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    20 September 2014, Volume 34 Issue 5
    Five new species of the genus Delphinium(Ranunculaceae) from Southwest China
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2014, 34(5):  577-583.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.001
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    Five species of the genus Delphinium(Ranunculaceae), D.trichophoroides, D.langxianense, D.tephranthum, D.quinqueflorum and D.lagarocentum, are described as new from Southwest China. The diagnostic differences between them and their allies are given.
    Phylogenetic Relationship of Genus Kumanoa(Batrachospermales,Rhodophyta) Based on Chloroplast UPA Genes
    NAN Fang-Ru;FENG Jia;XIE Shu-Lian*
    2014, 34(5):  584-591.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.002
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    The chloroplast UPA genes were amplified and sequenced for two species in genus Kumanoa from China, including K.intorta(former Batrachospermum intortum) and K.curvata(former B.curvatum), as well as another four Batrachospermum species. The sequences were aligned with related groups from GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the methods of Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining. The results showed that the percentages of nucleotide variation sites and parsimony informative sites in UPA are 43.1% and 31.1%, respectively. The species divergence within genus ranges 0-1.81% and between genus is greater than 4.19%, so it is potential to be a molecular barcode to analyze phylogenetic relationships. Two species of Kumanoa from China were clustered together with another species of this genus from across the world, and supported Kumanoa separated from Batrachospermum. The ancestral geographic analysis showed the genus Kumanoa was derived from Eurasia and North America, and then dispersed to other continents with modern geographic advantage in South America.
    Relationship between Structural Development and Accumulation of Saponins in the Root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd
    TENG Hong-Mei;CAI Xia;HU Zheng-Hai
    2014, 34(5):  592-598.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.003
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    We investigated the structural development of roots with their dynamic accumulation of saponins in Polygala tenuifolia by anatomical, histochemical and phytochemical approaches. The saponins were distributed in the root parenchyma, and the secondary phloem was the main storage region of saponins. We took senegenin as an evaluation index to analyze the regularity of saponins accumulation. During the growth period from April to October, the percentage of senegenin content of roots in different years had dynamic variant trend, the senegenin percent content had the similar result, and the order was annual roots>biennial roots>triennial roots>quadrennial roots showing that the younger root had higher content. The length, diameter, thickness of the “skin areas” and dry weight as well as the total senegenin content of roots increased most quickly from the second to the third growth year. Considering the yield and the quality, the middle ten days of August in the third growing year was optimal collecting period for the drug of P.tenuifolia.
    Effects of Shading on the Photosynthesis Characteristics and Fruit Traits of Laiweili Raspberry
    WANG Xiao-Dong;HE Guo-Qiang;ZHAO Li-Qun;HU Yan-Bo;LI Chang-Hai*
    2014, 34(5):  599-603.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.004
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    In this study, Laiweili raspberry seedlings were used as materials, and treated by different shading intensities (2 treatment groups: group 1 (T1)-40% sunlight; group 2 (T2)-60% sunlight; CK-sunlight). After shading treatments for 60 d, the morphological and physiological parameters (growth rate, flowering and fruiting, photosynthetic characteristics) were measured under different light intensities. The results showed that Pn values of the treated leaves were reduced by 28% for T1 and 53% for T2 as compared with CK. Shading treatments led to significant reductions (P<0.05) in light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), dark respiration rate (Rd) and apparent quantum efficiency (α). However, there was no significant differences in the above parameters between T1 and T2(P>0.05). Moreover, the shading treatments also resulted in significant reductions in the number of basal branches and root-sprouting seedlings, of which the number of basal branches of T1 treatment was only one third of CK. The fruit mature period was delayed by 8 d for T1 and 20 d for T2 as compared with CK.
