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    20 September 2006, Volume 26 Issue 5
    Torreya parvifolia,a new species of the Taxaceae from Sichuan,China
    YI Tong-Pei;YANG Lin;LONG Ting-Lun
    2006, 26(5):  513-515.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.001
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    Torreya parvifolia Yi, L. Yang et Long, a new species of the Taxaceae from Sichuan, China, is described and illustracted. The new species is closely related to Torreya yunnanensis Cheng et L. K. Fu, from which it differs apparently by the shorter and smaller stem, 4~5 m high, 10~15 cm diameter; smaller leaves, (1.2)1.5~2 cm long, 2.2~3 mm broad, acute on the apex with short acumen, rotund or rotundly cuneate at the base, upper surface only below with inconspicuous 2-canaliculates, under surface with 2 stomatic bands broader grey white, nearly as width as mitrib and green side; seeds with arillate obovoid or rare nearly globose, smaller, 1.5~2 cm diameter.
    A new variety of Magnolia(Magnoliaceae) from Hubei,China
    MA Lü-Yi;WANG Luo-Rong;HE Sui-Chao;LIU Xin;WANG Xi-Qun
    2006, 26(5):  516-519.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.002
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    This paper describes and illustrates Magnolia wufengensis var. multitepala L.Y.Ma et L.R.Wang,a new variety of Magnolia from Wufeng,in the southwest of Hubei Province,China. The new variety is similar to M. wufengensis var. wufengensis with the color of flower,the whole tepal inside and outside is red and the inside is slightly pale. The mainly morphological differences from the primary variety are: the petal number 12,15,18 or 24; the tepal shape broadly obovate-spathulate,obovate-spathulate or narrow obovate-spathulate; the flower color dark red,red or pale red; fertilizable and fruit-bearing.
    Spermacoce latifolia Aubl., a newly naturalized species of Rubiaceae in Zhejiang
    GAO Mo;DING Bing-Yang*;LUO Qing-Ying;GUO Zhong-Hai;CHEN Xian-Xing
    2006, 26(5):  520-521.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.003
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    Spermacoce latifolia, a naturalized species of Rubiaceae, was newly reported in Wenzhou of Zhejiang Province. Based upon wild-field work and visiting, its invasive approach was also analyzed in this paper. Spermacoce latifolia, which originally distributed in the tropic area of South America, was probably introduced as arboretum plants or crop seed unintentionally.
    Notes on Chinese Cyathodium Kunze
    WU Yu-Huan;GAO Chien
    2006, 26(5):  522-526.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.004
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    Chinese Cythodium, C.tuberosum Kash., C.aureonitens (Griff.) Mitt., and C.tubculatum Udar et Singh were reported here as new records for the Chinese bryoflora in addition to C.cavernarium Kunze and C.smaragdinum Schiffn. reported before. Altogether there are five species of Cyathodium in China.
    Taxonomic revision of the genus Parakmeria Hu & Cheng (Magnoliaceae)
    LIN Qi;DUAN Lin-Dong;YUAN Qiong;LI Ming-Hong;XIE Yong-Hong
    2006, 26(5):  527-531.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.005
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    Based on the study of specimens and field observations, Parakmeria Hu & Cheng was revised in the paper.The brief taxonomic history was given, the reasons for conserving Parakmeria Hu & Cheng was expounded.Section Gynopodium of Magnolia Linn. subgenus Gynopodium Figlar & Noot. Was regarded as a new synonym of Parakmeria Hu & Cheng, Magnolia yunnanensis (Hu) Noot. and M. nitida W. W. Smith var. robusta B. L. Chen & Noot. as new synonyms of Parakmeria yunnanensis Hu, Magnolia omeiensis (Cheng) Dandy, M. lotungensis Chun & C. H. Tsoong, M. nitida W. W. Smith var. lotungensis (Chun & C. H. Tsoong) B. L. Chen & Noot. and Parakmeria lotungensis (Chun & C. H. Tsoong) Law as new synonyms of Parakmeria omeiensis Cheng. Four species were recognized, keyed and described in the genus.
