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    20 January 2007, Volume 27 Issue 1
    One New Species of the Cyclobalanopsis(Fagaceae) from Hainan Island
    FU Guo-Ai
    2007, 27(1):  1-2.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.001
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    One species from Hainan Island,Cyclobalanopsis yin-qianii are described as new.
    Apomarsupella verrucosa (Nichols.)Vana and Its New Synonym
    WU Yu-Huan;GAO Chien
    2007, 27(1):  3-5.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.002
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    Type materials of Apomarsupella verrucosa (Nichols.) Vana from Yunnan, China and Gymnomitrion papillosum Kitag. & S. Hatt. from Nepal were studied. Detailed comparisons of the type specimens reveal that the two species are con-specific. Therefore, Gymnomitrion papillosum was reduced to synonym of Apomarsupella verrucosa.
    A Preliminary Revision of Taxonomic System of Schisandra(Schisandraceae)
    LIN Qi;YANG Zhi-Rong
    2007, 27(1):  6-15.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.003
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    Previous four taxonomic systems of the genus Schisandra Michaux (Schisandraceae) are evaluated respectively. A new system of classification based on the results of cladistic analysis to thirty-three morphological characters is proposed. In the system, two subgenera are recognized, viz. Schisandra subgenus Schisandra and Schisandra subgenus Sphaerostema (Blume) Y. H. Law, with subgenus Schisandra further subdivided into four sections, viz. section Pleiostema A. C. Smith, section Maximowiczia (Ruprecht) T. Nakai, section Sinoschisandra (Y. W. Law) Q. Lin & Z. R. Yang and section Schisandra. A key to subgenera, sections and species is included, and types, synonymies and representative species are given under each supraspecific rank.
    Additions to the Fern Flora of Hunan Province(Ⅱ)
    LIU Bing-Rong;YAN Yue-Hong
    2007, 27(1):  16-19.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.004
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    Twenty species of ferns, belonging to 7 genera in 5 families, are firstly reported from Hunan province. They are Adiantum bonatianum, Arachniodes aristatissima. A. attenuate. A. grossa. A. nanchuanensis, A. nigrospinosa. A. reducta. A. setifera; Arthromeris lehmannii, A. mairei, Polystichum assurgentipinnum, P. incisopianulum. P. mayebarae. P. pseudosetosum. P. shimurae. P. subulatum; Cyrtomium aequibasis; Ctenitis dentisora, C. wantsingshanica, Elaphohlossum mcclurei.
    Classification and Distribution of Bupleurum L.(Umbelliferae Juss.)in Mongolia
    M. Urgamal;Ch. Sanchir;ZHANG Ming-Li*
    2007, 27(1):  20-24.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.005
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    There are seven species of the genus Bupleurum L.in Mongolia, which is recognized from mainly basing on the field collection of Mongolia and specimens of LE and PE. A diagnostic key of the seven species is yielded. And the distributions of the taxa concerned are provided in the light of the phytogeographical division of Mongolia. This paper presents a comprehensive taxonomical treatment of Bupleurum L. to the Mongolian flora.
    Preliminary Studies on Diatoms from Qixing River Wetland
    LI Jing;FAN Ya-Wen*;WANG Ze-Bin;YANG Li-Ping
    2007, 27(1):  25-33.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.006
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    The diatom flora of Qixing River wetland, the national nature protection area, was described in this paper. A total of 155 taxa of diatoms, including 2 classes, 6 orders,9 families 26 genera,113 species,39 varieties and 3 forms, were identified. Of these taxa, 2 species,2 varieties,and 1 form are first reported in China. Diatom communities, species composition and habitat, diatoms in Qixing River Wetland were analyzed. It shows that most taxa belong to common species, and some acidophil species such as Eunotia pectinalis var. ventralis (Ehr.) Hust., Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kütz., Gomphonema augur Ehr., Navicula subtilissima Cl. and a few alkalibiontic species were also found.
