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    20 September 2008, Volume 28 Issue 5
    Elymus angsaiensis—A New Species of the Family Gramineae from Qinghai,China
    WU Yu-Hu;LU Sheng-Lian;ZHANG Tong-Lin
    2008, 28(5):  513-515.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.001
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    Elymus angsaiensis S. L. Lu et Y. H. Wu, a new species of Gramineae from Zadoi County, Qinghai Province, is described and illustrated. The new species is related to Elymus atralus(Nevski) Hand.-Mazz. But it is distinguished by it with auricles on top at the both sides of sheath. Spike is loose; spikelet with pedicel 1 mm long, the pedicel with pubescences; glumes are narrow lanceolate, 4-5 mm long; anthers is yellow or yellow-green, 1.5 mm long.
    Forsstroemia producta(Hornschuch) Paris,a New Record of Genus and Species (Musci) in Henan Province,China
    LIU Yong-Ying;NIU Jun-Ying;LI Lin;ZHAO Jian-Cheng*
    2008, 28(5):  516-519.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.002
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    The authors reviewed three standpoints on the systematic and evolutional positions on Forsstroemia Lindberg. The opinion that Forsstroemia Lindberg belongs to Leptodontaceae is suppocted in the paper. This genus is recorded for the first time in Henan Province. And Leptodontaceae is a new record in this area too. The characteristic and distribution of the specimen from Henan Province are described and illustrated. Comparison is made between F. producta and genera or species with similar characteristic. The specimens are deposited in the herbarium of Hebei Normal University (HBNU) and the herbarium of Jiaozuo Teacher’s College.
    Chiloscyphus sikkimensis(Geocalycaceae,Hepaticae),New to Mainland of China
    WU Yu-Huan;GAO Chien
    2008, 28(5):  520-522.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.003
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    Chiloscyphus sikkimensis(Steph.) J.J. Engel & R.M. Schust. (Geocalycaceae,Hepaticae),discovered from Yunnan,is reported here as new to mainland of China. This species is characterized as leaves obliquely to subtransversely inserted on stem,adaxially convex,ovate with entire,obtuse or retuse; and underleaves often connate with adjoining leaves at their base on one or both sides,cordate to reniform with obtuse to retuse apex. Heteroscyphus acutangulus (Schiffn.) Schiffn. from Taiwan is actually C. sikkimensis and should be excluded from Chinese bryoflora.
    Newly Recorded Species of Navicula(Bacillariophyta) in China, from Xinjiang
    YOU Qing-Min;WANG You-Fang;WANG Quan-Xi;*
    2008, 28(5):  523-526.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.004
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    Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is the largest in area among all the province-level administrative regions of China. It is situated in the hinterland of Eurasian continent and is under the control of a typical extratropical belt continental climate. Algae are very abundant in this region, but the research of algae flora is relatively weak. Algae samples were collected from Xinjiang during the period of July to August, 2001. Samples were preserved with 4% formalin and kept in the Herbarium of the Biology Department of Shanghai Normal University. Microscope slides were prepared by acid digestion method and mounted in Canada balsam or Hyrax gum. Light microscope observations were conducted using a Nikon E-800 DIC microscope at magnification x 1000 and a Nikon digital cameral DXM1200. In the identification, seven species of Navicula (Bacillariophyta) are new records of China, and they are Navicula capitatoradiata Germain, N. digitoradiata (Gregory) Ralfs, N. reichardtiana Lange-Bertalot, N. spicula (Hickie) Cleve, N. subplacentula Hustedt, N. trivialis LangeBertalot and N. upsaliensis (Grunow) Peragallo. Their taxonomic characters and habitats were described.
    New Records of Mosses Collected from Qiyun Mountain in Jiangxi Province
    HE Zu-Xia;YAN Yue-Hong;CHEN Hui-Ming;LU He-Jun
    2008, 28(5):  527-529.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.005
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    14 species and 2 varieties of mosses from Mt. Qiyun are newly reported to Jiangxi Province. They are Campylopus hemitrichius, Dicranodontium asperulum, D. didymodon, Dicranoloma assimile, D. dicarpum, Fissidens oblongifolius, F. Javanicus, Syrrhopodon prolifer var. tosaensis, Pyrrhobryum latifolium, Macromitrium angustifolium, Distichophyllum collenchymatosum var. pseudosinense, Haplohymenium formosanum, Clastobryum glabresscens, Heterophyllium affine, Wijkia surcularis, Vesicularia montagnei. Three genera, including Dicranoloma, Clastobryum, and Heterophyllum, are new to Jiangxi.
