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    15 July 2016, Volume 36 Issue 4
    Two New Species of Urticaceae from China
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2016, 36(4):  481-483.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.001
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    A species of the genus Laportea(Urticaceae), L.jinganensis, and a species of the genus Debregeasia(also Urticaceae), D.hekouensis, are described as new from Jiangxi Province and Yunnan Province respectively. The diagnostic differences between L.jinganensis and its Chinese congeners and between D.hekouensis and its ally, D.longifolia, are given respectively.
    Notes on the genus Pilea(Urticaceae) of China
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2016, 36(4):  484-490.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.002
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    In the present paper, two species of the genus Pilea(Urticaceae) are described as new, two new combinations for the two subspecies of Pilea gracilis are made, supplementary descriptions for P.shizongensis and P.racemiformis are given, and new distribution records for P.shizongensis, P.lomatogramma, P.racemiformis and P.peltata var. ovatifolia are provided.
    Seed Morphology of Five Genera of Berberidaceae in China
    ZHANG Jian-Ru, ZENG Ni, CHANG Zhao-Yang
    2016, 36(4):  491-502.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.003
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    The seed morphology of 42 taxa(40 species and 2 varieties) in 5 genera(Berberis, Mahonia, Caulophyllum, Dysosma and Diphylleia) of Berberidaceae from China was studied by stereoscope and scanning electron microscope. The study seeds were tawny, reddish brown to black, and diverse in shape. Ornamentation of seed coat was ascribed into four types as reticular(including 7 subtypes), reticular-scalariform, scalariform and ruminate. Seeds of Caulophyllum robustum were sphere and the hilum located on the side of seed near middle, which could be the typical characters distinguished from the other 4 genera. According to the micromorphology of seed coat, systematic and phylogenetic implications of seed coat morphology in Berberidaceae were discussed, and the possible evolutionary route of seed coat ornamentation was conjectured. Seed morphology supported the sister relationship between Berberis and Mahonia, and Dysosma was more original than Diphylleia. Seed morphology of the genus Berberis did not support Ahrendt's treatment of some sections and subsections.
    Stamen Dynamics and Breeding System of Lonicera alberti
    LI Ya-Lan, LIANG Feng-Li
    2016, 36(4):  503-510.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.004
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    In order to study the flowering characteristics and breeding system of Lonicera alberti, we observed flower characteristics, floral dynamic and pollination insects in the field during the flowering period. We tested the pollen viability by TTC staining, MTT staining, benzidine α-naphthol staining and carmine acetate dyeing, and estimated its stigma receptivity by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide and diphenyl tetrazolium bromide staining methods. We studied the breeding system of L.alberti by the pollen-ovule ratio(P/O), the out-crossing index(OCI), and artificial pollination methods. There are two kinds of L.alberti flowers opening:corolla lobes blooming one by one and corolla lobes simultaneous blooming. The pollen viability reached the maximum at 6 hours after anthers shedding, and stigma receptivity was increased after bloom; Apis mellifera played an important role in the process of pollination. P/O was 583.43±99.90 and the outcrossing index was 4. By artificial pollination testing, cross-pollination rate was 79.17%, and the self-fertility rate was 9.52%. The research suggested that the breeding system of L.alberti belonged to mixed mating system and cross pollination requires pollinators.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of CkGR Gene in Caragana korshinskii Kom.
    ZHANG Teng-Guo, ZHOU Ke, MAO Yu-Shan, NIE Ting-Ting, LI Ping, DIAO Zhi-Hong, WANG Juan
    2016, 36(4):  511-519.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.005
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    A novel GR genewas isolated from Caragana korshinskii Kom. by RACE. The full-length cDNA of GR was 2122 bp, containing a 5'-UTR of 57 bp, a 3'-UTR of 415 bp, and a 1650 bp opening reading frame(ORF). The deduced protein was 550 amino acids with molecular weight 59.2 kDa and isoelectric point 8.2, named CkGR. This CkGR showed high identities with the Cicer arietinum CaGR(90.6%). The promoter of CkGR gene was isolated by chromosomal walking and 648 bp sequence was obtained by sequencing. Plant CARE analysis of this sequence showed that the peomoter contained some typical elements CAAT-box and TATA-boxand kinds of Cis-acting elements involved in defense and stress responsiveness. RT-PCR analysis revealed that CkGR was expressed in roofs, stems, and leaves with almost no tissue specificity. The transcript level of CkGR was increased in response to cold, high salt and drought stress. CkGR played an important role during cold, high salt and drought stress in Caragana korshinskii Kom..
