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    05 September 2020, Volume 40 Issue 5
    Research Report
    Variation of Stem-leaf Size Relationship of Woody Plants among Different LifeForms in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden
    SHANG Kan-Kan, ZHANG Xi-Jin, SONG Kun
    2020, 40(5):  641-647.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.001
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    There is a significant positive correlation between stem and leaves, which determines the plant architecture and biomass allocation. In this study, leaf and stem mass, total leaf area, stem cross-sectional area of 70 cm long leading-shoot were investigated for 149 woody species in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden. The stem-leaf size relationships were analyzed for individuals in similar habitats. The results showed that there was allometric scaling relationships with stem cross-sectional area and total leaf area with a common slop(a=1.148 6, CI=1.000 6-1.302 3) for different life forms. However, leaf mass was found to be isometrically related to stem mass(a=1.054 2, CI=0.921 3-1.205 6) for all life forms. For both of area-based or mass-based stem-leaf relationship, there were significant differences in allometric/isometric regression constants b(y-intercept) among different life forms. Deciduous trees had larger leaf area than evergreen trees and shrubs given the same stem cross-sectional area, while evergreen trees and deciduous trees had larger leaf mass than evergreen shrubs given the same stem mass. Therefore, this may be related to the difference of water competition efficiency and leaf construction cost among different life-forms of woody plants.
    Adaptive Differentiation of NBA1/MERIT40 of Three Species of Hippophae L.——Discussion on the Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Hybrid Identification
    SUN Kun, DING Xue-Yang, ZHANG Hui, LI Xue-Li, WANG Ying, WANG Juan, LIU Ben-Li
    2020, 40(5):  648-658.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.002
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    With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, the study of molecular mechanisms of adaptive evolution in the "Omics" level has become a hotspot of evolutionary research. In this study, transcriptome sequencing was carried out using materials of Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis, H.neurocarpa and H.goniocarpa that is a hybrid species from homoploid hybridization between the former two species, and the gene of subunit NBA1 of BRA1-A&BRISC complex was selected to deeply study on the basis of its positive selection(w>1). Bioinformatics analysis found that the coding region of NBA1 gene was 771 bp in three sea buckthorns in length, which was a nuclear localized hydrophilic protein that encoding a total of 256 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of NBA1 of H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa have different loci which is loci of 218 and 236. The site of 218 which close to ligand binding sites in H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis is different from the VWA domain of H.neurocarpa and terrestrial plants, and it has been mutated from conserved leucine to methionine. This resulted in a significant change in the protein tertiary structure of H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa, and makes the protein binding sites have significant difference in spatial structure. Above all, we speculated that the NBA1 subunits differ in binding to another subunit. Mainly led to the difference in the BRCA1-A complex repair DNA damage repair function that caused by UV radiation, and it may be related to the adaptation of H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa to different elevations. In addition, Sanger sequencing has verified the accuracy of the next generation sequencing results, and has proved that is a homozygous gene of single copy in two parental species H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis and H.neurocarpa, and exists in codominant allele way in H.goniocarpa. Further analysis found that the next generation sequencing data is not suitable for identifying hybrids at the level of individual, but it can reflect the parental source of the hybrid randomly to some extent if we parallel sequencing in multiple individuals within the populations. This study provides a reference data for further revealing the molecular mechanism of adaptation of Hippophae L. to different altitudes, and proposes advice in choose transcriptome sequencing methods to identify hybrid species.
    Relation between Forest Cover Rate and Time Lag of PM2.5
    LI San, GUO Jin-Lu, ZHENG Yu
    2020, 40(5):  659-665.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.003
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    With 170 820 data from 13 cities(districts) in Heilongjiang Province, by using the 2SLS method to take 11 influencing factors such as forest cover as variable, we established three different time periods of static panel and dynamic panel regression models, and discussed the relationship between the lag effect of PM2.5 and the influencing factors such as forest cover rate. The results show that:①the time lag effect of PM2.5 is the influencing factor of the PM2.5 concentration accumulation in the current period, and the promotion effect of the PM2.5 time lag effect on the PM2.5 concentration accumulation was gradually weakened with the passage of time. ②With the gradual weakening of the time lag effect of PM2.5, the forest cover rate and air temperature gradually increased the hindrance of PM2.5 concentration accumulation, PM10 and CO gradually enhanced the promotion effect of PM2.5 accumulation, however, the obstacle effect of wind speed increasing PM2.5 concentration accumulation was gradually weakened. ③While the time lag effect of PM2.5 showed inertia, the effects of forest cover, PM10, CO, air temperature, and the wind speed on PM2.5 also had inertia.