    Fagopyrum densovillosum J. L. Liu, a New Species of Polygonaceae from Sichuan,China
    LIU Jian-Lin;TANG Yu;XIA Ming-Zhong;SHAO Ji-Rong;CAI Guang-Ze;LUO Qiang;SUN Jun-Xiu
    2008, 28(5):  530-533.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.006
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    Fagopyrum densovillosum J. L. Liu, a new species of the polygonaceae from Luojishanzhen, Puge Country, Sichuan Province, China,is described. F. densovillosum is closely related to F. gracilipes (Hemsl.) Damm. et Diels By its from bottom to top foliate stems and branches, axillary and apical Racemes, ovate-triangular or broadly ovate-triangular achenes, but differs in its densely erect-villose plants, thicker stems and branches, densely nodes, shorter internodes, broadly ovate, cordate, broadly cordate, broadly ovate-cordate, ovate, long ovate, triangular-ovate or ovate-triangular and larger leaves,(0.9-)1.7-6 cm long and (0.7-)1.2-5.1 cm wide, thin rugose and small pustulate on the surface, longer petioles (0.5-)2.6-7.5 cm long, smaller achenes 1.8-2.5 mm long and 1.5-2 mm in diameter.
    Lectotypifications of Twenty Names of Chinese Taxa in Angiospermae
    LIN Qi;BEI Shu-Qing;LI Hong-Li;CAO Zi-Yu;SUN Qian;SUN Miao;YANG Zhi-Rong
    2008, 28(5):  534-539.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.007
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    Based on examinations of type specimens housed at PE, lectotypes for twenty names of Chinese taxa in Angiospermae are here designated under Article 8.1, 9.9, 9.10 and 37.2, Recommendation 9A.2 and 9A.3 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code), because the types were respectively indicated by reference to a gathering that consists of more than one specimen, or more than one gatherings were simultaneously designated as types, or more than one gatherings were simultaneously designated, without indicating the type in the protologue.
    Observations on the Pollen Morphology and Meiosis of Pollen Mother Cell in Galega
    ZHANG Xin-Yu;WANG Zan;ZHAO Mao-Lin;GAO Hong-Wen*;LIU Dao-Lin
    2008, 28(5):  540-546.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.008
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    The pollen morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM).The meiosis process of pollen mother cells was observed by 1% acetate magenta squashing method. The results showed that the pollen grains were subsphaeroidal or oblate, tricolporate. Exine was observed as the categories of pitted and reticulate. Pollen was triangularobtuse in polar view, rotundity in equatorial view. The pollen size is P×E=14.3(13.5~15.0)×12.6(12.1~13.7)μm and P×E=13.7(12.3~14.8)×12.4(10.6~13.0)μm for Galega orientalis Lam. and G. officinalis Linn. respectively. The meiosis in Galega undergoes simultaneity cytokinesis. There were 8 bivalents appearing at the stage of diakinesis and there is no unpaired chromosomes or micronuclei. The microspores in tetrad stage showed tetrahedron structure. The meiosis of the pollen mother cells were closely related to the colors and size of buds. The same in stages of meiosis existed among the same bud. There were different division phases simultaneously observed in the same anthers.
    The Micro-morphology Characters of Leaf Epidermis of Iris
    XU Yu-Feng;ZHANG Ke;WANG Wen-He;LI Nan
    2008, 28(5):  547-551.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.009
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    The micro-morphology characters of leaf epidermis of 12 species of Iris were examined under light microscope(LM). It is considerd that there are obvious differences in the characters of leaf upper and lower epidermis of I. dichotoma Pall., I. uniflora Pall. and I. typhifolia Kitagawa of themselves, but there are not differences among the other 9 species. The type of stomata of 12 species of Iris is diacytic type, stomata is randomly distributed. Guard cells are parallel to leaf veins where no stomata distribute. There are obvious differences among 12 species of Iris in the micro-morphology characters of leaf epidermis, which will provide bases for Iris classification.