    Interspecific Relationships for Dominant Species in the Plant Community of Natural Recovery in North Shaanxi Loess Area, China
    CHEN Wen-Si, ZHU Qing-Ke, LU Ji-Yuan, WANG Yu, WANG Li-Na
    2016, 36(4):  520-526.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.006
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    For providing the theoretical basis for the plant configuration of close-to-nature afforestation in the north Shaanxi loess area, China, we explored the mechanism of natural restoration of plant community based on interspecific association. We studied the interspecific relationships of dominant species in the plant community, which had been naturally restored for 15 years in north Shaanxi loess area, on the basis of 2×2 contingency table and a series of techniques, including W-test, X2-test, association coefficient(AC) and percentage of co-occurrence(PC). The overall community association of variance ration was greater than 1, and the statistic W was more than X0.052(N), indicating that the species in the total community were positively associated significantly. The number of pairs of species with positive correlation was larger than that of negative correlation, but the proportion of significant and very significant pairs of species were very small. The positive and negative correlations between species-pairs were the indication of niche overlap and separation. Vegetation in north Shaanxi loess area having been naturally recovered for 15 years, most plant species tended to be independent and randomly related with each other, and this plant community was still in succession.
    Cross-compatibility of Four Kinds of Camellia Species
    CHANG Wei-Xia, YAO Xiao-Hua, LONG Wei, YE Si-Cheng, SHU Qing-Long
    2016, 36(4):  527-534.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.007
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    By artificial pollination, dynamic survey of fruits setting rates, and analyzing the seed setting rates and fruits characters among different kinds of pollinations, four kinds of Camellia species were tested to study the characteristics of self-compatibility. The self-compatibility of four kinds of Camellia species was different, and the self-compatibility indexes of all materials were ranged in 0-0.29. The self-compatible indexes among four kinds of camellia species were C.yuhsienensis Hu(0.2888)> C.polyodonta How(0.2511)> C.chekiangoleosa Hu(0.1222)> C.semiserrata Chi(0). All of the materials were considered as self-incompatible species because the self-compatibility of four kinds of Camellia species were less than 1. The average fruit setting rates and seed setting rates between different pollinations was outcrossing> opening> geitonogamy> selfing. The character degree of self-pollination fruits was inferior to cross-pollination fruits. Fruits dropped faster after self-pollination, and fruit setting rates of cross-pollination was higher than that of self-pollination. Four kinds of Camellia species were completely self-incompatible. High self-incompatibility was the main factor causing flower and fruit dropping and low production.
    Effects of Nitrate Nitrogen Levels on Physiological Metabolism of Catharanthus roseus
    ZHU Meng-Yan, YU Bo-Fan, CHEN Hua-Feng
    2016, 36(4):  535-541.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.008
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    With Catharanthus roseus, we used perlite as culture substrate to study the biomass and secondary metabolism. Three main alkaloids in plants were decreased with reduced levels of nitrogen. The level of exogenous nitrate on vindoline and Catharanthine in C.roseus was with more significant accumulation in the leaves at different leaf positions, but with little effect on the accumulation of vinblastine. In high nitrogen condition, the plant synthesis and accumulation were at higher levels of free amino acids, which may provide the skeleton and promote the improvement of alkaloids in the partial synthesis. The content of sucrose in different position leaves was increased slowly with the increase of age. The content of sucrose in leaf at higher nitrogen level was significantly higher than that at normal nitrogen level. This research provide the reference basis that the important medicinal value for improving the content of alkaloid.
    Responses of Main Secondary Metabolites and DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Activity of the Korean Pine to Drought Stress
    ZHANG Dan, REN Jie, LIU Hong-Mei, WANG Hui-Mei
    2016, 36(4):  542-548.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.009
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    The Korean pine were tested to study the effects of drought stress and rehydration on flavonoids content, tannin content, procyanidin content and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of needles and bark chlorenchyma. Flavonoids, tanninand procyanidin content of bark chlorenchyma decreased significantly under drought stress, flavonoids and tannin content continue to decrease after rehydration, and three kinds of content were not returned to control levels. Flavonoids and procyanidin content of needles decreased and tannin content significantly increased, after rehydration they were not returned to control levels. IC50 values of needles and bark chlorenchyma significantly increased under drought stress, and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of extract was significantly decreased, after rehydration DPPH free radical scavenging activity of needle and bark chlorenchyma were returned to control levels. Secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of needles and bark chlorenchyma were significantly affected by drought stress, but there were some different responses to drought stress between needles and bark chlorenchyma.