    Effect of Trichoderma harzianum T6 on Rosa chinensis ‘Shi-Jie-Mei’ Growth
    DENG Jun-Jie, ABDUL MAJEED BALOCH, HOU Xue-Yue, LI Jia-Zhe, CHA Xin-You, ZHANG Rong-Shu
    2020, 40(5):  666-672.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.004
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    In order to develop the biocontrol fertilizer of Trichoderma for promoting growth of Rosa chinensis ‘Shi-Jie-Mei’, with Trichoderma harzianum T6 isolated and identified in our laboratory, the effects of Trichoderma T6 on the sprout of hard branches, seedling growth, the activity of defendant enzyme and the levels of endogenous hormone of rose were analyzed. T.harzianum T6 significantly increased the germination rate of hard branches and the length of the branches of rose seedlings, 1.4 and 1.82 times that of the control group. The dry weight and the water content in branches and leaves of rose were significantly increased. The activity of SOD, POD, CAT and the levels of hormone, including IAA, GA3, ZT, ABA, SA and JA in the leaves, were all significantly increased. The results displayed that T.harzianum T6 had the action of growing promotion on rose and enhancing its resistance, which would provide the theoretical basis for the development of biological fertilizer for rose growth promotion.
    Callus induction and Plant Regeneration of Euonymus microcarpus(Oliv.) Spraggue
    YUAN Yun-Xiang
    2020, 40(5):  673-678.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.005
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    With the young stems of Euonymus microcarpus(Oliv.) Spraggue as explants, L9(34) orthogonal test was used to study the effects of different sterilization combinations and different basal medium and combinations of different plant growth regulator on the induction and regeneration and rooting of callus. The most appropriate method of surface sterilization on leaves was with 75% alcohol for 30 s, and then 0.1% HgCl2 for 15 min, the optimal medium for callus induction was MS containing 6-BA 3.0 mg·L-1 and 2,4-D 1.0 mg·L-1 with a maximum induction rate of 79%, the optimum medium for shoot differentiation was MS containing 6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1 and NAA 0.2 mg·L-1 with 78.83% of differentiation rate, and the suitable rooting medium was 1/2MS containing NAA 1.2 mg·L-1 with 83.23% of rooting rate.
    Effect of Interplanting Taxus cuspidata with Ficus carica on Growth of Two Plants and Activities of Soil Enzymes
    ZHAO Chun-Jian, LI Yu-Zheng, GUAN Jia-Jing, SU Wei-Ran, TIAN Yao, WANG Ting-Ting, LI Shen, LI Chun-Ying
    2020, 40(5):  679-685.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.006
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    An interplanting experiment of Taxus cuspidata and Ficus carica under indoor control conditions was designed and compared with the single plantation of T.cuspidata and single planting F.carica. The differences in growth indexes, photosynthesis, and soil enzyme activities of T.cuspidata and F.carica were investigated, respectively. The results were as follows:①In terms of growth, the growth rate of interplanting T.cuspidata for 3 months was 152.6%, which was 1.56 times the growth rate of single planted T.cuspidata. The biomass of interplanting F.carica for 3 months in the same year was 68.4 cm3, which was 36.3% higher than that of single planted F.carica. ②In terms of photosynthesis, the net photosynthetic rates of interplanting T.cuspidata and F.carica for 3 months were increased by 19.0% and 5.3%, respectively, compared with the corresponding single planting species at the light intensity of 800 μmol·m-2·s-1. ③In the interplanting T.cuspidata and F.carica mode in July, the activities of sucrase, urease, and acid phosphatase in soil were 51.6%, 58.5%, and 50.8% higher than the corresponding enzyme activities in the soils planted with single Taxus cuspidate mode, 85.5%, 47.5%, and 71.9% higher than the corresponding enzyme activities in the soils planted with single F.carica mode. There was no significant difference in soil polyphenol oxidase activity between different planting modes(P>0.01). In conclusion, the interplanting of T.cuspidata and F.carica can increase soil sucrase, urease and acid phosphatase activities, and promote the growth of both plants.