    The Influence of Trifluralin on Mitosis of Wheat Root Cells
    ZHANG Jing-Qiu;LI Zhuo;LI Hai-Ying
    2008, 28(5):  552-555.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.010
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    The mitosis of wheat root cells were studied after the root meristem were treated by trifluralin. Chromosome doubling, multipolar, laggards, unequal division, rings and micronuclei were observed. The results revealed that each treatment concentration and time could induce abnormal splitting, and the highest index was 11.05% (100 μmol·L-1,12 h). The influence of treatment time was more significant than that of concentration. Chromosome doubling was the most in the abnormal cells, and the rate was 6.25%(100 μmol·L-1,12 h).
    The Developmental Morphological of Nymphaea tetragona Georgi var. crassifolia(Hand.-Mazz.)Y.C.Chu from Seeds to Seedlings
    LI Qing-Wei;LIU Mei*;WANG Chen;XUE Gui-Bin;LIU Ming-Yuan
    2008, 28(5):  556-559.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.011
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    In order to probe into the common character of Nymphaeales and Alismatales in early stage of ontogeny, developmental process from seed to seedling of N. tetragona var.crassifolia was observed in this study. The shoot ends developments before the root ends in seed embryo. When the seed germinates, the hypocotyl appears firstly and swells around the end of it, and some hairs (hypocolyl hair) arise from the swelling. At the same time, the radicle begins to differentiate and grow up a primary root. The primary root is ephemeral but the nodal roots are long-lived and thicker. When the floating leaves emerge, the portion bellow the first node of rhizome is withered. Every seedling organs are of aerenchyma, etc. All of these characters are similar to Euryale ferox, Alisma orientale and Hydrilla verticillala.
    The Establishment of SCAR Marker Linked to Astragalus membranaceus
    WU Song-Quan;ZU Yuan-Gang;WU Ji-Ri*
    2008, 28(5):  560-563.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.012
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    RAPD analysis was adopted to identify Astragalus membranaceus Bge. and Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus(Bge.)Hsiao. With the method of BSA, 120 decamer random primers were used to amplify the DNA pools from A. membranaceus and A. membranaceuss var. mongholicus, and seven polymorphic primers were screened. Those polymorphic primers were used to detect the individual samples, a band of 300 bp from primer OPD14 was specifically amplified in the tested A. membranaceus and were absent in the tested A. membranaceuss var. mongholicus. This indicted that the band had specific character of A. membranaceus and marked as OPC14-300. SCAR marker was developed from the RAPD marker OPD14-300 by cloning, sequencing and designing one pair of primers and the SCAR marker only presented in the individuals of A. membranaceus, thus, it can be used to identify A. membranaceus and A. membranaceuss var. mongholicus at molecular level quickly and accurately.
    The Transformation of Insect Antifreezing Protein for Sauropus androgynus Mediated by Agrobacterium
    XIAO Yan-Hua;ZENG You-Ling;LAN Hai-Yan;ZHANG Fu-Chun*
    2008, 28(5):  564-567.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.013
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    In order to improve the S. androgynus cold tolerance, genetic transformation system of S. androgynus was established in this study. The cDNA Mpafp149 of Microdera punctipennis dzungarica was used as target gene to obtain the cold tolerant transgenic S. androgynus plants. The stems of S. androgynus were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain which harbors plasmid pCAMBIA-1302-Mpafp149.The transformation parameters of Agrobacterium concentration, pre-culture period, co-culture period, immersion time and concentrations of antibiotics(hygromycin) were optimized selectively. The results showed that the better physiological and transforming condition was pre-cultured and co-cultured for 2 days respectively, immersed in OD600 0.2~0.25 liquid bacterium for 8 min. It was primarily proved by PCR that the Mpafp149 was integrated into the Sauropus androgynus and the T0 transgenic S. androgynus plants were obtained successfully.
