the amplification of ISSR with 13 primers, 157 loci were detected and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 67.52. Shannon’s information index was 0.332 9 at the species level, genetic variance was 40.03% among populations according to GST value. The genetic distances analysis showed that DT population and MLN population have the highest population genetic identity, genetic distances and geographic distances have no correlation.
    Comparison of the Determination Methods for Total Flavonoids in Pigeon Pea Leaves
    ZHAO En-Ze;JIN Shi;WEI Zuo-Fu;WEI Wei;FU Yu-Jie;*
    2011, 31(4):  499-502.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.019
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    AlCl-3, boric acid-citric acid-and Al(NO)3-based colorimetric assays were compared to determine the total flavonoids in pigeon pea leaves. The results indicated that Al(NO)3 colorimetric assay was the most appropriate for the determination of total flavonoids in pigeon pea leaves. The stability, precision and repeatability were very good, with RSD being 2.1%(n=3), 0.9%(n=3) and 2.3%(n=5), respectively. The content of total flavonoids in pigeon pea leaves was 15.65 mg·g-1 DW. The method is appropriate for the quantitative determination of total flavonoids in pigeon pea leaves and their preparations. It can be referenced for the quality control of pigeon pea leaves.
    Preparation and Characterization of Water-soluble Panax Notoginsenosides
    LI Wen-Gang;ZHAO Xiu-Hua*;ZU Yuan-Gang
    2011, 31(4):  503-507.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.020
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    To improve the water-solubility, In vivo stability and bioavailability of Panax notoginsenosides(PNS), superfine PNS powder was carried on by the spray-drying process. In this paper, the optimal conditions for preparing superfine PNS powder by spray-drying process were obtained by using orthogonal experimental analysis and each index for superfine PNS powder was detected. After the orthogonal experimental analysis, the optimal preparation conditions were obtained as follows: Inlet temperature 140℃, concentration of PNS 65 g·L-1, feeding flow 30 L·h-1 and air pulse 4. The physicochemical properities of PNS original powder were examined. SEM result demonstrated that the morphology of the superfine PNS powder appears regular, the particle size is 70.5 nm as measured by laser particle size analyzer. The infrared spectrum examination result confirmed that the chemical property of the superfine PNS powder is similar to original powder. DSC and X-Ray examinations showed that the crsytal structure of the superfine PNS powder is different from PNS original powder, indicating the increase of water-solubility.
    Comparison of the Physicochemical Property of Panax notoginseng Saponins Original Powder and Submicron Powder
    WANG Kun-Lun;ZHAO Xiu-Hua;ZU Yuan-Gang*;LI Jia-Lei;LI Wen-Gang
    2011, 31(4):  508-512.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2011.04.021
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    To assess the advantages and disadvantages of Panax notoginseng Saponins original powder and submicron powder, and provide basis for the marketing of P.notoginseng saponins submicron powder, the physicochemical properties of two powders including particle size, electric potential, microscopic structure, infrared spectrum and dissolution velocity were studied The experimental results indicated that P.notoginseng saponins original powder turned into submicron powder after nanocrystallization without chemical structure change. Its microscopic structure was changed from banded crystal to irregularly shaped nanospheres arranged closely, its powder average particle size was shrinked from 1 122.4 nm to 153.4 nm, finishing the shift from micron to nanometer, its water solution was changed from true solution to stable colloidal solution. Using HPLC, under the condition of simulated human environment, it was found that P.notoginseng saponins submicron powder dissolved completely 1 min earlier than original powder. The experiment results showed that P.notoginseng saponins submicron powder is smaller than original powder in particle size, more soluble in water and more usable for human body.