    Chloroplast Genome Characterization and Identification of Genetic Relationship of Relict Endangered Plant Amygdalus nana
    YANG Bin, MENG Qing-Yao, ZHANG Kai, DUAN Yi-Zhong
    2020, 40(5):  686-695.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.007
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    The chloroplast genome of Amygdalus nana in the Tertiary Period endangered plant was analyzed for structural characteristics, and its phylogenetic relationship with related species was explored. Getting the chloroplast genome through the Illumina HiSeq Xten for which to assemble, annotate and make feature analysis. The results show:①The chloroplast genome of A.nana is a circular tetrad structure with a total length of 158 596 bp, of which the length of LSC is 86 771 bp, the length of SSC is 19 037 bp, and both IRs are 26 394 bp. A total of 130 genes were annotated in the chloroplast genome of A.nana, including 85 PCGs, 37 tRNA and 8 rRNA. ②The expansion and contraction of IR boundary regions of 6 plants were analyzed, and there were some differences between the gene types and distribution in 4 boundary regions, and the closer the relationship was, the smaller the difference was. ③The 71 SSRs loci were predicted in the chloroplast genome of A.nana. ④By phylogenetic analysis, in the Subgen. Amygdalus, A.nana is closer to A.mongolica in phylogenetic relationship, but slightly farther from A.triloba and A.pedunculata. A large number of chloroplast genomes of angiosperms were involved, and the chloroplast genomes of A.nana were deeply analyzed to provide reference data for the evolutionary relationship and plant identification of Amygdalus L.
    Comparative Analysis on Volatile Terpenoids in Nine Aromatic Plants of Lamiaceae
    ZHU Xiao-Jie, ZHOU Xiang-Yu, FAN Hang, GAO Xi-Feng, YANG Lei
    2020, 40(5):  696-705.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.008
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    The volatile components from the leaves of 9 aromatic plants was extracted by n-Hexane and analyzed by GC-MS. The volatile components were identified and compared. This study not only provides reference for the efficient utilization and rational development of aromatic plants, but also provides the basis for the study of the metabolism of plant terpenes. Among the nine aromatic plants, 77 volatile terpenoids were detected. Agastache rugosa contains the most species composition, which is 46, followed by Rosmarinus officinalis(35), Thymus mongolicus(33), Salvia officinalis(33) and Monarda didyma(31), caryophyllene and humulene are common components of the nine plants. The highest concentrations of volatile terpenes were found in Rosmarinus officinalis, followed by Salvia officinalis and Agastache rugosa. The total absolute content of monoterpenoids was significantly higher than that of sesquiterpenoids. Thus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Agastache rugosa, Thymus mongolicus and Monarda didyma are suitable materials for the volatile terpenes extraction. Comparatively, Origanum vulgare, Salvia elegans and Salvia sclarea are not suitable for volatile terpenes extraction. The ability of these aromatic plants to generate monoterpenoids in normal environment is higher than that to produce sesquiterpenoids. It may be related to the terpenoid synthase that contains. This result can provide data supporting for the study of terpenoids metabolism.