    Effect of Urban Tree Species on Soil Physicochemical Properties in Harbin, Northeastern China, and Afforestation Implications
    LU Jia-Li, SHEN Guang, WANG Qiong, REN Man-Li, PEI Zhong-Xue, WEI Chen-Hui, WANG Wen-Jie
    2016, 36(4):  549-555.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.010
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    Owing to diversified urban tree species in Northeast China, their possible impact on soil fertility and salinity-alkalinity and different patterns on soil profile are significant for appropriate species selection, and data from long-term permanent plots are very limited. Eight species(Fraxinus mandschurica, Juglans mandshurica, Picea spp., Pinus spp., Populus spp., Ulmus pumila, Phellodendron amurense, Larix gmelinii) were selected from the long-term plots in Harbin Experimental Forest Farm of Northeast Forestry University and Harbin Botanical Garden, and samples from 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm soils were collected for measuring nine parameters of soil pH, electrical conductance(EC), soil organic carbon(SOC), alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen(AN), total nitrogen(TN), available phosphorus(AP), total phosphorus(TP), available potassium(AK) and total potassium(TK). By a multivariate analysis of variance, tree species can significantly influence most of soil parameters at the same soil conditions, and different soil depth had significant differences. Based on multiple comparison results, all tested parameters were standardized as scores, and comprehensive scores for soil fertility maintaining ability(SOC, N, P, K and its effective state) and for reducing soil saline-alkali degree(pH and EC) were respectively computed from above soil parameters. Much higher comprehensive scores in soil fertility maintaining ability were observed in different soil layers in species of Ulmus pumila(scores at 38), while lowest scores were generally found in Populus spp.( scores at 26.5). In the case of reducing soil saline-alkali ability, Phellodendron amurense and Larix gmelinii had higher scores(>15), while Juglans mandshurica had the lowest scores(7.5). When we divided trees into evergreen and deciduous species, no differences were found in fertility maintaining ability and saline-alkali declining ability(less than 15.6% differences). Our findings highlights that species selections for urban afforestation are important for tough site improvement. In the site of downtown with infertile soil and high saline-alkali degree, some species with high soil fertility maintaining should be chosen for their successful survival, while in fertile sites, such as river banks and wetlands, some species with high nutrient consumption and high growth rate could be selected for fast forest function rehabilitation. In the case of roadsides usually affected by high saline-alkali degrees from winter snow-melting, species with less saline-alkali declining ability should be avoided in afforestation practices.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of Citrate Synthase(CS) Gene in Camellia oleifera
    YE Si-Cheng, YAO Xiao-Hua, WANG Kai-Liang, LIN Ping, GONG Hong-En, ZHUO Ren-Ying
    2016, 36(4):  556-564.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.011
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    A citrate synthase(CS) gene were isolated from Camellia oleifera by RT-PCR. The full-length cDNA of the CS is 1416 bp in size, encodeding a deduced polypetide of 471 amino acids with estimated molecular weight of 52.74 kD and theoretical isoelectric point of 6.95. Homologous alignment showed that the deduced protein had high identities with the CS proteins of other plants, therefore the gene was named as CoCS(Genbank No.KU161147). By phylogenetic tree analysis, CoCS had close genetic relationships with Rhododendron micranthum and Vitis vinifera. By qRT-PCR, the expression of CoCS in root was induced by phosphate deficiency and increased at first and decreased subsequently. The expression patterns of CoCS were different among different tissues and different cultivars.