    Taxonomy and floristic geographical distribution of the Chinese medicinal Huangqi
    ZHAO Yi-Zhi
    2006, 26(5):  532-538.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.006
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    It is indicted definitely that the Chinese medicinal Huangqi plants have 3 species——Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge, A. mongholicus Bunge and A. brealimongolicus Y. Z. Zhao which is a new species; It is defined the floristic geographical elements of the 3 species: A. membranaceus is distributional species of the forest zone of northern east Asia-southern Siberia, A. mongholicus is distributional species of the forest-steppe zone of northern China, A. borealimongolicus is distributional species of steppe zone of northern Mongol Plateau; It is found that 3 species form obvious distribution pattern of geographical substitute.
    A study on the leaf abaxial epidermis of Fimbristylis Vahl from Shandong
    LIU Li-Na;LI Fa-Zeng*
    2006, 26(5):  539-544.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.007
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    The micro-morphology of leaf abaxial epidermis of 12 species (including varieties and forma) of Fimbristylis from shandong were studied under light microscope.The results show that Fimbristylis is highly consistent in the micro-morphological characters, e.g. the shape of long-cells long-tubular or short-tubular, rarely sub-tetragonal or polygonal,the margin of cell wall sinuate, sinuolate to straight; short-cells between the vein absent; prickle hairs only exist in rare species; stomas between the vein mostly 2 columns, rarely 2~4 columns;subsidary cells dome-shaped to triangular,dome-shaped, rarely parallel-sided. The leaf abaxial epidermis can be divided into two types: the prickle hairs exist and absent. According to morphology and micro-morphology of leaf abaxial epidermis, F.complanata (Retz.) Link var. kraussiana C. B. Clarke should be rehabilitated to species rank F.kraussiana Hochst et Steud. and F.dichotoma (L.) Vahl F. depauperat(C. B. Clarke)Ohwi is treated as F.dichotoma (L.) Vahl var. depauperata(C. B. Clarke)F. Z. Li et L. N. Liu comb. & stat. nov.
    论文
    The structure and development of sporoderm of Lepisorus thunbergianus (Kaulf.) Ching(Polypodiaceae)
    DAI Xi-Ling;CAO Jian-Guo;WANG Quan-Xi*;ZHU Rui-Liang
    2006, 26(5):  545-550.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.008
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    瓦韦;孢子发育;孢壁
    Anatomical studies on pinna and rachis of Dioon holmgrenii and Macrozamia moorei
    HUANG Yu-Yuan;HUANG Ai-Hua;NONG Bao-Xuan;WEI Li-Jun
    2006, 26(5):  551-559.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.009
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    Comarative anatomy to pinna and rachis of Dioon holmgrenii and Macrozamia moorei were carried out and also analysed. The results showed that the structures of two species were quite different.The pinna of D. holmgrenii only had stomatal apparatus in lower epidermis,and 1 to 2 layers shorter palisade tissues in adaxial surface, the arranged patterns of vascular bundle and mucilage canal was that they were oppsite arrangement as couple in anticlinal direction; the pinna of M. moorei had stomatal apparatus in upper epidermis and lower epidermis,and had 2 to 3 layers palisade tissues in adaxial and its surface, it was isobilateral leaf, the arranged pattern of vascular bundle and mucilage canal was that they were interval arrangement in periclinal direction. The structures of vascular bundle and leaf margin were also different. In rachis, stomatal apparatus number of D. holmgrenii was obviously fewer than M. moorei, there was a ring palisade tissue what contains plentiful chloroplasts distributing on inside of epidermis, and sponge tissue contains more chloroplasts distributing on the inside of the palisade tissue, there were no these characters in D. holmgrenii. Otherwise, in ground tissues of M. moorei, there were more accessory transfusion tissue,but D. holmgrenii were no the feature.The size and arranged pattern of mucilage canal of two species were quite different. The developed extent of phloem of D. holmgrenii were obviously more than xylem, however, in M. moorei, the developed extent between phloem and xylem were near. Furthermore, the arrangement pattern of vascular bundle of two species were different.The characteristic relation of structure characteristic and their adaptability to eco-environment.
    Karyotypes of three species in Glycyrrhiza
    KONG Hong
    2006, 26(5):  560-562.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.010
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    The karyotypes of three species in Glycyrrhiza have been studied. The results showed that the numbers of the somatic chromosome were 16, and the karyotype formulae were as follows:G.pallidiflara k(2n)=2x=16=4M+8m+4sm; G.glabra k(2n)=2x=16=10M+6m; G.inflata k(2n)=2x=16=6M+6m+4sm.