    Analysis on the Population Genetic Diversity of Endangered Shrub Reaumuria trigyna by ISSR Markers
    ZHANG Ying-Juan;WANG Yu-Shan
    2008, 28(5):  568-573.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.014
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    Genetic diversity and genetic structure of five Reaumuria trigyna populations was analyzed by ISSR(inter simple sequence repeat) markers. Using 14 primers,114 loci were observed,among them 99 were polymorphic.The proportion of polymorphic loci was 86.84%. R.trigyna was the higher genetic diversity than other endangered shrubs. At species level,Shannon index(I) was 0.468 8,Nei’s gene diversity index(H) was 0.308 4. The proportion of polymorphic loci was 77.89%,I=0.410 6,H=0.260 9 respectively at population level. The coefficient of gene differentiation(Gst=0.106 9) showed that there were more genetic variations within the population than among populations,genetic differentiation among populations were 10.69%. Gene flow(Nm) was 4.178 7>1,showed that gene interflow were among populations,genetic differentiation were prevented due to genetic drift. Cluster analysis showed that there was no direct correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. The results indicated that genetic diversity was related to species traits and community. The endangered plants was not certainly displayed lower level of genetic variation.
    Cloning of An Allergen Gene(Sam a1) from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Its Prokaryotic Expression
    HUA Wen-Ping;WANG Zhe-Zhi*
    2008, 28(5):  574-578.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.015
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    Type Ⅰ allergic reaction results from the cross-binding of major allergen protein and IgE antibodies. A novel allergen gene (Sam a1) from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge was cloned, which contained an ORF with 483 bp and coded 166 amino acid residues. It contained a Bet v1 protein domain, shared 66% identical to mal d1-a major allergen protein from apple. The 3-D model suggested the deduced protein contained an extended C-terminal alpha helix containing a major T cell epitope. The real time PCR results indicated Sam a1 was induced by PSL and NaCl, Sam a1 may be involved in pathogenesis infection and stress by NaCl. The gene was expressed in E.coli M15, and a target protein was obtained. In addition, the recombinant protein was expressed in large quantities after 5~7 h induced by IPTG. This research laid the groundwork for the study of allergic reaction mechanism in plant at molecular level, especially for the development of Chinese herb medicine.
    Cloning and Analysis of CCS Gene of Newhall Navel Orange
    TAO Neng-Guo;ZHANG Ji-Hong
    2008, 28(5):  579-583.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.016
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    The mRNA sequence for Capsanthin/Capsorubin synthase (CCS) has been cloned from fruits of Newhall navel orange by RT-PCR. Sequencing results revealed that it was 1 619 bp in length, encoding 503 amino acids. BLAST results showed that the deduced amino acids shared the same amino acid sequence as that of Citrus sinensis, 70% identities with CCS of Daucus carota and Capsicum annuum. In addition to 70% identities with neoxanthin synthase (NSY) of Solanum tuberosum, it showed 50%~70% identities with lycopene cyclase of Lycopersicon esculentum and citrus. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR results showed that expressions of Ccs were down-regulated during fruit ripening of Newhall navel orange, with the highest one in September.
    Relationship Between the Leaf Tissue Characteristic and Drought Resistance of Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis(Fisch.)
    SHI Xiao-Xia;ZHANG Guo-Fang;MENG Lin*;MAO Pei-Chun;LIU Zi-Xue
    2008, 28(5):  584-588.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.017
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    Fifteen wild germplasm of Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis(Fisch.) from the different habitats in the northern China under the water stress experiments in greenhouse were studied, and three different drought resistant classes were classified. Then the leaves tissue characteristic of four gremplasm were observed and analyzed in order to approve the relationship between the leaf tissue characteristic and drought resistance. The results showed that there were relationship of leaf thickness, upper and lower epidermis thickness, cutin thickness, stoma density, stockade tissue thickness, sponge tissue thickness, CTR, SR and ratio of stockade tissue thickness sponge tissue thickness among the germplasm. The stronger drought resistant germplasm with higher stoma density, thicker stockade tissue, higher CTR, lower SR, higher ratio of stockade tissue thickness sponge tissue thickness and smaller size of upper epidermis cells in leaves had stronger ability of drought resistance. The weaker drought resistant germpalsm with lower stoma density, thinner stockade tissue, lower CTR, higher SR , lower ratio of stockade tissue thickness sponge tissue thickness and bigger size of upper epidermis cells in leaves had weaker ability of drought resistance.