    Classification and Ordination of Picea wilsonii Forests in the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve
    LI Lin-Feng;ZHNAG Jin-Tun*;ZHOU Lan;SHAO Dan
    2014, 34(5):  604-611.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.005
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    According to the 60 quadrats data, Picea wilsonii forests in the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve were investigated by using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) and redundancy analysis (RDA). The results showed that (1)60 quadrats were classified into 9 groups, representing 9 types of plant communities. (2)The results of RDA ordination clearly reflected the relationships between the distribution pattern of communities and environmental gradients. The distribution pattern of communities was obvious in the first axis gradient, mainly representing elevation and slope position gradients, which resulting in vertical distribution pattern of P.wilsonii forests in this reserve. (3)The statistical significance of the effect of each variable was tested by a Monte Carlo permutation test, and only elevation, slope position and soil pH were significantly related to the species data at the 5% level, indicating that there were significant collinearity effects among aspect of slope, slope and litter layer thickness. Variation partitioning showed that the independent effects of elevation, slope position and soil pH decreased successively, and elevation, slope position were the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of P.wilsonii forests.
    Niche Characteristics of Dominant Plant Populations of Alsophila spinulosa Community of Danxia Landform in North Guizhou
    XU De-Jing;WANG Peng-Peng;HE Yue-Jun*;GUO Neng-Bin;ZHANG Ren-Bo;WU Chang-Bang;MU Jun;LI Chong-Qing
    2014, 34(5):  612-618.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.006
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    The objectives of the present study were to discuss the status and utilization of resources and the mutual relationship of dominant plant population, to reveal the stability of phytocoenosium and ecological adaptability of plant population under the specific environment, to accumulate theory data for further research on Alsophila spinulosa competion with other species, meanwhile, to provide reference of the protection, utilization and related research for China Danxia world natural heritage. Based on the sample investigation of A.spinulosa community of Danxia Landform in North Area, Guizhou, with the method of quantitative analysis, the niche breadths proportional similarity and overlaps of main dominant species were measured using a series of indices proposed. The results showed that the niche breadth values of Brassaiopsis glomerulata, Maesa japonica and A.spinulosa are the biggest, Shannon Wiener indices were 7.607 6, 7.344 9 and 6.910 5, Levins indices were 0.531 4, 0.593 1 and 0.651 5, respectively, which showed that they are all widely distributed within the community, having strong ability to adapt to the environment; Cinnamomum wilsonii and Mallotus repandus niche proportional similarity value was 0.998 6, it was the biggest in all species pairs; Ficuslaceratifolie Levl and Beilschmiedia delicata niche overlap values were the biggest, the index was 0.336 5. Normally, if the niche breadth of the species pairs is wider, the interspecific niche proportional similarity value is higher, niche overlap is also bigger, but niche overlap and niche proportional similarity of some species does not necessarily high. It was closely related to ecological and biological characteristics of species. From the view of the distribution pattern of niche overlap and proportional similarity, there were generally niche overlaps among main populations, but the niche overlaps were mostly at low level, indicated that the interspecific competition generated by utilizing same resources or occupying specific resources was not intense, and the environmental resources could be sufficiently shared by different populations. The Alsophila spinulosa forest communities of Danxia Landform in North Guizhou were at relatively stable stage.
    Characteristics of Soil Lead Tolerance, Accumulation and Distribution in Salix babylonica Linn. and Salix jiangsuensis J172
    WANG Qing-Bing;CHEN Guang-Cai*;FANG Juan;LOU Chong;ZHANG Jian-Feng
    2014, 34(5):  626-633.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.008
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    Patience plants provide a good way for phytoremediation of environmental pollution. In this paper, two willow species, Salix babylonica Linn. and S.jiangsuensis J172 were selected to test the lead tolerance, lead accumulation and distribution in plants through pot experiments with different soil Pb concentrations. The results showed that a significantly negative correlation relationship existed between S.babylonica and soil available lead, the biomass of root for Salix insignificantly decreased under low concentrations of Pb2+ at a variation of 0-1 200 mg·kg-1 and 0-800 mg·kg-1 for S.babylonica Linn. and S.jiangsuensis J172, respectively, which suggested that S.babylonica Linn. had a better tolerance than S.jiangsuensis J172 under Pb2+ stress. The root length, root surface area, root volume and root diameter of both willow species decreased with the increase of soil Pb2+ concentration. At Pb2+ concentration of 1 600 mg·kg-1, the root length, root surface area, root volume and root diameter of S.babylonica Linn. and S.jiangsuensis J172 decreased by 50.40%, 45.15%, 44.44%, 9.10%, and 45.00%, 45.88%, 47.02%, 37.14%, respectively, as compared with the control. Both willow species accumulated more lead in roots than that in stems and leaves, the order of lead accumulation in different organs of two kinds of willows are root>stem>leaf. At Pb2+ concentration of 800 mg·kg-1, the tolerance indices of S.babylonica Linn. and S.jiangsuensis J172 were 91.15% and 84.26%, the uptake of lead from the soil in them reached 140.20 and 149.49 mg, respectively. These results indicated that these two willow species has greater potential for restoration of medium soil lead contamination.
