A STUDY ON THE GRASSLAND IN HORTHEAST CHINA
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Northeast China including Prov. Liaoning, Prov. Jilin,Prov. Heilongjiang and the eastern part of Inner Mongolia. The grasslands in it are variety,rich and vast. The grassland community types are swamp, meadow, meadow steppe, and steppe as the habitat dryer. The grassland in Northeast China could be divided into three regions:1. Meadow and Swamp in Muling-Sanjiang Plain The natural resources of meadow and swamp in this region are the richest among those of other types of grassland in Northeast China. Deyeuxia angustifolia is almost the centre of the succession of the vegetation in its dynamic status. Some species of Carex intrude into the community and become the communities dominated by Carex species(light swamp) as the soil moisture increases, but the Phragmites comunies swamp (heavy swamp) becomes if the water stocks on the ground is intermittent. The swamp area is very large in this region, and the turf(peat) of the swamp is a fine resource. The light swamp could be cleared to be cropland in a planned way progressively, while the heavy swamp should be reserved and that should be combined with the turf (peat) excavation, fishpond building and the animal breeding so as to increase the ecological benefit and the economic benefit. The meadow could be cleared to be cropland and the animal husbandry, which the ox breeding was taken as the main part, should be developed. Meanwhile, the shelter forest should be planted and the diversification should be developed. Ⅱ. Meadow steppe in Songliao Plain Songliao Plain includes two parts:Songnen Plain and west Liao River Plain. The former is the main part of the region,the grassland communities in this area could be divided into three ecological sequences according to the succession pattern of the vegetation:(1) black soil ecological sequence;(2) alkaline soil ecological sequence and (3) saline soil ecological sequence. The black soil area is suitable for clearing and pastoralism; the alkaline soil area is suitable for pastoralism; but the value of the saline soli area is lower than that of the two sequences above, so it should be improved to the alkaline soil sequence. To sum up, in Songnen Plain, animal husbandry and agriculture should be taken as the main trade and the shelter forest should be planted in the same time so as to increase the economic benefit, the ecological benefit and the social benefit simultaneously. while in the West Liao River Plain, the ecological environment had been destroyed seriously by the economic action of human being. It seems as the desert in landscape now, and the grass, tree should be planted to bind sand. Ⅲ. Steppe in Inner Mongolia Plateau This region is one of the main pasterol area of China. Stipa is the representative plant and almost the centre of the succession of various ecological sequences in this region. In non-sand area,the grassland could be improved to be the root stock grassland,which has higher value than that of the Stipa grassland. But this region is not suitable for large-scale agriculture, and the animal husbandry shold be taken as the main trade instead. Fine herbage should be introduced and the sand binding forest should be planted. Meanwhile, diversification should be developed and suit measures should be taken to local conditions. The ecological equilibrium is fragile in this region, so it should be protected carefully.