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    20 May 2006, Volume 26 Issue 3
    New plants of Adenanthera from Hainan Island
    FU Guo-Ai;YANG Yong-Kang
    2006, 26(3):  257-258.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.001
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    A new variety of Adenanthera was discovered in Hainan Island;and Adenanthera pavonina var. microsperma was promoted Adenanthera microsperma Teijsm et Binnend by variety.
    Two new varieties of Leymus Hochst. (Poaceae) from Xinjiang, China
    CAI Lian-Bing
    2006, 26(3):  259-259.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.002
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    Two new varieties of Leymus Hochst. from Xinjiang, China were reported, i. e. Leymus tianschanicus (Drob.) Tzvel. var. borealus L. B. Cai and L. angustus (Trin.) Pilger var. brevistachyus L. B. Cai.
    Agropyron mongolicum var. helinicum, a new variety of Agropyron Gaertn. (Gramineae) from Inner Mongolia
    ZHAO Li-Qing;YANG Jie*
    2006, 26(3):  260-260.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.003
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    A new varieties of Agropyron Gaertn. from Inner Mongolia, A. mongolicum Keng var. helinicum L.Q.Zhao et J. Yang is described. Its lemma covers dense villus and glumes is glabrous, may be distinguished from A. mongolicum Keng and A. mongolicum Keng var. villosum H.L.Yang.
    New records of Pottiaceae in Henan Province, China
    LIU Yong-Ying;ZHAO Jian-Cheng*;LI Lin;WANG Xiao-Rui
    2006, 26(3):  261-265.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.005
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    Based on the study of specimens and literatures, 4 species and 2 varieties: Didymodon constrictus var. flexicuspis (Broth.) Saito, Didymodon rigidulus var. rigidulus Hedw., Didymodon rigidulus var. icmadophyllus (Schimp. ex C. Muell.) Zand., Didymodon longicostata Li, Gymnostomum aurantiacum(Mitt.) Jaeg., Gymnostomum subrigidulum (Broth.) Chen are reported in Henan Province for the first time. The identification features, characteristics of the habitat and distribution of every species are given and the pictures of 6 species are drawn. The specimens are deposited in the herbarium of Hebei Normal University (HBNU).
    The development of gametophytes of Dryopteris fragrans
    HUANG Qing-Yang;XIAO Zi-Tian;CHANG Ying;*
    2006, 26(3):  266-269.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.004
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    The development of gametophytes of Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott was studied. The results showed that the spores are monolete,elliotical in polar view and semicircle in equatoral view. The germination is of the Vittara-type, and the germ filament developes 2~9 cells long. The apical cells are obvious. Prothallial plate is multicellular plate. Apical meristem still divide and develop to young prothallus. The prothallus is of the Aspidium-type. Quantity of hair is large,and each is unicellular. The antheridia and archegonia are smaller, and seem to develop at the same time. The adult prothallus are cordate-thalloid. It appears that the gametophytes of Dryopterisfragrans (L.)Schott possess some evolving characteristics of the fern.
    The structures of reproductive organs and development of the female and male gametophyte of Dendrocalamus sinicus
    WANG Shu-Guang;PU Xiao-Lan;Ding Yu-Long
    2006, 26(3):  270-274.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.006
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    The investigation of the structures of reproductive organs, megasporogenesis, microsporogenesis and the development of male and female gametophyte in Dendrocalamus sinicus are made using normal paraffin method in this article. There is a simple ovary, which is unicarpellous, unilocular, and uniovulate, in one spikelet. The ovule is bitegminous, crassinucellate and anatropous. The megaspore mother cell divides into linear megaspore terad after meiosis. The development of the embryo sac is Polygonum type with numberous antipodal cells. The anther wall is composed of four layers: epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum. The development of anther wall belongs to the monocotyledonous type,and the tapetum is glander taptum. The cytokinesis of the microspore mother cells in meiosis is successive and the microspore tetrads are tetrahedial. The mature pollen grains are two-celled and mono-aperturate. It is dichogamous and protogynous in the same flower.