    Carbon Density and Its Distribution of Pinus koraiensis Plantations in Different Regions of Heilongjiang Province
    SONG Wen-Yi;CAI Hui-Ying;JIN Guang-Ze*;LI Feng-Ri;JIA Wei-Wei;CUI Xiao-Yang
    2014, 34(5):  619-625.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.007
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    We explored the importance of forest carbon density and its distribution pattern for forest and global carbon cycling. By using the forest inventory and allometric approaches, we measured carbon density and its distribution characteristics of young growth Pinus koraiensis plantations in different regions of Heilongjiang Province including southern slope of Xiaoxing’an Mountains, eastern slope of Zhangguangcai Mountains, western slope of Zhangguangcai Mountains, and Wanda Mountain). Among different regions, vegetation C pool and detritus C pool of P.koraiensis plantations varied significantly, but there was no significant differences in soil C pool and total C density. Vegetation, detritus, soil and total ecosystem C density were 35.95-76.36, 3.52-11.34, 101.96-173.37 and 154.54-256.78 tC·hm-2, respectively. The distribution proportion of each ecosystem components were 18.78%-30.34%, 1.79%-5.24% and 65.58%-79.43%, respectively, and all differed significantly among regions. Overstory organs (except leaf) C density and its distributions were different significantly among regions. The C density of stem, branch, leaf and root were 22.47-47.11, 2.30-12.31, 2.90-5.80 and 7.02-17.16 tC·hm-2, respectively. And the corresponding distribution proportion were 51.98%-64.80%, 6.68%-17.19%, 6.55%-834% and 20.23%-22.55 %, respectively. Root-shoot ratio (R/S) and ratio of soil C density (include detritus C density) to vegetation C density (SC/VC) were 0.26-0.29 and 2.31-4.69, respectively, with significant difference among regions. Basal area exhibited highly significant positive correlation with overstory C density, vegetation C density and forest ecosystem total C density (P<0.01), which can well reflect the dynamic of forest ecosystem C density.
    Potential Distribution Prediction and Suitability Evaluation of Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don based on Maxent Modeling and GIS
    WANG Juan-Juan;CAO Bo;BAI Cheng-Ke*;ZHANG Lin-Lin;CHE Le
    2014, 34(5):  642-649.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.010
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    Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don(Liliaceae, Fritillaria L.) is a perennial herb possessing important medicinal properties in its dried bulbs. However, exhaustion of the wild resources of this species was seriously occurred in recent years. In this study, potential distribution prediction and suitability evaluation of F.cirrhosa were conducted and the main influential environmental factors were determined using 108 geographic occurrence records and 16 environmental variables based on Maxent modeling and GIS (ArcGIS 9.3). Our results showed that the potential distribution area of F.cirrhosa was mainly located in the southwest of Sichuan province, the northwest of Yunnan province and the southeast of Tibet. F.cirrhosa was also fragmentally distributed in the northwest of Guizhou province and the southwest of Gansu province. Within these areas, Sichuan (Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture and Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture), Yunnan (Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture and Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture), Tibet (the districts of Nyingchi, Shannan and Xigaze) were determined as the largest highly potential distribution areas (suitability index>0.5). The Maxent modeling showed that isothermality (contribution percent, 20.2%), annual average precipitation(16.6%), altitude(14.3%), standard deviation of temperature seasonal change(14.2%), minimum temperature of January(10.9%) and soil pH(7.9%) were the main influential environmental factors that affecting the distribution of F.cirrhosa. Further analysis of niche parameters demonstrated that F.cirrhosa prefers to grow in plateau areas with low annual range of temperature and high daily range of temperature and its suitable habitat requirements were altitude around 2 500-3 500 m, annual average precipitation around 850-905 mm, minimum temperature of January around -3.5-4.7℃ and faintly acid soil (pH around 6.66). The above results will provide valuable references for the wildlife tending, the plantation regionalization, and the standard cultivation of F.cirrhosa.