    Effect of Soak Stems Overnight with Deionized Water on Measuring Maximum Hydraulic Conductivity in Xylem of Stem Segments of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Age-relate Difference
    LIANG Zhao, WEI Kai-Lu, YANG Dong-Mei, PENG Guo-Quan
    2020, 40(5):  706-717.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.009
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    The maximum hydraulic conductivity in xylem of branches is one of the core indexes in plant water physiology research. The method of flush the stem by perfusing solution at higher pressure which dissolves and expels the emboli is the most commonly used method which be used to measure the hydraulic conductivity in xylem of stem segments. However, it is necessary to find a reliable method to obtain stable maximum hydraulic conductivity prior to experiment.In this study, the differentyears branches of Robinia pseudoacacia L. was used as the experimental materials, and we compared the effect of two different sample treatment methods on measuring hydraulic conductivity in xylem of stem segments(i.e., without soaked stem segments overnight with deionized water and soaked stem segments overnight with deionized water prior to experiment), the reliability of the maximum hydraulic conductivity determination was determined by test whether the maximum hydraulic conductivity in xylem of stem segments can be kept constant with increasing flushing time, and explore the effective method to improve the stability of measuring maximum hydraulic conductivity of branches. Our results demonstrated that:①the water conductivity of the branches that had not been soaked overnight with deionized water decreased linearly with increasing flushing time after the maximum hydraulic conductivity was reached by 150 kPa pressure flushing, while the hydraulic conductivity of the branches that had been soaked overnight with deionized water prior to experiment kept constant by the same experimental method. ②The hydraulic conductivity of two-year-old branches kept constant after 150 kPa pressure flushing, regardless of whether they were soaked overnight with deionized water or not. However, after soaking stems overnight with deionized water, the time required for two-year-old branches to reach the maximum hydraulic conductivity was significantly shorter than that of non-soaking treatment. ③According to the percentage of xylem area on the cross section of stem and the wood density of branches, the lignification degree of current-year branches was significantly lower than that of biennial branches during the experiment. We speculate that the decrease with increasing flushing time of hydraulic conductivity in the current-year's branches without soaked overnight is due to the blockage of vessel lumen caused by the secretion produced by mechanical injury of branches, and that soaked stem segments overnight with deionized water prior to experiment can effectively reduce the possibility of secretion being introduced into vessel lumen. Therefore, the soaking stem segments overnight with deionized water prior to experiment can improve the stability of maximum hydraulic conductivity measuring.
    Comparison on Chemical Constituents between Potentilla chinensis and P.acaulis using GC-MS by Metabolomics Approach
    ZHI Hui, AI Dan, WU Ke-Xin, GUO Yun, XU Ming-Yuan, TANG Zhong-Hua
    2020, 40(5):  718-727.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.010
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    The experiment was conducted to clarify the metabolic differences between Potentilla chinensis and its same genus P.acaulis in different origins, and to make more effective use of medicinal plant resources. Based on the combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry(GC-MS), the non-targeted metabolomics analysis of small molecular primary metabolites between two plants was performed, and principal component analysis and partial least squares analysis were used to find the differential metabolism that can distinguish the two species. And the differences in primary metabolic pathways.A total of 134 and chromatographic peaks were detected in the two plants by GC-MS. By comparison with the database, 43 primary metabolites were identified. The results of PCA analysis showed that the distribution of metabolites between P.chinensis and P.acaulis was quite different. Using OPLS-DA screening, a total of 33 different metabolites were obtained that distinguished the two samples. Starch and sucrose metabolism, aminoacyl biosynthesis, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism and fructose and mannose metabolism pathways have significant differences. There is a large difference in the primary metabolism of P.chinensis andP.acaulis. Although the two plants are derived from plants of the same family, P.acaulis is not suitable for use as a medicinal material instead of P.chinensis.
    Effects of Cadmium Stress on Growth,Physiology and Biochemistry of Different Ploidy of Populus ussuriensis
    SONG Zi-Wen, LIU Huan-Zhen, MA Xiao-Yu, SUN Guo-Yu, YI Jia-Xin, ZHANG Chun-Hua, YOU Yuan-Xiang, WANG De-Qiu, LI Kai-Long
    2020, 40(5):  728-734.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.011
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    The same year cutting seedlings of different ploidy of Populus ussuriensis Kom. were studied. They were treated with different concentrations of CdCl2 solution, and the effects of different cadmium concentrations on the growth, physiology and biochemistry of three ploidy of P.ussuriensis were studied. The cadmium stress significantly inhibited the growth of the three ploidy seedlings. With the increase of cadmium concentration, the seedlings height and ground diameter decreased significantly compared with the control seedlings. The water content of diploid and tetraploid leaves showed a downward trend with the increase of cadmium concentration, while the water content of triploid leaves increased at low concentrations and decreased at high concentrations. The enzyme activities of catalase(CAT) and superoxide dismutase(SOD) in triploid and tetraploid increased when the cadmium concentration was low and decreased when the cadmium concentration was high, while the enzyme activity in the diploid showed a downward trend. These showed that the three types of ploidy had better tolerance when the concentration of cadmium was low. Under high cadmium concentration stress, the amounts of water content, chlorophyll content, CAT and MDA of the triploid were higher than these parameters of the tetraploid by 5.47%, 25.47%, 8.59% and 28.47%, respectively, and were higher than the diploid(CK) by 23.47%, 44.63%, 17.23% and 31.48%, respectively. All the above indicated that the triploid of P.ussuriensis had the least membrane damage and the strongest antioxidant capacity under cadmium stress, and had better resistance to heavy metal cadmium. This study could provide theoretical basis for breeding in heavy metal polluted areas.