    Structures of the stem secondary xylem of Symplocos paniculata
    ZHU Jun-Yi;LU Jing-Mei;XIAO Zhi
    2006, 26(5):  563-564.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.011
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    The study on the stem secondary xylem of Symplocos paniculata,reveals the wood belongs to diffuse-porous wood.The ray is hetergneous ray Ⅱ.The vassel element’s perforation plate are scalariforms perforation and there are also some fiber tracheids.
    Some new recorded spermatophytes from Guizhou Province(Ⅱ)
    ZUO Jing-Hui;LIN Chang-Song;SUN Ai-Qun;XIANG Hong;TIAN Ying-Zhou
    2006, 26(5):  565-569.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.012
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    25 species and 4 varieties are reported here as new records in Guizhou Province,P. R. China. They are Acer heptalobum Diels., A. longipes Franch ex Rehd., Rhododendron fuyuanense Z. H. Yang., R. delavayi Franch. var. pilostylum. K. M. Feng., Gaultheria wardii Marq. & Airy Shaw., Nomocharis forrestii Balf., Polygonatum sibircum Delar. ex Redouté., P. verticillatum (Linn.) All., P. gracile P. Y. Li.,Disporum calcaratum D. Don., Tricyrtis latifolia Maxin., Ranuculus diffuses DC.,R. trigonus Hand.—Mazz.,R. kunmingensis W. T. Wang., R. kunningensis W. T. Wang var. hispidus W. T. Wang., Rubus aurantiacus Focke., R. xichouensis Yü & Lu., R. subornatus Fooke var. melanadenus Focke., R. phoenicolasius Maxim.,R. pentagonus Wall. ex Focke.,Neillia thibetica Bur. & Franch. var. lobata (Rehd.) Yü.,N. affinis Hemsl., Crataegus maximowiczii Schneid.,Berberis weixiensis C. Y. Wu ex S. Y. Bao., B. fallaciosa Schneid,B. metopolyantha Ahrendt., Mahonia napaulensis DC., M. longibracteata Takeda. and Boschniakia himalaica (Hook. f. & Thoms.) G. Beck. The habitats and geographical distribution of these taxa are presented in this Paper.
    Changes of endogenous hormones in Lilium davidii var. unicolor bulbs during bulb development and storage at low temperature for dormancy release
    SUN Hong-Mei;LI Tian-Lai*;LI Yun-Fei
    2006, 26(5):  570-576.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.013
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    Changes of endogenous hormones in mother scales and in daughter scales of bulbs in Lilium davidii var. unicolor were studied during bulb development and 101 days storage at 2, 6 and 10℃ in moist sawdust. The results indicated that ABA concentration both in mother and daughter scales and GA3 concentration, ZR concentration in mother scales increased during bulb development, but IAA concentration in all scales and GA3 concentration, ZR concentration in daughter scales declined. During the low temperature storage, GA3 and IAA level in different parts of bulb had the increase phase, but ABA content decreased, and ZR content in daughter scales declined, but which in mother scales had the increase as well as. The notable changes in content of endogenous hormones occurred in the earlier 34 d of storage. Compared among different storage temperature, ABA content had little difference, but GA3 content decreased with the rising of temperature. In daughter scales which having plentiful starch, a significantly negative correlation was observed between GA3 and ABA content, but had no any correlations in mother scales which had little starch. Path analysis of results showed that metabolism mechanism in mother scales and in daughter scales were different markedly during bulb development and storage at low temperature for dormancy release. Substances changes in mother scales were regulated by endogenous GA3, but mostly by endogenous ABA in daughter scales.