    Fruit shape and pericarp micromorphological characteristics of Polygonum section Persicaria from China
    QU Chang-You;HOU Yuan-Tong;LI Ai-Ling;LU Fa-Jun;LI Fa-Zeng*
    2006, 26(3):  275-285.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.007
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    Shape and micromorphological characteristics of fruits in 19 species and 3 varieties of Polygonum sect. Persicaria from China were observed and studied under stereoscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the fruits of Polygonum section Persicaria are ovoid or elliptic-ovoid, triangulate or biconcave or biconvex; attenuate at apex, with a beak or not. According to micro-morphological characteristics, the achenes can be divided into 7 types: deep or shallow hollows, cerebelloid ornamentation, paracerebroid ornamentation, reticular ornamentation, irregular plications, small verrucose ornamentation, and dense shallow reticular ornamentation. In addation, the evidence of micro-morphological characteristics of fruits supports not only the merge of P. lapathifolium L. var. salicifolium Sibth. to P. lapathifolium L., treated as synonym of P. lapathifolium L., but also the view that P. longisetum De Br. is the variety of P. posumbu Buch-Ham. ex D.Don. We also think that P. lapathifolium L. var. lanatum (Roxb.) Stew. should be resumed the rank of species. and P. longisetum De Br. var. rotunatum A.J.Li should be regarded as the rank of speices. The evidences of micro-morphological characteristics of fruits also support the exist of a new species of Polygonum pingwuense F. Z. Li et Y. T. Hou et S. J. Fan, sp.nov.
    The relationship between seed coat micro-morphology characteristics and systemic evolution of some species of Iris
    WANG Ling;ZHUO Li-Huan
    2006, 26(3):  286-290.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.008
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    Micro-morphology characteristics of ten species,one variation and one outgroup species of Iris were studied, also discussing the relationship between the micro-morphology of seed surfaces and the evolution of Iris. The results showed that seed coat micro-morphology had the stable characteristics, which was not relative to the distribution zone.The characteristics of concave and convex surface micro-morphology of a species were different significantly. Therefore, we should choose the same spot of the seeds for comparison observation. All of species were reticulate grain(reticulate grain or negative net grain). Micro-morphology characteristics can be used to classify genus and series of genus, but not for variations. The characteristics of micro-morphology of seed surfaces were very important for classification and systemic evolution of Iris.
    Micromorphological characters of seed coats of Lepidium from China
    ZHENG Ji-Qing;SUN Zhi-Ying;LI Fa-Zeng*
    2006, 26(3):  291-296.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.009
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    The micromorphological characters of seed coats that 9 species of Lepidium from China was examined by scanning electron microscope. The results showed that in micromorphological characters may be delimitated four types and Lepidium is delimitated three sections. But L. virginicum L. is obviously different from others of Lepidium in micromorphological characters of seed coats. Again, through the characters of accumbent, L. virginicum L. should be built a new section——Sect. Accumbentum F. Z. Li, J. Q. Zheng & Z. Y. Sun, sect. nov.
    Chitinase gene mediated by Ri plasmid transfering wheat
    LI Xin-Ling;QU Min;XU Xiang-Ling*;LI Ji-Lin
    2006, 26(3):  297-301.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.011
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    Mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogene which contains plasmid pMLH7133-Chi, the genetic transformation experiment was carried out with the callus of Spring Wheat Dongnong 7742, Longmai 9814, and Hite as the acceptor in the way of orthogonal test of L9(34). The result indicates that the best group is Dongnong 7742, 100 μm of Acetosyringone, A. rhizogene’s OD600=0.8 and about two days’ co-cultivation; the order of influential factors is: genotype>concentration of Acetosyringone>concentration of A. rhizogene> co-culture period. 138 regenerated plants were obtained in the experiment. Then detected by PCR amplification and PCR-Southern, the result suggests that the foreign Chitinase genes have already been introduced into 5 wheat genomes of all. Three of the five plants were detected again by RT-PCR and Chitinase activity methods, which proved that the foreign Chitinase gene has expressed steadily in wheat genome.
    Construction and analysis of Tamarix albiflonum suppression subtractive hybridization library under osmotic stress
    DONG Yu-Zhi;YANG Chuan-Ping*;WANG Yu-Cheng;ZHANG Dao-Yuan
    2006, 26(3):  302-307.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.013
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    A suppression subtractive hybridization library of Tamarix albiflonum was constructed by using the osmosis treated leaves as tester and leaves grown under normal conditions as driver. The PCR results of recombinant plasmid showed that the inserts were mainly 250~650 bp. After alignment with NCBI database, 23 osmosis stress related genes, such as proline transport protein, calciumdependent protein kinase, leucine zipper-containing protein, translation initiation factor-like protein,which responsible for osmotic regulating, signal transduction, gene regulating, antioxidation and metabolism were detected.