    Differentiation of Chlorophyll Content and Its Relationships with SPAD Value for the Main Greening Tree Species in Northwestern Liaoning Province
    WANG Kai;WU Xiang-Yun;DUAN Hai-Xia;LI Na;ZHANG Li-Na
    2014, 34(5):  634-641.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.009
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    Using spectrophotometry method and portable chlorophyll meter SPAD-502, the chlorophyll content and SPAD value of main greening tree species in northwestern Liaoning Province were measured, and the relationships between chlorophyll content and SPAD value were investigated in the present study. The results showed that chlorophyll a/b ranged from 2.35 to 3.83. When the euclidean distance was 10, the greening tree species could be divided into 3 groups: 6 low, 29 medium, and 20 high chlorophyll a/b tree species. The mean was 2.50, 2.97 and 3.52, respectively, and the differences were significant(P<0.05). Low chlorophyll a/b indicated better using of weak light for plant. The above results showed the shadetolerance for tree species in northwestern Liaoning Province. The unit fresh weight, unit area chlorophyll content, and SPAD value varied in ranges of 0.73-4.61 mg·g-1, 0.21-0.99 g·m-2 and 29.42-75.51, respectively, with the variation coefficients of 43.6%, 35.2% and 23.0%, respectively. The SPAD value was insignificantly correlated with unit fresh weight chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a+b content(P>0.05), but was significantly positively correlated with unit area chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and chlorophyll a+b content(P<0.001). Furthermore, the relationship was ranked as: chlorophyll a(R=0.67)>chlorophyll a+b(R=0.61)>chlorophyll b(R=0.56). These results indicated that chlorophyll content of main greening tree species was lower in northwestern Liaoning Province. SPAD values could be used to represent the difference in interspecific unit area chlorophyll content, but could not reflect the unit weight chlorophyll content. Tree choice and allocation could be made properly according to shade tolerance.
    Effect of Clonal Growth on Mating System of Invasive Plant Coreopsis lanceolata
    ZENG Jian-Jun;XIAO Yi-An;SUN Min*;ZHOU Bing
    2014, 34(5):  650-654.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.011
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    The main pollinator behaviors of Coreopsis lanceolata were observed. The average flight distance of native bees is 12.71 cm, and the farthest distance is 60 cm in population. They usually stay on one florescence for 10 sec. It could visit 2.59 plants between its come-and-go in population. Our results showed that high pollen viability and pollinator movement and a lot of visiting bees ensure high out-crossing rate (the yield of seeds is about 12000 per plant). In this paper, we simulated the distribution of different genetic ramets of C.lanceolata, the results showed that different genetic ramets mixing standard influence the seed-setting remarkably. High genetic diversity of population, the pollinator movement and the guerrilla growth strategy could disperse the ramets, these traits lower the rate of geitonogamy. Therefore, the disadvantage of clonal outbreeding mating system could be avoided effectively, C.lanceolata could keep a high outcrossing rate. This strategy could improve its invasive ability.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of GpSOD in Grimmia pilifera
    SONG Xiao-Hong;SHA Wei*
    2014, 34(5):  655-663.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.012
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    Superoxide dismutases (SOD) is widespread in plant where it plays a major role in the defense against toxic-reduced oxygen species, and has been proposed to be important for plant stress tolerance. In this study, a full length cDNA sequence of a superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene named GpSOD was cloned from Grimmia pilifera(GenBank accession No. GU989312) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full length cDNA of GpSOD was 1 115 bp with a 771 bp open reading frame (ORF). Sequence analysis showed that GpSOD is a hydrophobic and non-secretory protein, with two copper-zinc superoxide dismutase sites, and belongs to the Sod Cu families. GpSOD protein shares 68.8%-86.8% homology with SOD proteins from other plants. QRT-PCR analysis showed that although GpSOD was expressed in both dehydration and rehydration, but induced significantly in dehydration, and inhibited in rehydration. The results demonstrated that the GpSOD is closely related to the process of response to drought stress in G.pilifera, which provided premise conditions for oxidative stress genes further seeking.