    Cloning and prokaryotic expression of Crlea gene from Catharanthus roseus
    NIE Ming-Zhu;ZU Yuan-Gang*;FANG Si-Liang
    2006, 26(5):  577-582.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.014
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    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are one of the important proteins in stress response which have been described as having a potential role in drought tolerance. Crlea(Crlea for Catharanthus roseus late embryogenesis abundant) gene was first cloned from cDNA library of Catharanthus roseus under drought stress through sequencing screening method. The sequence analysis of the Crlea gene showed a complete 492 bp ORF encoding a putative 163 amino acids polypeptide with a biased amino acid of 55.9% to total component. Homology analysis indicated a 69% similarity between CrLEA protein and carrot (Daucus carota)LEA DC3 protein. Hydrophobicity analysis found that CrLEA protein was extremely hydrophilic. For further identifying the function of CrLEA protein, prokaryotic recombinant vector of Crlea gene was constructed and the expression in E.coli was studied. Results showed recombinant CrLEA protein was successfully expressed in E.coli. Hydrophilic and heat-stable analysis of recombinant CrLEA protein showed a strong hydrophilic and heat-stable ability.
    Cloning,sequence analysis and evolution of gene atpB sugar beet ATP synthase beta subunit
    CUI Jie;XU De-Chang;LI Bin-Sheng;YANG Qian;SUN Jing-Han
    2006, 26(5):  583-588.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.015
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    atpB gene coding ATP synthase beta subunit,it’s a significant gene in photosynthesis. ATP synthase is a key ferment of energetic supersession in organism.It participates in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation.Based on the highly conservative of plant chloroplast genomesin evolution, the PCR primers were designed and synthesized according to the corresponding sequences in the chloroplast genomes of Nicotiana tobacum, Spinacia and Oryza sativa for amplifying and cloning DNA fragment containing the chloroplast atpB gene (with accessory No.DQ067451 in GenBank respectively) from Beta vulgaris. The sequence analysis results indicated that the length of the determined nucleotide sequence was 2 293 bp,the coding region of atpB gene contained 1 497 bp, which was deduced coding 498 amino acids. Its DNA sequence homologies were 90.92%、95.79%、87.71% and 86.37%, respectively ,with those of Nicotiana tobacumSpinaciaBrassica napus and Oryza sativa, deduced amino acid sequence homologies were 94.58%、97.19%、92.17% and 91.97%. Amino acid phylogenetic tree was constructed.
    Extraction of genomic DNA from woody plants and it’s identification
    WANG Jun;YANG Chuan-Ping*;LIU Gui-Feng
    2006, 26(5):  589-594.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.016
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    Genomic DNA was extracted from leaves of Vitis amurensis, Actinidia arguta, Quercus mongolica, Juglans mandshurica and needles of Pinus sibirica, Pinus pumila by the method of modified CTAB. The isolated genomic DNA length was similar to λDNA (48 kb) and is suitable for both PCR amplification and digestion with restriction endonucleases. The absorbance ration (A260/A280) ranged 1.66~1.89. The quality of DNA extracted from third and fourth times suspension was better than from first and second times suspension. The yields of DNA ranged from 15 μg·g-1 fresh mass(from fourth time suspension J.mandshuric) to 272 μg·g-1 fresh mass(from third time suspension of V.amurensis).Although from first and second times suspension of P.pumila and P.sibirica wasn’t isolated genomic DNA, but from third and fourth times suspension was obtained high quality genomic DNA. The genomic DNA can be used for next analysis via identification of PCR and digestion with restriction endonucleases.
    Effect of salt stress on seed germination of Vitex negundoFraxinus velutina and Elaeagnus angustifolia
    ZHANG Jie-Ming;SUN Jing-Kuan;LIU Bao-Yu;LIU Xin-Cheng;ZHANG Wen-Hui*
    2006, 26(5):  595-599.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.017
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    The seeds of Vitex negundoFraxinus velutina and Elaeagnus angustifolia were treated with different concentration mixture of NaCl and Na2CO3.Their germination percentage,speed and the growth of radical under salt stress,the germination in light and darkness, were measured and analysed. The results showed that the light prominently promote seed germination of the three plants,and the effect of light to the growth of radical is different. Lower concentrations of salt promoted seeds germination of Vitex negundo and Fraxinus velutina, slightly restrained of Elaeagnus angustifolia.The effect to the three plants are bad especially to Vitex negund when the salt concentration exceeding 0.8%.The three plants can be cultivated in the salinity soil and cultivated as landscape plant in Tianjin. Elaeagnus angustifolia widely planted is viable in Tanggu.
