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    15 May 2016, Volume 36 Issue 3
    Two New Species of Boraginaceae from Xizang
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2016, 36(3):  321-323.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.001
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    Two species of the family Boraginaceae, Onosma dolichourum and Trigonotis dingjieensis, are described as new from Xizang Autonomous Region, and the diagnostic differences between them and their allies are given respectively.
    Eight New Species of Elatostema(Urticaceae) from Guangxi
    WANG Wen-Tsai
    2016, 36(3):  324-333.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.002
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    Eight species of the genus Elatostema(Urticaceae), E.oliganthum, E.longanense, E.crassipenicillum, E.luochengense, E.strigosicaule, E.triseriato-bracteatum, E.basicapitatum and E.xanthocarpum, are described as new from Guangxi autonomous region. The diagnostic differences between them and their allies are given respectively.
    Gametophyte Development of Three Species of Dryopteridaceae
    LI Yi-Chen, QI Jing, ZHENG Shu-Yi, ZHANG Jian-Feng, DAI Xi-Ling
    2016, 36(3):  334-340.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.003
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    We observed the spore germination and gametophyte development of three species of Polystichum polyblepharum, Dryopteris fuscipes and Cyrtomidictyum lepidocaulon belonging to Dryopteridaceae by using light microscopy, and recorded the characteristics of gametophytes of different development stages. The spores of three species are monolete; the germination is centripetal-type and the gametophyte development is aspidium-type; sex organs are of the type of leptosporangiate; mature gametophytes are cordate with hairs; differences among three species include spore color, spore ornamentation, germination time, filament length, plate shape, hairs, and rhizoids. These characteristics are overlapping between the three genera. Therefore, spore morphology and development of gametophyte can't be the evidences distinguishing the three genera Polystichum, Dryopteris and Cyrtomidictyum.
    Meiosis Observation and Comparison of Pollen Mother Cells of Triploid Paeonia lactiflora Cultivars
    WANG Yu-Jiao, LIU Jian-Xin, YU Xiao-Nan
    2016, 36(3):  341-347.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.004
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    Paeonia lactiflora is a traditional Chinese flower. The traditional cultivars are diploid, and cultivating new cultivars has become an important goal in breeding. We selected three new cultivars of peony triploid, ‘Brightness', ‘Roseletter' and ‘Coral Sunset', and observed its meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells by fluorescence microscope. The pollen mother cells of the same variety with same bud diameter were not divided synchronously. But the majority performed same meiosis state. The different cultivars of the similar bud diameter were also different in the period of meiosis, and had significant differences. There were many chromosome abnormal behaviors in the meiosis of pollen mother cell of triploid cultivars, such as the univalent chromosome, the trivalent chromosome, the chromosome bridge and unequal separation and so on. These abnormal behavior leading to triploid pollen fertility is very low.
    Characteristics of the Formation and Morphological Anatomy of the Adventitious Buds on the Horizontal Lateral Root of Rhus typhina
    XU Yu-Feng, XU Dan-Yang, GUO Wen-Zheng, SHAO Mei-Ni, GUAN Ping, QU Bo
    2016, 36(3):  348-353.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.005
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    Rhus typhina, as a typical kind of woody plant, is with the strong abilities of adaptation and root sucker in invasion. We studied the distribution of horizontal lateral roots and adventitious buds of R.typhina by field investigation, anatomic characteristics of the occurrence of adventitious buds and conventional paraffin method, and observed the development of clonal seedling of R.typhina in phenology. The distribution of the horizontal lateral roots of R.typhina is shallow, within 15 cm below the surface, and adventitious buds mainly distributes on the horizontal lateral roots within 2-5 cm soil layer. Adventitious buds germinate throughout the growing season, but there are more buds in spring than those in other three seasons by the field observation. Adventitious buds originate from pericycle cells of horizontal lateral root. Clonal seedlings germinate earlier than their mother trees, they grow rapidly under enough sun light in the forest, which enhanced their competitive strength, provide a good condition for population regeneration and expansion, and promote its invasion.