    SSR Analysis on Genetic Diversity of Different Generations in Castanopsis eyrei from Wuyishan,Fujian Province
    ZHOU Xiao-Li;YANG Qing;DING Hui;FANG Yan-Ming*;XU Hai-Gen;CHEN Xiao
    2014, 34(5):  671-677.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.014
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    The populations of Castanopsis eyrei collected from Daanyuan plots in Wuyishan city, Fujian province were divided into 3 generations according to the size class, i.e. adults, juveniles, seedlings. A total of 92 alleles were detected with 14 pairs of SSR primers, and a mean of 6.571 4 alleles were detected with per pair primer. The mean effective number of alleles (Ae) and expected heterozygosity (He) at population level were 3.905 4 and 0.722 9, respectively. These data suggested that the genetic diversity of C.eyrei was quite high. SSR analyses showed that the highest effective number of alleles (Ae), expected heterozygosity (He), Nei index, Shannon information index were detected in seedlings, juveniles took the second place and the lowest were detected in adults. The most rare alleles was found in seedlings. It suggested that the trend of genetic diversity of the population of C.eyrei was in ascension. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the genetic diversity might exist within and among different generations of C.eyrei populations, but mainly exist within generations. SSR analyses showed that gene differentiation coefficient (Fst) among generations of C.eyrei populations was 0.074 3 while the gene flow (Nm) was 3.115 4. The genetic identity between adults and seedlings was the lowest. The genetic distance between adults and seedlings was the highest. Based on the analysis of SSR, establishment of nature reserve and conservation of the rare alleles in seedlings and adults is of great importance.
    Cloning,Bioinformatics and Expression Analysis of SlMYBL Gene in Tomato
    LIU Xia;HU Zong-Li;ZHANG Yan-Jie;ZHU Ming-Ku;YIN Wen-Cheng;CHEN Guo-Ping*
    2014, 34(5):  664-670.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.013
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    MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants and are involved in plant growth and metabolism. According to the tomato sequences in the NCBI database, a 1 630 bp DNA fragment was cloned by RT-PCR from wild-type tomato AC++, and its opening reading-frame (ORF) was 1 245 bp, encoding 414 amino acids with a conservative DNA binding domain: MYB-like, C-terminal end and multiple phosphorylation sites, named SlMYBL. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that SlMYBL protein might be localized in the mitochondrial matrix and cytoplasm. Secondary structure prediction suggested that SlMYBL protein contains 26.33% alpha helix, 65.46% of no rules curl and 6.28% of the extended chain and 1.93% beta collapse. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis showed that SlMYBL was highly expressed in mature leaves, stems, and sepals comparing with other tissues, and was induced by exogenous ethylene precursor IAA, ABA. In addition, the expression of SlMYBL was also induced under high and low temperatures, injury and salt stress. These results lay a foundation for further study on function of the SlMYBL gene in the process of growth and development of tomato.