    The Fertilization and Proembryo Choose of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica
    TIAN Cheng-Yu;LI Chun-Ying;ZHAO Chun-Jian;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2007, 27(1):  34-37.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.007
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    The fertilization was processed by sperm in mature male gametophyte combining with egg cell on the top of archegonia on June 15 or so. Then fertilized egg made division of free nuclei and cell wall was began to form while 8 daughter nucleus forming. When they were divided again, proembryo containing 16 cells was formed. In succession, cell layer of suspensor rapidly grew, elongated and down proembryo was carried away cell wall of archegonial base, then get into corrosion cavity in endosperm. Proembryo absorbed nutrition in corrosion cavity and grew, developed. In the first stage, the number of embryoes were very much, but only one developed to mature as usual.
    Study on Anatomical Structure of Leaf and Ecological Adaptability ofPterocektis tartarinowii Maxim
    ZHANG Xing-Wang;ZHANG Xiao-Ping*;YANG Kai-Jun;ZHANG Zhong-Xin
    2007, 27(1):  38-42.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.008
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    Pterocektis tartarinowii Maxim is considered an endangered species on the brink of extinction endemic to China, In order to investigate ecological adaptability of P. tartarinowii Maxim,the comparative observation and analysis of anatomical structure of leaf of different populations were demonstrated by the method of slices of paraffin wax and isolation in this paper .The results showed that the anatomical structure of leaves adopt well to the dry and poor limestone area. The drought resistance of P. tartarinowii Maxim from the population of Ying Ping hill in which habitat was the poorest was the strongest. The leaves had xeromorphic characteristics, including thickened leaves, thickened epidermis cell wall and cuticle, well developed palisade tissue, densely arranged cell. Small and dense stomata and distribute in cluster etc. This research is helpful for the application of P. tartarinowii Maxim in limestone area.
    The Microcharacteristics of Leaf Surface and Its Systematic Implication in Lysimachia
    SHAO Jian-Wen;ZHANG Xiao-Ping;*;ZHU Guo-Ping;
    2007, 27(1):  43-49.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.009
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    The microcharacteristics of leaf surface in Lysimachia were investigated by using light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on the features of leaf surface, those plants were obviously classified into two types, heterogenea-type and capillipes-type. The features of leaf, such as the presence or absence of the glands, the color and distribution of the glands, and the ornamentation of adaxial side, are quite constant at intraspecific level, but remarkably varied at interspecific level, which might have significant taxonomic value for species identification. In the 21 investigated species, 1 species was from Subgen. Idiophyton, 11 species from Subgen. Lysimachia, and 9 species from Subgen. Palladia. Since 2 types of leaf surface structure were found both in Subgen. Lysimachia and Subgen. Palladia, they could not be used as the characters to define subgenus.
    Analysis of the Content and the Components of Flavonoids in Torreya jackii
    LI Jian-Hui;JIN Ze-Xin*;LI Jun-Min
    2007, 27(1):  50-54.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.010
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    The content of flavonoids in different nutritious organs of Torreya jackii and three kinds of nutritious organs of Torreya jackii with different populations was determined and the components of the flavonoids were analyzed by using the method of polyacrylamides membrane chromatography. The results showed as follow: (1) Flavonoids was found in all kinds of nutritious organs of Torreya jackii and the content was in a decreasing order of annual leaves, annual stalk, rootlet, taproot, bark, perennial stalk and stem. (2) There was very different in the components of flavonoids in different nutritious organs of Torreya jackii. Annual leaves and annual stalk had the most of components, rootlet took the second place, taproot and perennial stalk were the third, bark and stem had the least of components. (3)There was different in the content of flavonoids in three kinds of nutritious organs of Torreya jackii with different populations. In all, annual leaves had the highest content of flavonoids while annual stalk took the second place and perennial stalk had the lowest content of flavonoids. (4) There was no significant difference in the content of flavonoids in annual leaves of Torreya jackii with different populations. But there was relatively high different in the content of flavonoids in annual stalk and perennial stalk. (5) Annual leaves of Torreya jackii with different populations had no difference in the components of flavonoids, while annual stalk had little different and perennial stalk had great different.