    Selection of Reference Genes for Real-time Fluorescence Quantitative PCR in Different Tissues and Stigma Development from Ornamental Kale
    LI Han, LI Zhi-Long, LI Xiao-Yu, LI Yu-Hua, LAN Xing-Guo
    2016, 36(4):  565-572.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.012
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    We used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to test the expression of Actin, cysteine proteinase inhibitor 6(Cpi6), elongation factor 1-beta(EF-1β), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GAPDH), tubulin alpha-3(Tub-α3), tubulin alpha-6(Tub-α6) and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme7(Ubc7), and then identified the most suitable reference genes in a given set of tissues and different developmental stigmas of ornamental kale(Brassica oleracea var. acephala) S13-bS13-b homozygotes by using the geNorm and BestKeeper software programs. By a geNorm analysis, Tub-α6 and EF-1β were the most suitable reference genes among the given set of tissues, and Actin and Ubc7 were the most stable genes during stigma development. By a BestKeeper analysis, Ubc7 and Tub-α6 were the most suitable reference genes among the given set of tissues, and EF-1β and Tub-α6 were the most stable genes during stigma development. Tub-α6 and Actin were the most suitable reference genes among the given set of tissues and during stigma development, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of SLG normalized with Tub-α6 or Actin showed that SLG was predominantly expressed in stigma among the given set of tissues and reached its highest level at approaching anthesis during stigma development.
    Difference Feature of Planted Vegetation Biomass and Litter Biomass for Three Plantations and Their Relationship with Soil Nutrients in Lvliang Mountainous Region
    LI Hui, WANG Bai-Tian, CAO Yuan-Bo, LIU Qing-Qing, LI De-Ning
    2016, 36(4):  573-580.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.013
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    Usingsample-plot surveyand soil sample analysis, wedetermined thegeneral situation ofwoody biomass(WB), litter biomass(LB) and soil nutrients(SN) including organic matter(OM), total nitrogen(TN), total phosphorus(TP) for three plants(Pinus tabuliformis, Populus davidiana, Quercus liaotungensis), and analyzed the relationship between biomass(WB, LB) and SN as well. The largest WB was that of P.tabuliformis(2.3547 t·hm-2), followed by P.davidiana(2.0785 t·hm-2) and Q.liaotungensis(1.1373 t·hm-2). The largest LB was that of P.davidiana(4.7975 t·hm-2), followed by Q.liaotungensis(2.1399 t·hm-2) and P.tabuliformis(0.5250 t·hm-2). The forest soil classification indicators were OM and TP with the standard level of 4-5 and 1-3, respectively. For the analysis and comparison result of forest SN, the largest content of OM was that of P.davidiana, followed by Q.liaotungensis and P.tabuliformis, while largest contents of TN and TP were P.davidiana, followed by P.tabuliformis and Q.liaotungensis. We also analyzed the correlation between SN and WB and LB, resulting in that the correlation of all three plants with a highly significant relation(P<0.01), and the correlation among OM, TN and TP of all three plants also was significant with a good synergistic effect(P<0.05).
    Water Use Efficiency of Pinus sylvestris, Pinus tabulaeformis, Quercus mongolica and Their Response Differences to Environmental Factors
    LI Jing-Hao, LI Hui, WEI Ya-Wei, ZHANG Song-Zhu, ZHU Wen-Xu, DENG Ji-Feng, SONG Yi-Xuan, ZHOU Yong-Bin
    2016, 36(4):  581-587.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.014
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    By using C-isotope(leaf δ13C value) as an index of long-term water use efficiency(WUE), we evaluated WUE of three typical trees of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica(P.sylvestris), P.tabulaeformis(P.tabulaeformis) and Q.mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour(Q.mongolica) in Liaoning Province and their responses to environmental factors involving annual average precipitation, annual average air temperature and altitude. The δ13C values of these three trees were -30.37‰- -25.10‰, -30.32‰- -24.07‰ and -29.85‰- -23.51‰, respectively, and the δ13C values in three trees leaf were decreased with the longitudes. By statistical analysis, δ13C of three trees were evident higher in western part of Liaoning province than the eastern part, indicating that trees in western Liaoning was higher. Further analysis found that the δ13C values in three trees leaf were greatly influenced by the average annual precipitation and altitude, and decreased significantly with annual average precipitation, and increased with altitude, but the δ13C values in three trees leaf were less influenced by the temperature. The WUE were much robust influenced by the altitude in P.sylvestris(P<0.01). Besides, much more significant effective in WUE-precipitation was found in P.sylvestris and P.tabulaeformis compared with Q.mongolica. Therefore, it is difficult to identify WUE inter-species differences based on leaf δ13C, which were greatly response to environmental factors as rainfall and altitude. Our findings will lay the foundation for future scientific studies of WUE based on the δ13C.