    A comparison of photosynthethetic characteristics in four poplar clones
    DENG Song-Lu;DI Xiao-Yan;WANG Meng-Ben*;CHEN Jian-Wen;ZHANG Wei-Feng;REN Jian-Zhong;ZHOU Yu-Quan;LIU Cun-Ping
    2006, 26(5):  600-608.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.018
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    The photosynthetic characteristics and the relationship of net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency with the environmental factors and stomatal conductance in four new poplar clones (3#、6#、8#、9#) were studied. The results showed that the peak value of the diurnal courses of the photosynthetic rate generally appeared around 10:00, and then reduced gradually. The diurnal courses of transpiration rate in different months were different. The peak value of the diurnal courses of stomatal conductance generally appeared at 7:00~9:00. The total mean net photosynthetic rate(μmol CO2·m-2·s-1), transpiration rate (mmol H2O·m-2·s-1) and water use efficiency (mmol CO2·mol-1 H2O) had following order in June, July and August respectively: Clone 9#(8.53)>6#(7.21)>3#(6.47)>8#(4.98); Clone 9#(3.74)>3#(2.76)>6#(1.76)>8#(1.47); Clone 8#(4.77)>6#(4.35)>3#(2.99)>9#(2.40). Clone 9# had higher net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate, with lower water use efficiency. On the contrary, clone 8# had lower net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate, with higher water use efficiency. Net photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency had a close relationship with the air temperature and relative humidity in 6#, and had a close relationship with the photosynthetic active radiation and stomatal conductance in 3#、8# and 9#.
    Lectotypification of the Name Actinidia chinensis var. hispida (Actinidiaceae)
    DUAN Lin-Dong
    2006, 26(5):  609-609.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.019
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    Based on examinations of syntype specimens housed at PE, the lectotype for the name Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. hispida C. F. Liang is designated here.
    Ecological niche study of constructive species of the vegetation ecotone of temperate grassland and warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest —Taking the vegetation on the south and north slopes of Heng Mts. Shanxi for example
    MA Xiao-Yong;SHANGGUAN Tie-Liang;*;ZHANG Feng;
    2006, 26(5):  610-617.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.020
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    Heng Mts., Shanxi is located in the ecotone of temperate grassland zone and warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest zone according to China Vegetation Regionalization. Adopting Shannon-Wiener,the niche breadth index, the article classified constructive species on both slopes into 3 ecologic groups respectively. Artemisia brachyloba, Dendranthema chanetii, Carex lanceolata and Sanguisorba alpina of the south slope, and Carex lanceolata, Denfranthema zawwadskii, Poa sphondyloes,Siline jenisseensis and Sanguisorba alpina of the north slope occupy a broader niche, showing an apparent niche generalization. By contrast, Potentilla anserine, Spiraea trilobata, Ostryopsis davidiana and Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis of the south slope, Stipa bungeana, Puccinellia distans, Artemisia brachyloba, Polygonum viviparum, Anaphalis hancockii, Spiraea trilobata, Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis and Populus cathayana of the north slope occupy a much narrower niche, which is closely related to their environment. The 16 constructive populations of the south slope form 240 species counterparts, among which 100, that’s 41.9% of the total, have niche overlaps, indicating that there exits niche overlap among the 16 species of the south slope. The 21 constructive populations of the north slope form 420 species counterparts, among which 69, that’s 16.4% of the total, have niche overlaps, indicating that there does not exit an apparent niche overlap among the 21 species. The apparent separation in ecologic niche among populations suggests a significant difference as to their utility of recourses. All of the above are caused by the evenness the south slope while the sheerness the north, which leads to a continuous spreading of vegetation on the south and many discontinuities making overlap an rare occurrence on the north because of much sharper rise of elevation. By an overall comparison and contrast of niche breadth and niche overlap of the constructive species of each slope, an establishment of Hengshan Mts. as the borderline between temperate grassland zone and warmtemperate deciduous broad-leaved forest zone can achieved more objectively.