    Physiological Adaption of Winter Wheat Seedling’s Root to Soil Drought
    SHAN Chang-Juan;XU Xin-Juan;WANG Guang-Yuan;YUE Ying
    2007, 27(1):  55-58.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.011
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    Deals with the physiological adaption of winter wheat seedling’s root to soil drought. The results showed that root water potential, root RWC and root activity decreased with soil water decreasing, and root WSD, soluble sugar content, proline content, the permeability of plasma membrane, and SOD activity, POD activity in root of Luomai 9133 and Jimai 21 increased with soil water decreasing. In conclusion, winter wheat seedling’s root increased drought-resistance by physiological changes in root, such as water potential, RWC and root activity reduced, soluble sugar content and proline content increased, and SOD and POD activity enhanced, etc. On the basis of above physiological changes in root, winter wheat seedling adapted to soil drought.
    An Analysis of Molecular Structural Character and Function Prediction on 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate Reductoisomerase, a Key Enzyme in Plant Isoprenoid Biosynthesis
    LI Rong;WANG Zhe-Zhi
    2007, 27(1):  59-67.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.012
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    In the present study, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase from Zea mays, Arabidopsis thaliana, Cistus incanus subsp. creticus, Oryza sativa, Artemisia annua and Linum usitatissimum, which were registered in GenBank, were analyzed and predicted by the tools of bioinformatics in the following aspects: the composition of nuclei acid sequences and amino acid sequences, transit peptides, transmembrane topological structure, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, secondary and tertiary structure of protein, molecular phylogenetic evolution and so on. The results as following: the full-length gene of DXR contains an opening reading frame, 5′-untranstrated region and 3′-untranstrated region; DXR is a hydrophilic and non-transmembrane protein with transit peptides; the amino acid sequences of DXR include two functional DXR binding motifs and two functional NADPH binding motifs; the main motif of predicted secondary structure of DXR are alpha helix and random coil, beta turn and extended strand are spreaded in the whole secondary structure of protein; the predicted tertiary structure of functional domain of DXR consists of three domains arranged to form an overall V-shaped molecule. The N-terminal domain forms one arm of the V and C-terminal domain forms the second arm of the V. The apical region of the V is formed by a connective N-terminal and C-terminal domain.
    Optimization of ISSR Amplification Conditions in Endangered Plant Sinocalycanthus chinensis
    JIN Ze-Xin;LI Jun-Min
    2007, 27(1):  68-72.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.013
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    It was necessary to optimize the ISSR amplification conditions to ensure the replication and stability in the PCR amplification. The ISSR amplification conditions of endangered plant Sinocalycanthus chinensis was optimized and the effect of 7 factors such as Mg2+ concentration, dNTP concentration, DNA templates dosage, Taq DNA polymerase dosage, BSA concentration, primer dosage and glycerol concentration on ISSR amplification were tested using single factor method. The optimal amplification conditions of ISSR for Sinocalycanthus chinensis were determined as follows: 1 Taq polymerase corresponding buffer (10 mmol·L-1 Tris·HCl pH9.0,50 mmol·L-1 KCl, 0.1%Triton X-100), 1.5 mmol·L-1 MgCl2, 0.75U Taq DNA polymerase, 20 ng template DNA, 6 pmol primer, 0.15 mmol·L-1 dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP for each in total 10 μL reaction volume. Using these optimal amplification conditions, 12 stable and repeatable ISSR primers were selected from total 100 primers. 156 loci were produced in total 10 Sinocalycanthus chinensis populations with 200 individuals. There were 114 polymorphic loci among them and the total polymorphic loci percentage was 73.08%. The polymorphic loci percentage in every population was quite different with a mean of 23.65%. The establishment of the PCR reaction conditions could settle favorable basis for the further study on the genetic diversity of Sinocalycanthus chinensis using ISSR molecular marker techniques.