    Molecular and Cytological analysis of Meiosis in Autotetraploid Arabidopsis thaliana
    LI Yun-Ling, TIAN Bao-Ming, YANG Yan, CUI Ming-Zhu, HAO Zhi-Da, WEI Fang
    2016, 36(3):  354-359.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.006
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    The diploid Arabidopsis thaliana(Columbia-0, 2n=10) was used to obtain autotetraploid plants(2n=20) after 0.2% colchicine treatment and cytological identification. Meiotic chromosome behaviors were comparatively observed in diploid and autotetraploid A.thaliana, and the meiosis-related genes were relatively quantified by Real-time PCR. The autotetraploid A.thaliana produced relatively larger stoma and fruits, but the stomatal density and the seed-set were significantly reduced. Some chromosomal configurations were also observed during meiosis involving the trivalents, univalents, bivalents and quadrivalents in autotetraploid plants. The expression of several meiosis-related genes including ASY1, DMC1, MRE11 and SPO11-1 were up-regulated in autotetraploids. Therefore, as autopolyploidization proceeds, plants may adapt themselves into environment by accompanying with phenotype changes owing to the altered chromosomal behaviors and gene expressions.
    Comparison of 1000-seed Weight, Viability and Chemical Content in the Seed of Taxus chinensis var. mairei from Different Areas and Its Relationship with Ecological Factors
    PAN Miao, ZUO Fei-Fei, SHENG Ji-Lu, CHANG Qiang-Qiang, FAN Jia-Jia, ZHANG Xiao-Ping
    2016, 36(3):  360-367.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.007
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    The relative content of the chemical constituents of T.chinensis var. mairei seeds, collected from its natural distribution in Anhui, Fujian and Sichuan Provinces, was determined and analyzed by using conventional chemical methods, aiming to reveal the differences of the chemical constituents of T.chinensis var. mairei seeds from different geographical areas and their relationship with the growing environment elements, and to provide scientific foundation for artificial planting Taxus and screening the fine seedling source. The 1000-seed weight and viability had a remarkable correlation, and the relative content of the chemical constituents significantly varied among samples from different regions. The seeds from Niejiashan in Anhui had better quality with higher 1000-seed weight, viability and reserve substance content and lower moisture of the seeds. Climatic factors had multiple effects on the relative content of the chemical constituents. The 1000-seed weight and viability of the seeds had significant correlation with annual precipitation; their correlation with soil characteristics was un-significant. The total K in soil and organic matter benefited the nutrient accumulation of the chemical constituents in the seeds while the pH, electrical conductivity and total N had no significant correlation with it.
    Extracellular ATP Exert Systemic Effects on Photosystem Ⅱ Photochemistry of Kidney Bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) Leaf through a H2O2 Signalling Pathway
    TIAN Wu-Ying, JIAO Qing-Song, SHI Dai-Long, SUN Kun, JIA Ling-Yun, FENG Han-Qing
    2016, 36(3):  368-373.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.008
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    We studied the systemic effects of extracellular ATP(eATP) on the Photosystem Ⅱ photochemistry of kidney bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) leaf and possible mechanism for this effect. Treatment of a half of a bean leaf with exogenous ATP had no significant effect on the maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ(Fv/Fm), and the quantum yield of non-regulated energy dissipation(Y(NO)) of the treated half and the untreated, opposite half of the same leaf. However, this treatment significantly increased the values of photochemical efficiency(Y(Ⅱ)), the rate of photosynthetic electron transport(ETR), and photochemical quenching(qP), while the values of the non-photochemical quenching(qN) and the quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation(Y(NPQ)) were significantly decreased by exogenous 1 mmol·L-1 ATP. These observations indicate that eATP can function in systematically enhancing the PSⅡ photochemistry of kidney bean leaves. Treatment of a half of a bean leaf with exogenous ATP, we tested the change of the oxidation hydrogen content of the treated half and the untreated, opposite half of the same leaf. Compared to the control, hydrogen peroxide content of the treated half and the untreated, opposite half of the same leaf were significantly increased. Similar to the effects of exogenous ATP, treatment with exogenous H2O2 at 1 mmol·L-1 also led to a significant increase in Y(Ⅱ), qP and ETR and a significant decrease in qN and Y(NPQ) of the treated half and the untreated, opposite half of the same leaf. DMTU(dimethylthiourea, a scavenger of H2O2) weakened the effects of exogenous ATP on the Y(Ⅱ)), qP, ETR, qN and Y(NPQ). These observations indicate that an increase in eATP concentration of partial region of bean leaf can enhance the PSⅡ photochemistry of the adjacent tissues, and such function of eATP could be dependent of H2O2.