    Changes of defensive enzymes and active oxygen of Puccinellia tenuiflora seedlings under Na2CO3 stress
    GAO Hong-Ming;WU Xiao-Xia;ZHANG Biao;ZHANG Yi;XU Ping;SUN Guo-Rong*
    2006, 26(3):  308-312.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.010
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    The study concerns with the relative electric conductance, O-2 produce-rate, H2O2 content, and SOD, POD and CAT activity of P. tenuiflora seedlings stressed by 0~1.0% Na2CO3 for 1d. The results showed that the cell membrane, O-2 produce-rate, H2O2 content, defensive enzymes activity are increased along with the prick up of low density salt stress, but specific change rule of that is relevant to the saline stress intensity and to the extent of the plasma membrane of seedlings was harmed, and the character of the relationship is different.
    Diurnal variation of cell defense enzymes activity in leaves of maize seedling
    YANG Ling;WU Jian-Hui;SUN Guo-Rong
    2006, 26(3):  313-317.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.012
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    The diurnal variations of electrolyte leakage, MDA concentration and cell defense enzyme in leaves of maize seedling were synchronously measured under the artificial conditions. The results showed that the variations of electrolyte leakage over a day-night presented respectively a dual-peaked curve with the maximum after 4 h of the light and after 4 h of the dark. MDA concentration in leaves presented a simple-peaked curve with the maximum in 4 h of the dark. With light continued, the activities of SOD, POD and CAT showed different levels of descend, but they came to the minimum of a day-night between four O’clock in the afternoon and eight O’clock in the evening. With the dark continued, the activities of defense enzyme all increased. But the rates of increasing were different, until eight O’clock in the next day, the activities of defense enzyme all reached the levels similar to the light before. Under the light and dark, the activities of all kinds of defense enzyme were significantly different. The diurnal variations of the activities of cell defense enzyme didn’t significantly relate to soluble protein content in leaves.
    Optimization of experiment conditions and primer screening with ISSR markers for Amentotaxus argotaenia
    ZHU Bai-Fang;ZHU Du*;DENG Rong-Gen;LI Si-Guang
    2006, 26(3):  318-322.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.014
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    The factors which affect the ISSR analysis in the study of the genetic deversity of Amentotaxus argotaenia, such as concentrations of template DNA, DNA Taq polymerase,Mg2+ and dNTPsn et al., were examined. The optimal ISSR-PCR conditions in the experiments were as the following: in 20 μL PCR reaction system,2 μL 10×DNA Taq polymerase buffer, 1.8 U Taq DNA polymerase, 0.2 μmol·L-1 primer, 0.18 mmol·L-1 dNTP, 1.5~2.5 mmol·L-1 MgCl2, 10 ng·μL-1 temper DNA. One hundred ISSR primers were used to screen the suitable primers with 7 samples from different populations for assessing the genetic diversity of Amentotaxus argotaenia, of which 10 ISSR primers with high resolution and multiple polymorphic bands were screened. The total 92 ISSR bands were amplified with 10 primers, and produced 45 polymorphic bands. The percentage of polymorphic bands is 49%.
    Tissue culture of Dioscorea opposita “foshou”
    LIU Jin-Ying;XU You-Ming;LI Shuang-Lai;GUO Chun-Feng;GUO Zhi-Cheng
    2006, 26(3):  323-328.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.015
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    Tissue culture of Dioscorea opposita “foshou” was studied with explants such as tubers,leaves,stem segments. The results showed that the media of MS+6-BA1.0 mg·L-1+NAA0.1 mg·L-1 was for tubers and the media of MS+6-BA0.5~1.0 mg·L-1+NAA2.0 mg·L-1 was for leaves in the dark condition. The tissue culture of stems was conducted in light condition. The optimum media was MS + 6-BA1.0 mg·L-1 + NAA0.5 mg·L-1 for the stem without the node. MS+ 6-BA0.5~1.0 mg·L-1 + NAA0.1 mg·L-1 was suitable for primary culture of the stem with the node, the optimum propagating media was MS+6-BA0.5 mg·L-1+ NAA0.1 mg·L-1, roots were induced on the media of 1/2MS+NAA0.5 mg·L-1.