    Female-specific RAPD and SCAR Markers in Celastrus orbiculatus
    WEI Li-Juan;ZHANG Juan*;LIU Lin-De;WANG Lei;ZHAO Tong-Xin
    2014, 34(5):  687-693.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.016
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    Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. belongs to Celastrus L. of the family Celastraceae. As a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, it has great ornamental value and important medicinal value. It is a dioecious vine, a small amount of them are andromonoecy plants. However, the morphological differences between the male and female plants are not obvious before the maturation of their sex organs, which restricts the early cultivation and breeding. Currently, molecular markers have been widely used in the sex identification of dioecious plants. But the research on the sex differentiation of C.orbiculatus at the molecular level has not been reported. Due to unknown genome sequence, many studies on C.orbiculatus are limited in the field of chemistry and cultivation technology, which greatly limits its utilization. In this study, differentiation among dioecious plants was compared using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. It is the first time to use the RAPD markers on the study of C.orbiculatus. Using the young leaves of male and female plants as materials, we extracted the DNA using the improved CTAB method. Then through screening of different factors, we established the optimized PCR system. Based on the above PCR system, we selected 100 RAPD primers to conduct the analysis. Significantly different bands were amplified using primer S127, S140, S148, S174 and S111, respectively. These different bands were cloned into the T-vector, and then sequenced. Based on the sequences, the specific SCAR markers were obtained. Only one female-associated dominant SCAR marker from RAPD marker S111 was verified. Sequence analysis showed that this female specific fragment contained nine open reading frames (ORF) between 93-570 bp in length, among which two have more than 100 amino acids. The results of sequence Blast showed that the polypeptide fragment had a higher similarity with plants reverse transcription factor of the gag-POL protein, which belongs to UBN2 super family. We inferred a possible reason of the gender traits is that the insertion of the reversal seat factor may inhibit some important sex-determining factors. In the future, we need to get their full-length sequences using RACE, and then study their function on sex differentiation.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Gibberelin 20 Oxidase Gene from Camellia lipoensis Chang et Xu
    XIAO Zheng;LI Ji-Yuan*;FAN Zheng-Qi;YIN Heng-Fu
    2014, 34(5):  678-686.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.015
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    In this study, gibberellin 20 oxidase gene was cloned from the stems of Camellia lipoensis Chang et Xu using RT-PCR and RACE methods. The full length of the GA20 oxidase gene, named ClGA20ox2, was 1 567 bp(GenBank accession No.KF823787), which contained a 1 146 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 382 amino acid residues, contained a 5′-UTR with 115 bp and 3′-UTR with 303 bp. The putative protein molecular weight was 43.56 kD and its theoretical isoelectric point was 7.02. The deduced amino acid sequence of the ClGA20ox2 protein shares 73% and 72% identities with those of Nerium indicum and Populus trichocarpa, respectively. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of amino acid sequences suggested that the relationship of GA oxidase from C.lipoensis was most intimate with those from N.indicum and P.trichocarpa. The results from the analysis on tissue specific expression showed that the endogenous ClGA20ox2 gene expression levels in the root, stem, leaf and seed of C.lipoensis were different. The ClGA20ox2 transcripts were the most abundant in two-year old stem, followed by young leaf and root, and then mature leaf and seed, the lowest transcripts were found in apical shoot meristems.
    Total Nitrogen Concentration and Pedogenic Function of Bryophyte Crust in Typical Vegetations in Upstream of Chishui River
    WANG Deng-Fu;ZHANG Zhao-Hui*
    2014, 34(5):  706-711.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.019
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    An investigation on the bryophyte species in typical vegetations in upstream of Chishui river was conducted. The total nitrogen concentration and pedogenic function of Brachythecium plumosum, Entodon dolichocucullatus, Hypnum fujiyamae, Claopodium rugulosifolium and Campylopus subfragilis were studied. The results showed: (1) There are 26 taxa of bryophytes belonging to 18 genera and 14 families and the dominant bryophytes were the mosses; (2) The biomass and pedogenesis amount of these 5 bryophytes crust were 0.40-36.80 and 9.60-249.20 g·m-2, respectively. The biomass and pedogenesis amount were higher in H.fujiyamae, which has significance in the water and soil loss control; (3) The total nitrogen concentrations of bryophytes and soil were 1.20%-1.87% and 0.07%-0.50%, respectively. The total nitrogen concentration was the highest between H.fujiyamae and soil, and the lowest between C.subfragilis and soil. With the increasing of altitude, the total nitrogen concentration decreased after an initial increase; (4) Correlation analysis showed that the differences in total nitrogen concentration between plant and soil were significant, the total nitrogen concentration in plant was 17.14 times of that in soil, however, the total nitrogen concentration in plant was significantly positively correlated with that in soil. Study on the total nitrogen concentrations of plant and soil lays the foundation for biogeochemical study in this area.