    Effects of Copper Stress on the Alkaoids of Catharanthus roseus
    LIN Feng, GAO Mei-Jiao, YU Bo-Fan, CHEN Hua-Feng
    2016, 36(3):  374-379.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.009
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    With Catharanthus roseus, we used perlite as the medium quality nutritional way to study the effects of copper stresson theresponses of C.roseus seedling growth, accumulation, gene expression and characteristics of alkaloid synthesis. The dry weight of root and leaf of C.roseus under exogenous Cu stress levels was increased under low concentration,decreased under high concentration,and reached peak at 300 μmol·L-1, with significant difference compared with the control(P<0.05). The root tolerance index of seedlings was increased firstly, then decreased, and reached the peak at 200 μmol·L-1 of Cu. Cu into C.roseus seedlings was mostly accumulated in roots. But under the stress of exogenous Cu, C.roseus blade parameters, such as the accumulation of dry matter, was improved significantly, by presenting a regular change the concentration was increased, and reached the peak at 300 μmol·L-1 Cu, even reaching as much as 2.7 times thanthe CK. The C.roseus hyperaccumulation plants can be usedas further reference basisfor Cu accumulation.
    Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Plasma Membrane Na+/H+ Antiporter Gene in Tamarix hispida
    JIA Yuan-Yuan, ZHANG Chun-Rui, WANG Yu-Cheng, YANG Chuan-Ping, WANG Chao
    2016, 36(3):  380-387.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.010
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    A full length cDNA of a Na+/H+ antiporter gene (named ThSOS1) gene was isolated from the transcriptome cDNA librarys of Tamarix hispida. ThSOS1 was 3 917 bp in length, including an open reading frame of 3 498 bp which was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 1 165 amino acids. The estimated molecular weight and isoelectric point of the putative protein were 128.8 kDa and 6.42, respectively. By hydrophobic cluster analysis, ThSOS1 contained 10 potential transmembrane domains within the N- terminal protion and a long hydrophilic cytoplasmic tail in the C-terminal protion. By multiple sequence alignment, ThSOS1 show 92%, 73%, and 72% identities in amino acid sequence to plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter genes from Reaumuria trigyna, Chenopodium quinoa and Suaeda salsa. By phylogenetic analysis, ThSOS1 was more related to the plasma membrane-type Na+/H+ antiporter and clustered distantly with the vacuolar-typed Na+/H+ antiporter. By quantitative real-time PCR assay, the mRNA levels of ThSOS1 was significantly up-regulated in T.hispida under NaCl and PEG treatments. Therefore, ThSOS1 might play an important role in salt and drought tolerance of T.hispida.
    Construction of Plant Expression Vector and Genetic Transformation Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana AtPI Gene in Nicotiana tabacum
    LIU Cai-Xia, ZHENG Tang-Chun, DAI Li-Juan, LIU Yi, QU Guan-Zheng
    2016, 36(3):  388-394.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.011
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    The flower is the main reproductive organs of the plants, plays an extremely important role in the process of breeding and the PISTILLATA(PI) gene, and as a member of the B functional gene, plays an important role in floral organ development. In order to explore the function of PI gene in the development of petals and stamens, the PI gene in Arabidopsis thaliana was used as the research object, and the AtPI gene was amplified from cDNA by PCR, and the plant expression vector(pROKⅡ-AtPI) was constructed and transformed into tobacco. By PCR, the AtPI gene was integrated into the tobacco genome. The T2 generation plants were detected by qRT-PCR, and AtPI was also expressed at the level of mRNA. Transgenic tobacco plants exist obvious phenotype compared to wild-type tobacco, such as smaller corolla, shorter stamens, and abnormal ovary, which is 5-10 mm longer than wild-type tobacco. The specific participation in the development of stamens, petals and ovary meanwhile plays a crucial role is gene AtPI.