    Analysis adventitious shoot polarization and plantlet regeneration of Poplar- Zhonglinmeihe
    ZENG You-Ling;YI Li-Juan;ZHANG Fu-Chun*
    2006, 26(3):  329-332.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.016
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    Inducing adventitious shoots were produced from different explants of Populus sp. by tissue culture on 1/2MS or MS medium with different hormone arrays which were 6BA plus NAA or IBA.The results showed that the adventitious shoot inducing rate of leafstalk was higher than leaf and stem, the adventitious shoots polarization of stem cambium was also good. The optimal medium of leafstalk was 1/2MS+6-BA0.5 mg·L-1+ NAA0.05 mg·L-1, adventitious shoots grew very well,inducing adventitious shoot rate was 76%,shoot number was 4.7 per leafstalk. Adventitious shoots could become whole plants by adventitious shoots multiplication,strength and radication.
    The application of chromosome C-banding to identification on wheat-rye translocation line and substitution line
    ZHAO Yan-Li;WANG Zhan-Bin;LI Ji-Lin;XU Xiang-Ling;SUN Zhong-Ping
    2006, 26(3):  333-336.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.017
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    10 hybrids progeny which showed obvious rye characteristics were examinated by C-banding. 1 wheat-rye translocation line and 2 wheat-rye substitution lines were identified. Proper factors which influenced C-banding results were revised according to seasons (in winter and summer). the results showed that C-banding was a rapid, economical and feasible method.
    The effect of CO2 concentration and temperature on chlorophyll content of Quercus mongolica Fisch. under different nitrogen levels
    ZHAO Meng;WANG Xiu-Wei;MAO Zi-Jun*
    2006, 26(3):  337-341.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.019
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    Chlorophyll content in leaves plays an important role in light absorption, transfer and transformation in photosynthesis. In order to predict the photosynthetic capacity of the plant under different nitrogen levels with elevated CO2 concentration and temperature in the future, we carried out the experiment about the chlorophyll content of one year old Q. mongolica seedlings exposed to double CO2 concentration, elevated temperature and control under different nitrogen levels. The results showed that nitrogen levels significantly affected chlorophyll content. Under the three treatments of double CO2 concentration, elevated temperature and control, the chlorophyll content of high nitrogen was obviously higher than normal nitrogen level and no nitrogen added. The effect of CO2 concentration and temperature on chlorophyll content were also limited by nitrogen levels: under high nitrogen, CO2 concentration accelerated the chlorophyll a component and more significantly accelerated chlorophyll b component. And elevated temperature(+4℃) could increased chlorophyll a content, but didn’t affect chlorophyll b content. Under normal nitrogen level, chlorophyll a, b and total content were not affected by CO2 concentration and temperature. Under no nitrogen added, double CO2 concentration and elevated temperature to some extent might improve chlorophyll a content, but couldn’t synthesize chlorophyll b at the same time. Elevated CO2 concentration significantly resulted in more requirements of Q. mongolica seedlings to nitrogen, and the seedlings under elevated temperature also to some extent needed more nitrogen.
    The comparison of the secondary metabolism content in Sargentodoxa cuneata from different producing areas
    SHAO Hong;LI Jun-Min;JIN Ze-Xin
    2006, 26(3):  342-348.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.020
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    The contents of 6 secondary metabolism such as tannin,alkaloid,saponin,lignin,chlorogenic acid and flavonoids in different organs of Sargentodoxa cuneata from different producing areas were determined and compared.The results showed that there were certain differences among the contents of 6 secondary metabolism in different organs of S. cuneata.The total content of 6 secondary metabolism was the highest in the leafblades,and that in stem was the second while that in root was the lowest.The content of lignin in stem and root was relatively higher than that in leafblades,while the contents of other 5 secondary metabolism in the leafblades were the highest (the difference is significant).There were also significant differences among the contents of 6 secondary metabolism in S. cuneata from different producing areas.Stepwise regression analysis and path analysis indicated that the contents of 6 secondary metabolism were nearly correlated with the soil ecological factors.Through systematic cluster,it was concluded that the contents of secondary metabolism were higher in the leaves from Baishanzu Mountain in Qinyuan County,Daleishan and Tiantaishan in Tiantai County.