    RAPD Markers Related to Sex Locus in Hippophae goniocarpa
    DONG Li-Na;SUN Kun*;SU Xue;ZHANG Li;DING Song-Shuang;MA Rui-Jun
    2007, 27(1):  73-76.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.014
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    This article used the methods of random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) with bulked segregant analysis(BSA) to identify markers that linked to sex determination in the dioecious Hippophae goniocarpa. DNA was extracted and two bulks were created, each containing equal amounts of DNA from ten individual of Hippophae goniocarpa. A total of 194 primers were screened. 50 primers produced clear patterns with at least one band that appeared to be polymorphic between male and female bulks. Sebsequently, 5 male and female individuals were analysed with those 50 primers, and only S10(CTGCTGGGAC) could generate a common 1030 bp DNA fragment in all five female individuals and female pool but not in any male individuals. In the present study, the sex-linked RAPD marker, S10-1030, showed that there were different between female and male Hippophae goniocarpa on the level of DNA molecule and can be concluded that gender of Hippophae goniocarpa most likely is genetically determined. While the further research should focus on designing the more reliable molecular marker that based on the sex-determination gene, such as SCAR marker, for accurate and quick determination the gender of seedling in Hippophae goniocarpa.
    Study on Optimization of ISSR Reaction Conditions for Coptis Chinensis Franch.
    CHEN Da-Xia;LI Long-Yun;LU Cheng;ZHONG Guo-Yue;QU Xian-You;PENG Rui
    2007, 27(1):  77-81.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.015
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    Based on the genomic DNA extracted from Coptis Chinensis Franch., this paper presented the effect of the main reaction system elements(Mg2+、dNTP、primer、template DNA、Taq DNA polymerase) and hot-cycle parameter(annealing temperature、cycles、denaturing time、annealing time and extension time) on ISSR-PCR which were tested by single or dual factor experiment, respectively to determine its optimal levels. A reaction system and amplified procedure suitable for Coptis Chinensis Franch were established,that is, 25μL amplification reactions system containing 1×PCRbuffer、1.5mmol·L-1 Mg2+、200μmol·L-1 dNTP、0.3μmol·L-1 primer、40 ng template DNA、1 U Taq DNA polymerase.The optimal amplified procedure was as follows: after a pre-denaturing of 30s at 94℃, 35 cycles were performed with denaturing of 30s at 94℃, annealing of 1min due to denaturing temperature of different primer, extension of 1.5min at 72℃, a final extension step of 7 min at 72℃ and hold at -4℃. This optimal system laid the standardization program of the identification of Coptis Chinensis Franch. and the efficient use of its germplasm resource.
    Construction of a cDNA Library and Cloning of nhx cDNA from Populus euphratica under Salt Stress
    ZHU Xin-Lei;MA Yan;ZHANG Fu-Chun*
    2007, 27(1):  82-88.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.016
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    The total RNA was extracted from Populus euphratica under salt stress with the 600mmol·L-1 NaCl treatment, and then the cDNA library was constructed by SMART technique, which uses λTriplEx2 as a vector. The estimated titer and the percentage for the unamplified salt stress library (SSL) is 1.2×106 pfu·ml-1 and 90.6%. Selected cDNA clones randomly and the EST were obtained by 3′ sequenced, these sequences were compared in GenBank databases. 32 Expressed Sequence Taqs (ESTs) were gained from the SSL with high homologous sequences, 71.8% are assigned putative identities. The sequences from the remaining clones showed either significant similarity to protein or DNA sequences that were of unknown function or no significant similarity to any other sequences in the databases. Two of the SSL transcripts encoding dehydrin may be connected with salt stress. Meanwhile, two primers of nhx were synthesized and the full length nhx cDNA of Populus euphratica was successfully obtained from this library to identify the high quality library using PCR.