    Identification and Expression Analysis of Genes Encoding Zinc Finger Proteins in Betula platyphylla
    WANG Yu-Hang, QIN Lin-Lin, LI Li
    2016, 36(3):  395-400.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.012
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    Zinc finger proteins constitute a large family of transcription factors and numerous members of them play diverse roles in many biological processes, including plant growth, development and stress responses. Based on their structural and functional diversities they were classified into nine types including C2H2, C8, C6, C3HC4, C2HC, C2HC5, C4, CCCH and C4HC3. We studied the genes in Betula platyphylla database by the sequences and homology comparison of genes encoding zinc finger proteins involving in stress responses from other organisms. A total of ten genes (designated as BpZFP1 to BpZFP10), of which four were C2H2 type, five were C3HC4-RING type, one was CCCH type were identified. By quantitative RT-PCR assay, we analyzed the expression patterns of BpZFPs in roots. BpZFP2, BpZFP3, BpZFP4, BpZFP5 and BpZFP8 were induced under high-salt and drought treatment significantly indicating their involvement in stress response in Birch.
    Transformation of Mirabilis jalapa L. with otsB Gene in E.coli Driven by rd29A Promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana
    LU Yu-Jian, ZHANG Han-Jie, HAN Wen-Yu, SHEN Zhi-Qiang
    2016, 36(3):  401-408.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.013
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    Mirabilis jalapa L. is a perennial herb of Nyctaginaceae. Not only is it a high-value ornamental flowering and greening plants, but also can be used as medicine. M.jalapa L. has good bioremediation function. M.jalapa L. was used as experimental material, and the perfect regeneration system was initially established. The rd29A promoter of Arabidopsis thaliana and otsB gene in E.coli were cloned by PCR respectively. Afterwards, the rd29A promoter and otsB gene were ligated into plasmid p2300-GFP, which would lead to the construction of p2300-rd29A pro-otsB expression vector. Then, the expression vector was introduced into the cells of M.jalapa L. by Agrobacterium-mediated method. The genetic transformation results showed that when the concentration of Agrobacterium was OD600=0.5, the time of infection of mature embryo or nodal stem segments was 60 min, and the co-culture time was 2 d, the transformation efficiency of M.jalapa L. was the highest. By PCR detection, otsB gene was successfully integrated into the genome of M.jalapa L., and the efficient transcription could be performed.
    Variation Analysis of Transient Gene Expression and Growth, Physiological Indicators under Drought Stress in Expressed LbDREB Populus ussuriensis Kom.
    LI Mo-Ye, WANG Na, ZHOU Yu, PU Xiao-Ying, FENG Wan-Ju, LI Kai-Long
    2016, 36(3):  409-415.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.014
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    We used transgenic technology to cultivate stress-resistant varieties of Populus ussuriensis Kom, which was one of the most significant means of molecular breeding.With three expressed LbDREB lines and one wild type(WT), under the condition of PEG6000, which simulated the treatment of the drought stress, we investigated the growth of different lines, and the relative expression levels of LbDREB and biochemical indicators.With the increase of PEG stress time, the root phytomass of expressed LbDREB line was more than wild type.Meanwhile, the variational trends of SOD and POD were similar to the LbDREB expression level, which presented the upward trend, the downward trend and eventually beingrising.Additionally, transgenic lines contained stronger protective enzymes activity and proline content than wild type.However, the MDA accumulation and relative conductivity of transgenic lines were less than wild type.The drought tolerance ability of transgenic lines was superior to wild type, furthermore, the up-regulated expression of LbDREB probably played an important role in drought resistant in plant.The transgenic line named Dr2 was perfect in the different index of drought resistant, which could be preliminary screened as the excellent drought resistant clones of P.ussuriensis Kom.