    Biodiversity and flora of the mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest in Emei
    GU Hai-Yan;LI Ce-Hong
    2006, 26(5):  618-623.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.021
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    The community selected from the mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest in Emei is analyzed on the structure, composition and floristic geographical composition. The results show that vascular plants contains 226 species, in which angiosperm are composed by 207 species which belong to 137 genera of 73 families. The community is with more and clearer layers which are tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and interstraturn plant, and the herb layer is undergrown; The families of vascular plants of Tropical-subtropical, Tropical-temperate distributional patterns account for 22.7% respectively, while genera of temperate distribution take a predominated position(52.9%). The results show that floristic geographical composition of the mixed broadleaf forest in Emei is subtropical in which temperate takes an important part; The community of the mixed broadleaf forest in Emei is in the steady convalescence which have been disturbed years ago, and the biodiversity indexes of the community are low.
    Eco-environmental characteristics and endangered causes of Taxus mairei, an endemic to China
    RU Wen-Ming;ZHANG Jin-Tun;*;ZHANG Feng;ZHANG Gui-Ping;
    2006, 26(5):  624-628.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.022
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    Taxus mairei is one of the Tertiary relic species and an endemic to China,being one of the state-protected one-grade rare and endangered plants,and distributed mainly alongside Yangzi River valley,in Nanling Mountains and some mountains in Guangdong,Guangxi,Jiangxi,Henan,Shaanxi,Gansu,Taiwan and Shanxi etc. The eco-environmental characteristics of Taxuus marirei areas are that heat energy is efficiency,climate is warmer and moisture.The endangered reasons for T. marei are involved with:(1)Its quantities of seeds produced from a plant annual is fewer,the germination ratio of the seeds and the survivor ratio of the juvenile are very lower,(2)the population of T. mareis is in competition with the other plants for various resources is disadvantageous,(3)its geographical distribution has some limitations,(4)it needs a relative special habitat, i.e. moisture habitat and warmer climate and (5) the intervention of human activities is severity,including several cutting,gopher utilization and the destroy of habitat for T. mareis. Furthermore,the strategies for the conservation and sustainable utilization of T. mairei are discussed,respectively.
    Determination of soybean isoflavones extracted from soybean whey by HPLC
    JING Le-Gang;ZHANG Yong-Zhong*
    2006, 26(5):  629-632.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.023
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    A method for the determination of soybean isoflavones extracted from soybean whey by HPLC was established. Nova-Pak C18 column (3.9×150 mm, 4 μm) was used. Genistin and daidzin were separated by mobile phase: methanol-0.4% phosphoric acid solution = 30:70 (v/v). The flow rate was 0.7 mL·min-1. The column temperature was 30℃. The UV detection wavelength was 260 nm. The results showed that the content of soybean isoflavones in the soybean whey extract was 72.5%. Genistin and daidzin were the major components in the soybean isoflavones, and the ratio of the two components was nearly 1∶1. The isoflavone aglycons were not found by HPLC. The average recoveries of genistin and daidzin were 98.1% and 98.4% respectively, and the relative standard deviations of genistin and daidzin were 0.7% (n=5) and 0.8% (n=5) respectively. The method was rapid, accurate and with good reproducibility.
    Pollen contamination and it’s control in the management of forestry seed orchard
    LI Yu-Wen;WANG Hong-Mei;FENG Fu-Juan
    2006, 26(5):  633-640.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2006.05.024
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    The pollen contamination in a seed orchard is a principal factor influencing the genetical quality of a seed orchard. Genetic losses arise from the influx of ‘wild’ conspecific pollen into seed orchards.In this paper a review was made of the general researches on pollen contamination, contamination level, the extent of its influence and the measures to reduce it in the orchards at home and abroad. Researches showed that the DNA marker proved to be very useful in assessing seed orchard mating dynamics and orchard management efficacies for conifer seed orchards(e.g.,chloroplast DNA(cpDNA),RAPD,SSR); in a seed orchard the contamination level is higher than that formerly estimated ; pollen yield seems to have no influence on contamination level; space and reproductive isolation are not so effective as to be expected. At present time, supplemental mass pollination(SMP)and thinning are two effective measures to reduce pollen contamination. To improve the parental balance of seed orchard crops, the use of artificial management techniques such as gibberellin A4/7 treatment, rearrangement of clonal ramets is recommended in seed orchards. Work on the other facets of contamination measurement,gene-flow studies, are listed. The authors made some recommendations about research on and management of pollen contamination in seed orchards in our country. Mechanical(pollen dispersal), phonological (the timing of flowering) and viability factors related to the pollen genotype should all be considered when assessing pollen contamination in seed orchards.