    Molecular Identification and Diversity Analysis of Papaya Mosaic Viruses in Hainan Province
    ZHANG Yu-Liang;HUANG Qi-Xing;ZHU Li-Di;KONG Hua;ZENG Hui-Cai;JIANG Hao-Yuan;LIU Zhi-Xin*
    2014, 34(5):  694-699.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.017
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    Papaya ring spot virus(PRSV) and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus(PLDMV) are dominant viruses causing papaya leaf mosaic disease in tropical and subtropical regions, threatening papaya planting industry. In this study, 27 suspected papaya leaf mosaic disease samples were collected and identified from Sanya, Ledong, Wanning and Qionghai in Hainan province. Total RNA from leaves was extracted and used for reverse transcription to obtain the corresponding cDNAs. Gene-specific primers were designed according to CP, P1, Hc-Pro and NIb gene nucleotide sequences from PRSV genome and CP gene nucleotide sequences from PLDMV genome. By PCR and sequencing, 20 PRSV-infected samples(74.1%), 3 PLDMV-infected samples(11.1%) and 1 PRSV-PLDMV cross-infected sample(3.7%) were identified. Phylogeny analysis showed that 3 PRSV varieties were existed in Hainan province with high strain differentiation, whereas, PLDMV varieties in Hainan province had a common origin with PLDMV varieties from Taiwan and Chian and Japan. The results showed that PRSV and PLDMV were dominant papaya mosaic viruses in Hainan, and the homology was below 95% during 3 PRSV varieties. This study would contribute to the subsequent construction of bivalent expression vector that could resist both PRSV and PLDMV viruses.
    Demography History and Genetic Divergence of Sibiraea laevigata(Rosaceae) Based on Chalcone Synthase Gene
    FU Peng-Cheng;GAO Qing-Bo;ZHANG Fa-Qi;CHEN Shi-Long;*
    2014, 34(5):  700-705.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.018
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    The demography history and genetic divergence of alpine shrub Sibiraea laevigata were studied with 13 populations (139 individuals) collected in the whole distribution area in China, using the intron of chalcone sythase (CHS) as molecular marker. A total of 29 haplotypes were identified in S.laevigata, indicating high haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity which were 0.924 8 and 0.007 545, respectively. Bayesian calculation illustrated the genetic divergence in S.laevigata began at around 4.37 Ma, proved that the uplift of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau triggered the genetic divergence. Neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis consistently indicated the populations of S.laevigata had experienced recent population expansion at about 55.8 ka.
    Optimization of SRAP-PCR System for Opisthopappus taihangensis(Ling) Shih by Uniform Design
    ZHANG An-Shi;LIU Ying;ZHANG Wei-Min;ZHAO Li-Xin
    2014, 34(5):  712-715.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.020
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    In the present study, SRAP-PCR reaction conditions for Opisthopappus taihangensis(Ling) Shih were optimized. The factors affecting SRAP results of O.taihangensis were investigated by uniform designs of two times. The optimal protocol was accomplished in 10 μL reaction volumes containing 1.3 μL template DNA, 0.35 μL primers and 5.3 μL 2×Taq MasterMix. Under this optimal condition, clear and polymorphic bands from 11 O.taihangensis plants had been obtained using Me1/em4 primers. The result showed that the reaction condition was suitable for SRAP-PCR reaction system of O.taihangensis.
    Practicability of Four Models of Light-Response Curves of Photosynthesis to Three Mahonia Species
    QIAN Yi-Fan;LIAO Yong-Mei;QUAN Qiu-Mei;CHEN Lan-Ying;LI Yun-Xiang*
    2014, 34(5):  716-720.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2014.05.021
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    In this paper, four models of light-response curves of photosynthesis were used to fit the light response data of three species of Mahonia, and the primary parameters and indices obtained by different models were compared. It was showed that the fitted results using different models for the same species and using the same model for different species were different. The main photosynthetic parameters calculated by the modified rectangular hyperbola model were in good agreement with the measured data of three species of Mahonia. Therefore, we should consider the whole fitted results rather than one amongst parameters as a standard to choose the most optimal light response model in the study of the light-response of the plants.