    Effects of Endophytic Fungi ZPRa-R-1 on the Key Singnal Molecules and the Main Secondary Metabolites in Rhodiola crenulata
    WANG Meng-Liang, JIAO Jin, XING Jie, TIAN Jun-Sheng, CUI Jin-Long, WANG Jun-Hong
    2016, 36(3):  416-420.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.015
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    We studied the effects on the key signal molecules and the main secondary metabolites's content in tissue culture of Rhodiola crenulata inoculated with endophic fungi ZPRa-R-1. We selected Greiss method, RP-HPLC and Titanium sulfate method to detect the contents of NO, SA and H2O2, respectively, and detected the key enzymes, PAL and CA4H by spectrophotometry. p-Tyrosol and salidroside in Rhodiola seedling co-cultured with fungi were evaluated by RP-HPLC. The content of NO increased firstly, followed by SA and H2O2 after that Rhodiola seedling inoculated with endophic fungi. The maximum contents of NO, SA and H2O2 were detected at 8, 10 and 12 d, and they were 0.193 μmol·g-1, 0.062 μg·g-1 and 0.092 μmol·g-1, respectively. The maximum contents of PAL and CA4H were 166.400 U·g-1, 0.625 U·g-1·h-1, and were 8 and 1.5 times as much as that of control, repectively. The contents of p-tyrosol and salidroside were accumulated, and the time of each of them reaching the maximum content was on 8 and 10 d, and the contents were 8.656 and 0.498 mg·g-1, and were 7 and 2.5 times as much as that of control, respectively. Therefore, ZPRa-R-1 has the capacity of regulating signals and promoting the activities of PAL and CA4H, and finally promoted accumulation of p-tyrosol and salidroside in co-culturing seedling of fungi and Rhodiola.
    Cloning the Partial Coding Sequence of ICS Gene and the Influence of ICS Gene on the SA Content in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi
    SU Hu, ZHU You-Lin, LI Rong, WU Chao, ZHANG Yun
    2016, 36(3):  421-426.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.016
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    We cloned partial coding sequences of isochorismate synthase(ICS) gene in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and constructed the virus induced gene silence(VIGS) vector, pTRV2-VIGSics. ICS gene was silenced by VIGS technique. We analyzed the ICS activity, expression level, and salicylic acid content of the silenced seedlings. ICS silence resulted in the drastically reduction of the expression level, enzyme activity and salicylic acid content in S.baicalensis Georgi. The enzyme activity was not detected, the expression level was reduced to 25%, and salicylic acid content was reduced to 44.4%. While, drought stress caused the expression level and enzyme activity recovered to 87% and 4.95%, respectively. Instead of recovery, the salicylic acid content was further reduced to 13.2% of the wild type level under drought stress.
    Effect of Exogenous H2O2 on Proline Accumulation and Metabolic Pathway in Leaves of Oat Seedlings under Complex Saline-Alkali Stress
    LIU Jian-Xin, WANG Jin-Cheng, LIU Xiu-Li, WANG Feng-Qin
    2016, 36(3):  427-433.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.017
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    Saline-alkali stress interferes with cell metabolism, and inhibits plant growth and development. Proline metabolism is closely related with plant salt-alkali resistance. As signaling molecules, hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) plays vital roles in the regulation of plant cell metabolism, as well as in adaptation to the environmental stress. In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of exogenous H2O2 on proline metabolism in oat(Avena nuda) under salinity-alkalinity stresses, the ‘Dingyou No.6'(a new oat cultivar) seedlings with two leaves were used to investigate the effects of exogenous H2O2 on proline accumulation in leaves of the seedlings under complex saline-alkali stress by the method of solution culture. The results showed that 75 mmol·L-1 complex saline-alkali stress(molar ratio of NaCl:Na2SO4:NaHCO3:Na2CO3=12:8:9:1) led to a significant accumulation of proline in leaves, and induced a rapid increase of activities of the key enzymes ornithine-δ-aminotransferase(δ-OAT) of proline biosynthesis, and a decrease of activities of the key enzymes Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase(P5CS) of proline biosynthesis, as well as the key enzyme proline dehydrogenase(ProDH) of proline degradation. Moreover, treatments with 0.01-1 000 μmol·L-1, especially, 10 μmol·L-1 H2O2 could enhance the accumulation of proline in oat seedling leaves under complex saline-alkali stress. H2O2 of 10 μmol·L-1 also increased the activities of P5CS and δ-OAT, and decreased the activity of ProDH in leaves under complex saline-alkali stress. In addition, 10 μmol·L-1 H2O2 treatments could rapidly increase the endogenous H2O2 levels in oat seedling leaves under complex saline-alkali stress. The exogenous H2O2 treatment resulted in the increase of endogenous H2O2 content in oat seedlings under complex saline-alkali stress. H2O2 induced proline accumulation might be a combined result of the activation of glutamate and ornithine pathways of proline biosynthesis and inhibition of proline degradation pathway.