    Variance Analysis and Growth Model Building of H and DBH of Poplar Clones at Different Sites
    SI Dong-Jing, ZHANG Xin-Xin, HAN Dong-Hui, JIN Yun-Zhe, DONG Yuan-Hai, ZHAO Guang-Hao, LENG Wei-Wei, ZHAO Xi-Yang
    2016, 36(4):  588-595.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.015
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    Thirty poplar clones in different sites as materials and tree height(H), diameter at breath height(DBH) of different clones were investigated to calculate the variance parameters and build growth models. The result showed that there exit significant difference(P<0.01) among sites, clones and the interaction of site with clone in traits H and DBH. The coefficient variation of phenotype(PCV) of H and DBH ranged from 15.34% to 23.80% and 19.42% to 31.88%, respectively. The repeatability(R) of all the investigated traits ranged from 0.7977 to 0.9859, which indicated a high repeatability values. The degree of fitting of H and DBH models were 0.82 and 0.87, respectively, which showed a perfect imitative effect. With the help of model to estimate the data which were not measured, Guanxian showed the highest initial H and DBH values but Fengfeng and Weixian suggested the highest growth rates for H and DBH, respectively. There was obvious interaction between genotype and environment and whatever the different clones in same site or the same clone in different sites there were all exist larger difference in H and DBH, which indicated that the environment factors should be considered when excellent clones were evaluated and selected.
    Effect of Simulated N Deposition on Soil Respiration in a Larix olgensis Plantation Forest
    ZHANG Jiao, HAO Long-Fei, WANG Qing-Cheng, FU Jiao-Jiao, ZHU Kai-Yue
    2016, 36(4):  596-604.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.016
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    A two-year simulated N deposition experiment was conducted to explore the effects of different levels of nitrogen(N)deposition on soil respiration, with four different N supply levels, including control(CK, 0 g·m-2·a-1 N), low(N1, 5 g·m-2·a-1 N), intermediate(N2, 10 g·m-2·a-1 N)and high level(N3, 15 g·m-2·a-1 N), in a 26-year-old Larix olgensis plantation forest in Mao'ershan experimental forest farm of northeast forestry university. Average annual soil respiration rate under different treatments was significantly promoted in the first year(P<0.05); Average annual soil respiration rate and heterotrophic respiration rate were significantly decreased under N2 and N3 treatments(P<0.05), respectively, and average annual soil respiration rate was significantly increased(P<0.05), heterotrophic respiration rate had no difference compared with control(P>0.05)under N1 treatment, in the second year. Soil microbial biomass carbon was significantly increased under N1 treatment(P<0.05), while N2 and N3 had no difference compared with control(P>0.05); Significantly positive exponential relationship was detected between soil respiration and soil temperature in 5 and 10 cm(P<0.01). The temperature sensitivity of soil respiration(Q10)in both soil layer was increased under N1 treatment and decreased under N2 and N3 treatments compared with control, respectively. Soil respiration rate and its temperature sensitivity were altered under different N deposition levels, suggesting that the progress of soil carbon emission was accelerated under low levels of N deposition and slowed down under relatively high levels of N deposition in a short period.
    Bioinformatics Analysis of Casbene Synthase Genes in Different Plants
    LIU Hong-Wei, YANG Yan-Fang, XIONG Wang-Dan, WU Ping-Zhi, WU Guo-Jiang, QIU De-You
    2016, 36(4):  605-612.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.017
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    We used bioinformatics to study 13 casbene synthase (CS; EC full-length gene sequences registered in the GenBank from Euphorbia esula, Jatropha curcas L., Ricinus communis and Triadica sebifera, and predicted the composition of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences, leader peptides, signal peptide, trans-membrane topological structure, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, the secondary and tertiary structure as well as the function domains. The 13 genes encoding ORFs were 1647-1845 bp, the molecular weight of the 13 predicted proteins were 63.0-70.8 kD, and the termination codons were TGA or TAA. The theoretical isoelectric points of the 13 proteins were lower than 7.0, which suggested that CS proteins were acidic. Leu was the most contented amino acid. By the homologous alignment of nucleic acid, CS genes were divided into two groups. The prediction of leading peptides showed that at least 6 CSs had leader peptide (chloroplast leader peptide mainly) in common. All 13 CSs had no signal peptide and trans-membrane topological structure in and the peptide chains were hydrophilicity. α-helix was the dominant secondary structure constructional element of the 13 proteins which contained two terpenoid synthases function domains.