    Sugar, phytohormone, tannins and flavonoids changes during the growth and development of Eupatorium adenophorum
    ZU Yuan-Gang;CHEN Hua-Feng;WANG Wen-Jie;JIA Jing;ZHU Lei;ZHANG Nai-Jing
    2006, 26(3):  349-355.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.018
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    The differences of sugar,phytohormone,tannins and total flavonoids in Eupartorium adenophorum at different developmental stage were studied,employing the HPLC and the spectrophotometric methods. The results showed that: the content of glucose is the highest in the sprout (6.93%),however,in the seed (0.16%),seedling (1.27%),adult (1.07%) are obviously lower than that at the stage of sprouts. Alike,the content of sucrose is rather high in sprout which is as high as 2.68%,and followed by in seed (0.32%),seedling (0.52%),adult (0.09%). The maximum fructose is also observed in the sprout stage (3.28%) and followed by seedling stage (2.56%),seed (0.14%) and adult stage (0.55%). The content of fructose,raffinose,mannose differs significantly,i.e. these three kinds of sugar are detectable only at seedling stage(respectively 0.04%,0.04% and 0.03% ) but no obvious difference. At the developmental stage of E. adenophorum,the content of IAA at the stages of sprout (14.20μg·g-1 Dw) is 1.25μg·g-1 Dw higher than that in seed,while it is respectively 1.63 times,5.55 times higher than that of seedling and adult. GA is also varied with developmental stage. The content of GA at seedling stage (901.11μg·g-1 Dw) is obviously higher than those of adult (280.50μg·g-1 Dw),sprout (97.35μg·g-1 Dw) and seedling (84.29μg·g-1 Dw). Difference of the change of tannins is obvious in development of E. adenophorum. The tannins content of seed is obviously higher than that of the sprout,seedling and developmental stages (<0.03%) by 1.98%; The content of total flavonoids increases linearity during the developmental progress. The content of flavonoids in seed is as low as 0.04%,while much higher values are observed at the sprout (0.60%),seedling (0.64%) and adult (0.62%) stages and there are no differences among these three stages. Our results indicate that the content of sugar,phytohormone,tannins and total flavonoids is in correlation to the basic rule of plant growth and development,also to regulation in metabolism process.
    Karyotype of Chromolaena odorata and Ageratina adenophora
    FENG Yu-Long;WANG Yue-Hua;LIU Yuan-Yuan;DING Kai-Yu;
    2006, 26(3):  356-360.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.021
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    The karyotypes of two species belonging formerly to Eupatorium (Asteraceae) was studied. The karyotype of Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King & H. Robinson was 2n=60=32 m+28 sm, belongings to the “2A” type, while Ageratina adenophora (Sprengel) R. M. King & H. Robinson was 2n=3x=51=30 m+21 sm, belongings to “2B” type. The chromosome number changed greatly in C. odorata, but stable in A. adenophora. A. adenophora could not produce normal pollen, and propagated through apomixis. The seed germination rate was significantly lower in C. odorata than in A. adenophora. But invasiveness was very strong in both C. odorata and A. adenophora. This indicates that seed amount be not related to invasiveness in the two species.
    Micronuclei and abnormal division of Allium sativum breeded in polluted water
    XU Xin-Cheng
    2006, 26(3):  361-363.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.022
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    The micronucleus and abnormal division in Allium sativum root tips induced by polluted river water were investigated. The results showed that the mitotic index (MI) decreased(p<0.05) and the micronuclei rate increased (p<0.01) (treated for 24 h) when river water was polluted hard (PI=7.63).Meanwhile,some abnormal mitosis phenomena and pro-micronuclei were observed.