    Physiological Response of Lathyrus sativus L. to Drought Stress
    SUN Xiao-Yan;SUN Wei;LI Zhi-Xiao;LI Feng-Min;WANG Chong-Ying*
    2008, 28(5):  589-593.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.018
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    Lathyrus sativus L. was used as experimental material and treated by PEG6000. The results showed that at the beginning of stress(0~48 h), stomatal conductance(Sc) and transpiration(Tr) decreased sharply, while net photosynthesis rate(Pn) and water use efficiency(WUE) fluctuated at a certain level. But these photosynthetic indexes recovered near to normal soon after 48 h. Moreover, the content of free proline showed a significant elevation, especially at 48 h and 60 h. When REC increased nearly 50 percent of control, proline had accumulated 14 times more than the control. All data above suggests that the seedlings of L. sativus L. could alleviate its stress damage by declining Sc/Tr and accumulating plenty of proline, which might be some of drought-resistant mechanisms.
    Optimization on Extractive Technique of Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase in Lily Bulb
    SUN Hong-Mei;ZHAO Shuang;WANG Chun-Xia;CHEN Li-Jing;WANG Jin-Xia
    2008, 28(5):  594-598.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.019
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    Optimum extractive technique of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL) in the bulb of Lilium davidii var. unicolor was studied. The results indicated that Borax solution with pH8.8 was the best buffer. PAL in lily bulb was not able to endure the strong acid and alkali, especially the former. The PAL activity declined gradually along with the increase of temperature and prolonging of bath duration, but the activity still remained 47% after 30 min in 40℃, and it was the optimum bath temperature. 0.032 mol·L-1 substrate was the best, and grinding with 0.5 g PVP could improve the PAL activity obviously.
    The Enzyme Activities,Pigment and Inclusion Contents in Different Leaves Color of Cotinus coggygria ‘Royal Purple’ in Autumn
    NIE Qing-Juan;SHI Bao-Sheng*;MENG Zhao;LIU Dong-Yun;LOU Li-Na
    2008, 28(5):  599-602.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.020
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    The physiological character of different leaves color in autumn was studied. Three kinds of leaves colors were selected to measure the pigment content, enzyme activity and inclusion in the leaves. The results showed that it had lower chlorophyll content,higher PAL and POD activities and larger ratio of anthocyanin to chlorophyll in red leaves. The green leaves have higher chlorophyll content,lower PAL and POD activity and lower ratio of anthocyanin to chlorophyll. Through the determination of soluble contents, the content of sugar and protein was relatively high in red leaves. The correlation coefficient between the ratio of anthocyanins to chlorophyll and soluble contents were all reach absolutely significance levels. These indicated that the accumulation of material contents was favorable in the synthesis of anthocyanin.
    Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Salt-tolerance Callus of Flax
    GE Chun-Hui;JI Qiao-Ling*;WANG Xue-Hua;JIA Hong-Li;ZHU Guo-Li;ZHANG Pei-Hong
    2008, 28(5):  603-607.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.021
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    The salt-tolerance callus of flax were used as experimental materials and common callus of flax were used as controls. After being cultured individually on the mediums containing 0~250 mmol·L-1 NaC1 for 20 d, the water content, content of MDA, the POD activity, the SOD activity, esterase isozyme zymogram, POD isozyme zymogram and SOD isozyme zymogram were compared individually. The results indicated that there were obvious differences in many aspects between the callus of salt-tolerance groups and the callus of control groups of flax. The water contents, the contents of MDA and the POD activities in the former were all higher than those in the latter as well as esterase activities. Esterase isozyme zymograms of callus of salttolerance groups were different from those of callus of contrast groups. There was more POD isozyme band in salt-tolerance groups. SOD isozyme bands in salt-tolerance groups were as many as those in control groups, SOD quality in the former was higher and stable. The stody laid a sound base for the further screening of salt-tolerance mutant cell line of flax.