    Establishment and Optimization of plant regeneration of Hybrid larch(L.gmelinii 10×L.kaempferi 13)
    ZHANG Li, ZHANG Lei, HOU Dan, ZHANG Su-Fang, ZHANG Han-Guo
    2016, 36(3):  434-443.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.018
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    With the mature zygotic embryos of hybrid larch(L.gmelinii 10×L.kaempferi 13), by combining different culture medium and hormone, we established and optimized hybrid larch mature zygotic embryos induction and plant regeneration. BM medium was suitable for adventitious bud induction of hybrid larch with the induction rate of 60.7%. Under the condition of combination BM and1.5 mg·L-1 TDZ, induction rate was the highest, 67.73%. BM medium could promote the proliferation of adventitious buds with the value-added coefficient of 4.48, when it was cultured on BM+1.0 mg·L-1 TDZ with the coefficient of 5.23. The active carbon could promote the elongation at the level of 2 g·L-1. When the adventitious buds were cultured under BM+0.05 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.2 mg·L-1 NAA, the pumping stems rate was the highest, up to 73.96%, and the highest rooting rate was 29.85% under 1/2BM+0.5mg·L-1IBA+1.0mg·L-1 NAA.
    Relationships between Vegetation Distribution, Species Diversity of Subalpine Meadow and Soil Chemical Factors in the Yundingshan, China
    DU Jing-Qi, ZHANG Qiao-Xian, TIAN Xiao-Dong, WANG Yue, XU Xin-Yun, SONG Li, YUAN Zi-Qiang
    2016, 36(3):  444-451.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.019
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    With the data from field investigation of 36 sampling areas with 27 species of the community of subalpine meadow in the Yundingshan, China, we used Two-way Indicator Species Analysis(TWINSPAN) to compartmentalize the sampling areas into different associations. Six associations were obtained: Ass. Taraxacum mongolicum+Anemone obtusiloba+Plantago asiatica, Ass. Potentilla chinensis+Gentiana squarrosa+Taraxacum mongolicum+Plantago asiatica, Ass. Taraxacum mongolicum+Potentilla chinensis+Thymus mongolicus, Ass. Plantago asiatica+Potentilla chinensis+Thymus mongolicus+Artemisia sacrorum, Ass. Plantago asiatica+Artemisia sacrorum+Potentilla chinensis, and Ass. Taraxacum mongolicum+Festuca ovina+Plantago asiatica. By Canonical Correspondence Analysis(CCA), we analyzed the relationships between the meadow vegetation distribution patterns and soil chemical factors. Soil chemical factors consisted of soil pH, total nitrogen, total phosphprus, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Fe, organic matter(OM). The total nitrogen, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe were the main soil environmental factors which affected distribution of the community of subalpine meadow in the Yundingshan. Six associations were, respectively, correlated with different habitat. Correlation was carried out between species richness index, evenness index and Shannon-Weiner index, the results showed that total nitrogen, Ca2+ showed a significant positive correlation with Shannon-Weiner index(P<0.05), a positive relationship was between total nitrogen and species richness index(P<0.05), a negative relationship was between species richness index and Mg2+(P<0.05), a positive relationship of between species richness index(P<0.05), evenness index(P<0.05), Shannon-Weiner index(P<0.01) and K+. Therefore, the protecting species diversity should be combined with local characteristics of the soil.
    Genetic Variation of Pinus koraiensis from Provenances and High Carbon Storage Provenance Selection
    HOU Dan, ZHANG Li, WEI Zhi-Gang, ZHOU Chun-Yan, XIA De-An
    2016, 36(3):  452-460.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.020
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    With 27-year-old Pinus koraiensis provenance test plantations in Lushuihe Forestry Bureau in Jilin Province, we studied the variation patterns of growth, wood properties, biomass and carbon content and chose optimal provenances. There was significant or extremely significant difference among other characteristics provenances, except carbon content per plant, carbon content of tree crown and carbon content of 1.3 m. The growth traits were significant correlation with altitude, annual precipitation and sunshine hours. In wood properties, the correlation between the basic density and climatic and geographical factors is not significant, and the correlation between other characters and the geographical and climatic factors is complicated relatively. The carbon storage was significant or extremely significant correlation with latitude, altitude, annual precipitation and sunshine duration, and was not related significantly to the carbon content of root, lignin content, hemicellulose content and ash content. Five main components of variables affecting carbon were extracted and the accumulation contribution rate reached 83.741%. C' was only significantly positive correlation with the trees growth factor F1. The carbon storage superior provenances score function was Zk=Ck'+0.975*42.826%* F1. Zk value of Lushuihe, Linjiang and Dahailin provenances were in the top third, 2.929 8, 2.699 8 and 1.936 3, and the high carbon storage P.koraiensis provenances were chosen as the optimal provenances.