    Gender Differences in Growth and Physiological Respond of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. in Condition of Overshadow
    ZHANG Ling, ZHANG Dong-Lai
    2020, 40(5):  735-742.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.012
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    This paper analyzed the differences of morphological indexes, physiological indexes and metabolism indexes caused by the seedlings gender in condition of overshadow, and discussed the strategies response to overshadow, provided theoretical basis for the protection of wild resources and forestation of the seedlings. The differences of morphological characteristics, biomass distribution, antioxidative enzyme activity and metabolism of the biennial Phellodendron amurense seedlings were studied by using the control experiment with three shading gradients and sun light as the control. The results showed that overshadow was more beneficial to the growth of P.amurense, the biomass accumulation of female plants in light shading were better than male plants, but in severe overshadow male plants were better than female plants, overshadow had a significant effects on chlorophyll a and the total chlorophyll content(P<0.01), and there was no significant effect on gender, and shading treatment was promotive to the chlorophyll accumulation of P.amurense seedlings; shading treatment had a significant effect on enzyme activity and MDA content, however, activities of POD and CAT were decreased with the shade intensity increased, MDA content was the highest in the control treatment, soluble sugar and starch content decreased under shading condition, but there was no significant effect on gender. The seedlings of P.amurense adapted to the shade by changing the component properties, biomass, antioxidant enzyme activity and metabolic substance content. The gender differences of the effects of shading on the growth and physiology of P.amurense would lay a foundation for the individual development, population formation, adaptation mechanism and population reproduction of P.amurense under shading environment, and would provide scientific reference for the protection and utilization of dioecious plant resources.
    Expression of MYB Genes of Birch in Response to Hormones,Salt and Drought
    LIU Jia-Xin, LIU Hui-Zi, SHI Jing-Jing, YU Ying, WANG Chao
    2020, 40(5):  743-750.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.013
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    Transcription factors are involved in different signaling pathways of plant hormones and the regulation of abiotic stress. In order to study the response of birch MYB transcription factor family genes to different hormone signals and abiotic stress, we used wild-type birch(Betula platyphylla) seeds:10 μmol·L-1 methyl jasmonate(MeJA), 100 μmol·L-1 ethylene glycol(ETH), 20 μmol·L-1 abscisic acid(ABA), 50 μmol·L-1 cytokinin(KT), 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl, 100 mmol·L-1 Mannitol and water were used as controls. Phenotypic observation and gene expression analysis were performed on hormone-treated 4 weaks birch hypocotyls. The hormone treatment could affect the growth of birch hypocotyls and radicles. The hypocotyls and roots of the treated birch were shorter than those of the water-treated control, and the KT-treated birch hypocotyls and roots were longer than those of the water-treated control; MeJA, Ethylene, and ABA treatment negatively regulated the expression of most BpMYBs, while BpMYB2,8,12 genes were up-regulated. After KT treatment, only BpMYB11 was down-regulated, and other BpMYBs genes were up-regulated. After NaCl treatment, most genes showed an expression pattern of down-regulation and then up-regulation, and was highly induced at 48 h; Mannitol simulated under drought conditions, most of the gene expression pattern showed slight increase after the first cut. These results indicate that birch MYB family genes can respond to hormone, salt and drought treatments, and play a role in regulating the development of birch hypocotyls and radicles in response to external signals. This study provides data and materials for exploring the molecular mechanism of hormone-regulated woody plant growth and development.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of BpJMJ18 Gene Promoter in Betula platyphylla
    WANG Wan-Qi, QI Wan-Zhu, ZHAO Qiu-Shuang, ZENG Dong, LIU Yi, FU Peng-Yue, QU Guan-Zheng, ZHAO Xi-Yang
    2020, 40(5):  751-759.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.014
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    In order to investigate the function of BpJMJ18 gene in plant growth and development, the BpJMJ18 promoter gene was cloned from the genome of Betula platyphylla by PCR. By bioinformatics analysis, beside the basic elements such as TATA box and CAAT box, but also light responsive elements and many hormone responsive elements. Plant expression vector pBI101-BpJMJ18pro::GUS was constructed and transient transformed into B.platyphylla by Agrobacterium mediated method; the transgenic lines were analyzed by GUS staining, and the results showed that the promoter of BpJMJ18 gene could drive GUS gene to express in the roots, leaves and stems of B.platyphylla. Therefore, the BpJMJ18 promoter of B.platyphylla has the promoter activity, which may affect the growth and development of plants.