    Forest Type Classification Based on Multi-temporal SAR and SPOT Remote Sensing Data in Pangu Forest Farm
    LI Ming-Ze, FU Yu, YU Ying, FAN Wen-Yi
    2016, 36(4):  613-619.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.018
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    Information extraction of forest type is difficult in remote sensing image classification. Daxing'an Mountains is an important forestry area in China mainly covered with natural forests, rich with a wide range of plants resources, which makes it difficult to accurately identify the forest types in this region. In order to compare and improve the accuracy of classification result, taking Pangu Forest Farm in Daxing'an Mountains as the study area, we proposed three methods to classify forest types by the maximum likelihood method combining with SPOT-5 and two different temporal RADARSAT-2 fully polarimetric SAR remote sensing data. We designed three schemes to classify the forest types and compared the accuracy. In the three schemes, SPOT image was only used to distinguish forest types, some descriptive parameters extracted from SAR polarimetry(POLSAR) images and the SPOT data were used for classification, and the integration of parameters extracted from multi-temporal of full polarimetric SAR(PolSAR) images with SPOT data was used for classification. The most effective method to identify white birch, larch, Pinus sylvestris and spruce among three proposed schemes was the third using multi-temporal SAR and SPOT remote sensing image. The classification accuracy and the Kappa coefficient were 84.64% and 0.79, respectively. However, the accuracy of forest type classification by using SPOT data individually was the lowest of 76.66% with the Kappa coefficient of 0.70.
    Regeneration and Performance Measurement of Plant Fiber in Grass Family of Phragmites
    QUAN Di, WANG Yong, ZHANG Qian-Qian, LI Jian, ZHAO Xiao-Hong
    2016, 36(4):  620-626.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.019
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    Gramineous plant reed was used as cellulose raw material to prepare regenerated reed plant cellulose by extracting cellulose with chemical method and adopting properties of cellulose in green solution KOH/thiourea and urea/water system, such as sol in low temperature and gel in high temperature. Optimum concentration range of reed cellulose in solution system and structure & performance change of reed before and after regeneration were emphatically studied through testing methods including super rotational rheometer, viscosity tester, scanning electron microscope, specific surface and aperture analyzer, thermal analyzer, Fourier infrared spectrum and X ray diffraction. After dissolution and regeneration of reed cellulose, it had uniform porous network structure of gel type, pore volume was distributed in 0.77-0.62 cm3·g-1, and the average pore-size distribution was in 9.9-8.8 nm. The specific surface reached 345-320 m3·g-1, and content range of gelatin regenerated cellulose was 3%-8%. The chemical structure of reed cellulose was the same before and after regeneration, and the crystallinity was decreased with better wet regulating performance compared with that before regeneration.
    Extraction Process Optimization of Inulin from Helianthus tuberosus L. by Response Surface Methodology
    LIU Yan, CHEN Xiao-Yin, YANG Li-Li, XIE Rui, HE Nan, ZHANG Ji
    2016, 36(4):  627-633.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.020
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    Single-factor tests and response surface method (RSM) were used to optimize the extraction process of Helianthus tuberosus L. inulin in tubers.In order to obtain the maximum of extraction yield of the inulin, three main factors including liquid-solid ratio, extraction times and extraction temperature were selected with the Design Expert V8.0 design, and a quadric regression equation for predicting the yield of inulin was established. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows:liquid-solid ratio of 18:1(mL·g-1), extraction time of 41 min and extraction temperature of 85℃. Under the conditions, the optimum extracting yield of inulin was 40.56%, which is well matched with the predictive extracting yield of 40.74%. Under the process, we carried out the rough inulin and analyzed extraction of the inulin by infrared spectrum with the simple and low cost process.
    Extraction and Anti-inflammatory of Korean Pine Polyphenol
    ZU Yuan-Gang, HU Yan, JIANG Shou-Gang
    2016, 36(4):  634-640.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.04.021
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    The ultrasonic extraction process was used to extract polyphenols in Korean pine bark, with the polyphenol yield as index. The optimum conditions were obtained through single factor test and orthogonal test with 4 factors of material ratio, ethanol concentration, extract time and extract temperature. The optimal ultrasonic extract conditions were material ratio(g·mL-1) of 1:30, ethanol concentration of 60%, extract time of 2.0 h, and extract temperature of 80℃. For the anti-inflammatory effect of Korean pine polyphenol, polar polyphenol and blueberry polyphenol, in 0.01-100 μg·mL-1, the anti-inflammatory effect order was:blueberry polyphenol> Korean pine polyphenol> polar polyphenol.