    Entomic Herbivory Characteristics of Quercus variabilis Leaves and Correlation with Meteorological Factors across Different Geographical Regions
    WANG Xiao-Fei, NI Yan-Yan, GAO Wen-Qiang, LIU Jian-Feng, JIANG Ze-Ping
    2016, 36(3):  461-468.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.021
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    Herbivory is the common characteristics of plant community. To explore the effects of latitude and meteorological factors on herbivory, we investigated the entomic herbivory characteristics of Quercus variabilis leaves acorss different geographical regions, with a 14° latitudinal spanning from 26° N(Chengbu, Hu'nan Province) to 40°N(Beijing). Either the mature tree or juvenile tree, leaf herbivory rate and frequency significantly increased toward the equator or at lower latitudes(P<0.05). According to the insect herbivory structure, the proportion of the non-chewed leaves decreased, while the proportion of the above 25%-chewed leaves increased toward the equator. Namely, it shows strong herbivory at lower latitudes. Except the southest site(Chengbu, Hu'nan Province), the proportion of herbivory mainly concentrated between 0.5%-5% for all other sites. Leaf herbivory rates in the juvenile tree were significantly higher than that in the mature tree(P<0.05). Multiple regression results revealed significant effects of annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month on leaf herbivory rate and frequency despite ontogenic stages, but the maximum temperature of the warmest month significantly affected leaf herbivory frequency in the juvenile tree. Therefore, the latitudinal variation in leaf herbivory likely appears to be driven predominantly by variation in extreme temperature and precipitation.
    Optional Protein Extracting Methods of Poplar Leaves for Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis
    YAN Dong, LIU Dian-Kun, SI Dong-Jing, ZHENG Mi, ZHAO Xi-Yang, QU Guan-Zheng, LI Ying
    2016, 36(3):  469-475.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.022
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    In order to obtain the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images with better separation and definition of poplar leaves, the Populus X, P.trichocarpa Torr. & Gray and P.alba×P.glandulosa were selected to study the optional extracting methods of poplar leaves for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis by using TCA/acetone precipitation, Tris/saturated phenol and Tris/TCA method, respectively. The proteins of poplar leaves were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis respectively and the images of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were analyzed by Image Master 2D Platinum 6.0. Tris/TCA method was more appropriate for the protein extraction of poplar leaves for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The average protein content of the fresh sample extracted by Tris/TCA method was 949.46 μg·g-1 and the average quantity of protein spots was 567 in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images which had better separation and definition.
    Seasonal Variation of Total Flavonoids from Crataegus pinnatifida and Correlation Analysis of Climatic Factors
    LUO Meng, HU Jiao-Yang, SONG Zhuo-Yue, MU Fan-Song, YU Xue-Ying, QIAO Qi, RUAN Xin, YANG Xuan, ZU Yuan-Gang
    2016, 36(3):  476-480.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2016.03.023
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    We determined the contents of total flavonoids from Crataegus pinnatifida(C.pinnatifida) according to seasonal dynamics to find out the climate dominant climatic factors which influence the total flavonoids content(TFC) of C.pinnatifida. We studied the C.pinnatifida from May to October 2013, and used ultrasound-assisted extraction(UAE) to extract TFC from C.pinnatifida, and determined TFC by aluminum chloride colorimetric method. We analyzed the correlation between the TFC and climatic factors. TFC in different parts of C.pinnatifida had significant difference. TFC from C.pinnatifida leaves increase continuously and reach the highest point in September, with the value of 31.52 mg·g-1. A positive correlation was between the content of total flavonoid and temperature. September was the best harvest time for C.pinnatifida leaves. Our result provides a theoretical basis for development and utilization of total flavonoids in C.pinnatifida.