    Cytogenetic Studies on the Cross-progenies Between Chinese Spring-Agilops 2C Disomic Addition and Chinese Spring-Elytriga Disomic Addition
    LIU Feng-Qi;QU Min;ZHANG Yan-Ming;ZHANG Xue-Ting;LI Ji-Lin*
    2007, 27(1):  89-93.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.017
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    The cytogenetics of the cross-progenies between Chinese Spring-Agilops 2C disomic addition and Chinese Spring-Elytriga disomic addition were studied. The results showed that The highest seed-setting of crossing generation is 36.06%, the lowest is 19.43% and average is 29.5%. The highest seed-setting of F1-selfed is 62.09%, the lowest is 30.92% and average is 39.64%. the control experiment and analysis of variance showed that the gametocidal chromosome effected on the difference of seed-set rate of hybridization in different lines. After scrutinizing the meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMS) in F1 hybrids, the results were concluded: the number of univalents exceeded the expected and some trivalents and tetravalents appeared at the same time. These were mainly caused by the gametocidal chromosome 2C.
    Improving Tasting and Nutritional Quality of Rice by Introducing Anti-waxy Gene
    LI Jian-Yue;MAO Wan-Xia;FAN Shi-Jing;LÜYing-Hai;
    2007, 27(1):  94-98.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.018
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    It was reported that there was a negative correlation between amylose content and protein content in the rice seeds. In this research anti-waxy-gus fusion gene was transferred into the rice immature embryo callus by Agrobacterium infection. Eight transgenic plants (fertile) were obtained. That the anti-waxy-gus fusion gene had been integrated into the eight transgenic plants’ genomes was testified by PCR and Southern blot tests and the anti-waxy-gus fusion gene could be expressed correctly by GUS-dyeing in grain of rice. Sixteen homozygous transgenic plants in anti-waxy-gus fusion gene position were obtained through GUS analyses. Amylose and protein contents in the sixteen plants’ seeds were analyzed. The results indicated:(1) There were significant negative correlations between protein contents and amylose contents in the sixteen transgenic plants’ seeds; (2) Amylose average content and protein average content in the control were respectively 13.4% and 9.5%. The amylose content in one transgenic plant was lowest (11.4%), at the same time its protein content was highest (13.5%). This shows that tasting quality and nutritional quality of rice seeds are improved by introducing anti-waxy gene.
    Quantitative Characteristics and Reproductive Allocation Study on Reproductive Ramets of Spartina alterniflora Population in Tidal-flat in Tianjin,China
    LI Rui-Li;SHI Fu-Chen*;ZHANG Xiu-Ling;ZHU Ming
    2007, 27(1):  99-106.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.019
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    Through sampling measure on the single dominant species community in tidal-flat in Tianjin, the quantitative characteristics and the reproductive allocation on reproductive ramets of Spartina alterniflora population were studied in the ripening stage. The results showed that the w-eight of each reproductive ramet of Spartina alterniflora population was 15.62±9.26 g; the weight of ear and seeds were respectively 2.68±2.08 and 1.39±1.12 g; the number of spikelets and seeds were respectively 537.7±362.2 and 490.2±376.3; reproductive allocationⅠ(RAⅠ) and reproductive allocation Ⅱ(RAⅡ)were respectively 15.02±5.83 and 7.62±3.8%; the seed percentage was 81.9±28.6%. It is necessary to accumulate total biomass of ramet, which was more than 3.2 and 3.6 g for producing ear and seeds, respectively. There were most significant positive correlations between the length of ear and weight of ear and number of spikelets and seeds and RA Ⅰand RA Ⅱ and the height of ramet, respectively(p<0.01). There were most significant positive correlations between the weight of ear and seeds and number of spikelets and seeds and RA Ⅰand RA Ⅱ and the weight of ramet, respectively(p<0.01). There were most significant negative correlations bet-ween the number of seeds and spikelets and RAⅠand RA Ⅱand the allocation of stem and leaf sheath biomass, respectively(p<0.01).The regularities of the spatial distribution of ear are obvious.