    Genetic Transformation of PsnHB22 Gene from Populus simonii×P.nigra in Tobacco
    LI Chan, ZHANG Xiang, ZHENG Lan, CHANG Cheng-Long, LIU Cai-Xia, ZHENG Mi, YOU Xiang-Ling
    2020, 40(5):  760-767.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.015
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    HD-Zip gene family plays an important role in light signal transduction, abiotic stress and leaf development. HB22 transcription factor is a member of HD-ZipⅠ subfamily. In order to investigate the function of PsnHB22 gene, PsnHB22 gene was cloned from Populus simonii×P.nigra. The expression vector was transformed into tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum). The phenotype of transgenic tobacco was observed after PCR and qRT-PCR detection. The results showed that the leaves of transgenic tobacco were narrow and the plants were significantly lower than those of wild type tobacco during vegetative growth period. The chlorophyll content of transgenic tobacco and wild-type tobacco leaves was determined. The chlorophyll content of transgenic tobacco was significantly higher than that of wild-type tobacco. PsnHB22 gene plays an important role in plant height growth, photosynthesis and leaf morphogenesis.
    Scientific Notes
    Determination and Analysis of Alkaloid Content in Aconitum kusnezoffii Seeds from Different Areas
    SHAN Dan, QU Lu-Lu, LI Xiao-Jie, MA Yi-Ming, WANG Jun-Jie
    2020, 40(5):  768-774.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.016
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    The experiment was conducted to determine the content of alkaloid in the seed of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. from different habitats, and to compare its alkaloid content with its content in root and leaf. High pressure liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to determine alkaloid content in seed of wild A.kusnezoffii collected from Zhalute of Tongliao City, Aru Kerqin of Chifeng City, and Bahrain of Chifeng City. The HPLC column used was Supersil ODS2 5 μm(250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm). The HPLC mobile phase was 0.1 mol·L-1 methanol and triethylamine(V:V 75:25) and the flow rate was 0.8 mL·min-1 under the detection wavelength of 235 nm with column temperature as 35℃. Two types of alkaloid were detected in the seed of A.kusnezoffii and the content of benzoyl aconitine was the highest while the content of diester alkaloid was comparatively lower. Total alkaloid content in seed content from Zhalute of Tongliao City, Alu Kerqin of Chifeng City, and Balin of Chifeng City was 7.647 9, 8.256 3 and 7.512 6 mg·g-1, respectively. The total A.kusnezoffii seed alkaloid content collected from Tongliao was significantly higher than that from Chifeng City. The content of monoester alkaloid in A.kusnezoffii seed was significantly higher than diester alkaloid, and can be used for the comprehensive utilization, screening, and breeding of A.kusnezoffii germplasm with different seed alkaloid content.