    Species diversity of wetland vegetation in Sanggan River watershed, Shanxi
    JIA Yan-Chun;ZHANG Feng*
    2006, 26(3):  364-369.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.023
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    Based on the 109 plots dataset from the field, the species diversity of wetland vegetation of Sanggan River watershed, Shanxi was studied by using richness indices,species diversity indices and evenness indices, respectively. The different significant among these indices for all communities were studied by analysis of variance and Duncan multiple range test, respectively. The results indicated that: The sequence of the species diversity indices was as follows: Ass. Tamarix chinensisPotentilla chinensis>Ass. Tamarix chinensis+Hippophae rhamnoidesRoegneria kamoji>Ass. Tamarix chinensisPotentilla anserina>Ass. Tamarix chinensisPhragmites communis>Ass. Phragmites communis+Polygonum hydropiper+Cyperus glomeratus>Ass. Phragmites acommunis+Carex dispalata>Ass. Thymus mongolicus+Artemisia gmelinii>Ass. Typha orientalis+Polygonum hydropiper>Ass. Scirpus validus+Chara sp.+ Potamogeton distinctus>Ass. Scripus triqueter+Cyperus glomeratus+Alisma orientale>Ass. Scirpus validus+Scirpus triqueter+Phragmites communis> Ass. Myriophyllum spicatum+typha orientalis>Ass. Sagittaria sinensis+Phragmites communis>Ass. Polygonum hydropiper+Sagittaria trifolia>Ass. Juncellus serotinus+Echinochloa phyllopogon. R0, H′and E4 were better than the others by using analysis of variance and Duncan multiple range test, respectively.
    The extraction of general flavonoids from Smilax glabra Roxb with ethanol
    WANG Jin-Huang;CHI Ru-An*;CHEN Shao-Feng;GAO Hong;ZHOU Fang;LIU Min
    2006, 26(3):  370-373.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.024
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    The extraction of general flavonoids from Smilax glabra Roxb with ethanol was studied. The optimum technological parameters of extracting general flavonoids are as the following: the concentration of ethanol, the extract temperature, the ratio of solid to liquid and extract time are 50%, 80℃, 1:20 and 3 hours, respectively. The extraction yield of general flavonoids is 75.8%.
    Analysis sample preparation of luteolin and quercetin from Eupatorium odoratum L.
    HOU Chun-Lian;FU Yu-Jie;ZU Yuan-Gang*;YANG Feng-Jian;ZHAO Wen-Hao
    2006, 26(3):  374-376.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.025
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    Analysis sample preparation of Luteolin and Quercetin from Eupatorium odoratum L. was studied. The optimum condition with ultrasonic extraction was as follows, 85% ethanol solution as solvent, ratio of liquid to solid 10:1(mL·g-1) ,extraction time was one hour. The average extraction yields of Luteolin and Quercetin were 0.031 8% and 0.019 2%,and the average recovery rates were 99.601 7% and 99.032 6%, the results showed the analysis sample preparation has good precision and reliability.
    The optimization of the experimental conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of volatile oils in Ledum palustre var. angustum
    ZHAO Zi-Feng;SHA Wei*;JIN Zhong-Min;TAN Da-Hai
    2006, 26(3):  377-379.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.027
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    Orthogonal design of three factors at three levels was applied to the optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction conditions of volatile oils in Ledum palustre L. var. angustum N. Bugch. The effect of temperoture, pressure, flus of carbon dixide on extraction efficiency is studied. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as pressure 20 Mpa, temperature 35℃, carbon dioxide flow rate 60 kg·h-1.
    Sexual reproduction of Physocarpus amurensis
    WEI Xiao-Hui;YIN Dong-Sheng;ZHANG Li-Jie;FENG Dan-Dan;SHEN Hai-Long*
    2006, 26(3):  380-384.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.03.026
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    The optimum seed collecting time, the difference of seed maturity of different mother trees and growth characteristic of seedlings of Physocarpus amurensis was studied. The results showed that the optimum collecting time of seed was the end of July, and dormancy after seed mature,The statistical results showed that the germination percentage and the 1000-kernal weight were highly significant difference (p<0.01), and the germination percentage were increase by power function with the size of the 1000-seed weight, and coefficient was 75.75% (p<0.1). The seedling biomass investment to roots was highest, stems was smallest and leaves was midst; biomass investment to roots and leaves(variance coefficient were 6.8%,11.03%,respectively) was more steady than that to stems(variance coefficient was 21.81%, respectively). The diameter of the tufts was the important quantitative index to measure the special size of P. amurensis seedlings. The total biomass and the biomass of the roots, stems and leaves were all increased by linear function with the size of tuft diameters, and the correlation were all significant.