    Effects of Extracts from Peganum multisectum on Seed Germination and Seedling Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber
    LIU Jian-Xin;ZHAO Guo-Lin
    2007, 27(1):  107-111.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.020
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    Effects of extracts from Peganum multisectum (Maxim.) Bobr. on seed germination, seedling growth and physiological characteristics of cucumber under the conditions of indoor culture and soil culture in flowerpot were investigated. The results showed that the cucumber seeds soaked with extracts of total alkaloid, dissoluble alkaloid and fat-soluble alkaloid from P. multisectum (Maxim.) Bobr., the activities of amylase, protease and lipase during seed germination were inhibited, the seed vigor and germination rate were suppressed, and respiration rate of seedling was slackened; root activity, chlorophyll content and activities of nitrate reductase, superoxide dismutase(SOD) and peroxidase(POD) of cucumber seedlings during seedlings growth were increased. The results indicated that cucumber seed soaked with extracts from P. multisectum (Maxim.) Bobr. could accelerate the growth of seedling and promote the breeding of healthy seedling.
    Species Diversity of Baihua Mountain Forest Plant Community
    XU Bin;ZHANG Jin-Tun*;YANG Hong-Xiao;JIANG Hai-Feng
    2007, 27(1):  112-118.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.021
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    Based on data from 50 quadrates, species diversity of plant communities in Baihua mountains were discussed, and measurements of species diversity of quadrates along DCA axis 1 gradient and altitudinal gradient was also carried out. The results showed that: Richness index varied as follows: in forest communities it showed herb layer > shrub layer > tree layer, in shrub communities showed herb layer > shrub layer and Vitex negundo var. heterophylla community showed shrub layer > herb layer. Shannon-Wiener index of the most forest communities showed herb layer > shrub layer > tree layer but Populus davidianaLarix principis-rupprechtii community showed shrub layer > herb layer > tree layer, and that of shrub communities showed herb layer > shrub layer but Vitex negundo var. heterophylla community showed shrub layer > herb layer. Evenness index of shrub communities showed shrub layer> herb layer, in forest communities it showed tree layer > shrub layer> herb layer Quercus liaotungensis and Populus davidianaLarix principis-rupprechtii community showed shrub layer > tree layer > herb layer. The specie diversity of quadrates along both DCA axis 1 and altitudinal gradient significantly peaked at the intermediate elevations, but there were some differences: the fitted curves of both richness and evenness with altitudinal gradient were more significant than that fitted with DCA axis 1, while that of diversity showed the opposite trend.
    Impact of Cutting Interference on Biodiversity in Juglans mandshurica Forest from the Changbai Mountain
    MA Wan-Li;LUO Ju-Chun;JING Tao;Joni Kujansuu
    2007, 27(1):  119-124.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.022
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    This paper focuses on change of the species diversity of Juglans mandshurica in different cutting way, which based on field investigations from different permanent sample plots in the Changbai Mountain forest area by using Simpson index (SI), Shanon-Wiener index(SH-WI),Cody index(βc)and important value (IV). The studies showed that change diversity in herb layer is more obvious than tree layer and shrub layer in the forest. all of Simpson index, Shanon-Wiener index and Cody index(βc)were increased from remaining plot to selective cutting plot to clearing cutting plot. From the ordination of important value, there was obvious change after selective cutting or clearing cutting compared with remaining plot. We think that the diversity change seems to been caused by cutting interference, and reason is by light changing actually as well as by edge effect from time scale. Besides, by investigation on regeneration of J. mandshurica, both higher diversity of plants and well growth of seedling of J. mandshurica in clearing cutting plot are related to light factor, and it is no relationship between diversity of plants and well growth of J.mandshurica.
    Species Diversity of Forest Plants in Eastern Mountain Area of Heilongjiang Province
    WANG Qing-Gui;XING Ya-Juan
    2007, 27(1):  125-128.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2007.01.023
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    The species diversity of virgin forests and secondary forests in eastern mountain area of Heilongjiang Province were studied composing with quantitative community dynamics. And we researched the relationship between community dynamics, environmental gradient, growth rate, disturbance of forest and species diversity. The results showed that species diversity of secondary forests is higher than that of virgin forest, but the evenness is lower. The forest productivity is middle in the community that the species diversity is higher, however, not only the productivity is the highest but also the species diversity is the lowest. The species diversity is the highest in the community of middle intensive disturbance. The species diversity indices are increasing from the initial stage to the middle stage of succession then decreasing in the climax stage.