    Optimization of Ultrasound-assisted Extraction of Dihydromyricetin from Seeds of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Using Response Surface Methodology
    ZHANG Xiao-Nan, ZHU Hong-Wei, ZHAO Shan-Bo, BAI Chen, SHI Ya-Nan, XU Hao-Peng, YIN Lian, HU Shu-Min, YIN Hua
    2020, 40(5):  775-781.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.017
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    Dihydromyricetin is an important component in the seeds of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. The extraction of dihydromyricetin from seeds of H.dulcis by ultrasound-assisted method was carried out on the basis of single factor investigation of ethanol volume fraction, ultrasound irradiation power, extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio and ultrasound irradiation time. The Box-Behnken response surface design method was used to establish a quadratic polynomial model of ultrasound irradiation power, ultrasound irradiation time and liquid-solid ratio, and optimized extraction process. The optimum conditions for the extraction were as follows:ethanol volume fraction of 60%, ultrasonic irradiation power of 140 W, ultrasonic irradiation time of 30 min, liquid-solid ratio of 20.5 mL·g-1, and extraction temperature of 40℃. Under these optimal conditions, the yield of dihydromyricetin was 2.14±0.09 mg·g-1. The extraction method is simple, rapid, and high in efficiency, which is beneficial to the comprehensive processing and utilization of the H.dulcis resources.
    Comparison of Essential Oil Components in Ajania tenuifolia(Jacq.) Tzvel. at Different Altitudes
    TAN Yong-Jia, GAO Cui-Fang, CHEN Xue-Lin
    2020, 40(5):  782-788.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.018
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    The aerial parts of Ajania tenuifolia(Jacq.) Tzvel. growing in different regions were collected as raw materials, and the volatile oil was extracted by water distillation. The chemical constituents of volatile oil were analyzed by GC-MS. The correlation between common components and altitudes was studied by SPSS 22.0 statistical software. The volatile oil components of A.tenuifolia were significantly different at different altitudes. There were five common components:camphor, α-pinene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, (-)-terpinen-4-ol. The chemical substances with the highest content of volatile oil at each altitude were eucalyptol, camphor, o-cymene, camphor, and eucalyptus. The same compound with a relative content of more than 5% at each elevation is only eucalyptol. By correlation analysis the content of these five common components was not significantly correlated with altitude. The altitude has no regular influence on the content of essential oils.
    Optimization of the ActiveCompoundsExtraction Process from Fig Leaves by Anionic and Cationic Surfactants and Preliminary Functional Evaluation
    MENG Yao, YU Lian, QIN Xiang-Yu, LIU Chang, WANG Ze-Lin, ZHAO Chun-Jian, FU Yu-Jie
    2020, 40(5):  789-794.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.019
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    The experimental conditions for formulated surfactant combined with microwave-assisted extraction of effective bioactive substances in fig leaves were designed and the process parameters were optimized. The final results were as follows:1%(w/v) formulated surfactant(sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS):dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide(DTAB)), extraction temperature of 40℃, extraction time of 10 min, liquid-solid ratio of 30:1 mL·g-1. Under the above optimized conditions, the average extraction yields of psoralen and bergapten were 15.37 and 3.59 mg·g-1, respectively. The antioxidant activity of crude fig extract obtained by surfactant-assisted extraction was significantly enhanced as compared with that by conventional aqueous extraction. Meanwhile, the degradation rate of the main substance in fig leaveswas also significantly inhibited. This study provides the necessary scientific basis for the rational and effective development and utilization of fig leaf resources. Also, it is of great theoretical significance for the green and efficient extraction of natural and effective target products and functional evaluation in plants.
    Detection of Alpha-linolenic Acid Content and Antioxidant Activity in Peony Seed Oil Prepared by Squeezing Method
    GE Yun-Long, ZHAO Xiu-Hua, ZU Yuan-Gang, YUAN An-Long
    2020, 40(5):  795-800.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2020.05.020
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    The peony seed oil was prepared by physical pressing method, and the content of alpha-linolenic acid(ALA) in the obtained peony seed oil and the market peony seed blending oil was determined, and the antioxidant properties of the two peony seed oil were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the content of alpha-linolenic acid in peony seed oil and peony seed blending oil was 43.12% and 29.99%, respectively. The scavenging capacity of DPPH free radical, the scavenging capacity of ABTS, the reducing capacity of Fe2+ and the scavenging capacity of -OH free radical of peony seed oil were stronger than that of peony seed blending oil, which were 1.29, 1.51, 3.62 and 1.44 times, respectively. It indicated that peony seed oil has stronger antioxidant ability.