    Morphological Variations of Stipa krylovii Roshev. in Middle and Eastern Inner Mongolia Steppe
    JIA Mei-Qing;GAO Yu-Bao*;LIU Hai-Ying;GAO Hui;WU Jian-Bo;BAO Xiao-Ying
    2008, 28(5):  608-613.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.022
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    In this paper four populations of Stipa krylovii in Inner Mongolia steppe, collected from Xinhot, West Xilinhot, East Xilinhot, Bayanwula, respectively, were used for the study of their morphological variations. (1)The variation of some morphological characters was greater than that of other characters within the same population. (2)Among all populations some of the reproductive traits varied much more than others, and in the vegetative traits, dry matter weight per reproductive shoot had greater variation than height of vegetative shoot.(3) Most reproductive traits, including the number of florets per panicle, seeds per panicle, spikelets per panicle, height of reproductive shoot, dry matter weight per panicle, dry matter weight per reproductive shoot, seed weight per panicle and the ratio of seed weight/ reproductive shoot weight varied in a similar pattern, and their values increased with their habitats worsening. This suggested that S. krylovii could increase the allocation of the photosynthetic assimilate to sexual reproduction so as to respond to the adverse habitat. (4) The principal component analysis revealed that ten morphological traits were mainly responsible for the variations among populations. The ten traits included the length of panicle, ratio of the dry matter weight between seeds and reproductive shoot, the number of spikelets per panicle, the number of seeds per panicle, height of the reproductive shoot, height of vegetative shoot, weight of 1 000 seeds, length of awn apex, length of callus and length of the second segment of awn. The variation of these traits might have resulted from adaptability of S. krylovii to different habitats.
    Physiological and Ecological Responses of 3 Wild Groundcover Plants to Traffic Stress
    CHENG Zhuan-Hong;ZHAO Shu-Lan;DUO Li-An*
    2008, 28(5):  614-617.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.023
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    Physiological and ecological characteristics of 3 wild groundcover plants were studied under different traffic stress. The results indicated that the coverage and aboveground biomass of Potentilla flagellaris Willd ex Sehleeht decreased fastest under severe traffic stress, 46.58% and 43.53% lower than control respectively. Cellulose content of Plantago asiatica L. was the highest under severe traffic stress, 43.31% higher than control. MDA of Viola philippica Makin. was the least under medium traffic stress, 28.57% higher than control. Chlorophyll content of V. philippica Makin. was most sensitive to traffic stress, 45.21%(p<0.05) higher than control under light traffic stress and 29.37% lower than control under severe traffic stress. Net photosynthesis rate of three wild groundcover plants under severe traffic stress decreased significantly. Based on comprehensive analysis of physiological and ecological indices, it could be concluded that traffic tolerance among the three wild groundcover plants was in the descending order of P. asiatica L.>V. philippica Makin.>P. flagellaris Willd ex Sehleeht.
    Seed Dormancy and Germination in Endangered Plant Podophyllum hexandrum Royle
    LI Cheng-De;LI Wei*;LI Meng-Fei;SUN Ping;WANG Wang-Tian;SONG Yuan-Yuan
    2008, 28(5):  618-621.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.024
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    Seed of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle has the physiological characteristics of long dormancy and low germination in natural conditions. In order to investigate the characteristic of dormancy and find the mechanism of dormancy and the optimal method for breaking the dormancy of P.hexandrum seed, some methods such as isolated embryo cultures, biological identification, soaking seed in GA3, interaction GA3 and cold stratification were utilized. The results showed that seed coat and endosperm restriction, physiological after-ripping were principal reasons which caused dormancy. Soaking the seed in 400 mg·L-1 GA3 solution for 24 h or in GA3 solution following cold stratification could break the dormancy. The optimal method was soaking the seed in 500 mg·L-1 GA3 solution for 36 h following with cold stratification for 90 d, after this treatment, the germination percentage and power reached 81.11% and 50.00% respectively.
    Effect of Colchicine Treatment after Pollination on Growth Characteristics of Poupulus ussuriensis Progeny
    LI Zhi-Xin;LI Kai-Long*;LI Cheng-Hao;YANG Chuan-Ping;LI Hai-Tao
    2008, 28(5):  622-626.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.025
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    In order to enrich the breeding resources and select the elite poplar clone, pollinated female flower buds of Poupulus ussuriensis was treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution and different methods, and photosynthetic characteristics, plant growth, as well as leaf shape of progeny seedlings were compared. The results were as follows: the height, diameter of seedlings are largest when 24 h after pollinated female inflorescence were treated with colchicine 4 g·L-1 for 12 h; transpiration rate was lowest when 24 h after pollinated female inflorescence were treated with colchicine for 12 h, stomatal conductance was lowest when treatment was performed 24 h after pollination, water use efficiency was highest when treatmed 12 h after pollination; further related analysis shows that the growth(height, diameter), leaf morphology, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, water use efficiency of progeny seedlings are all linked significantly.
    Study on Germination Characteristics and Germination Rate Enhancement of Saposhnikovia divaricata Seeds
    MENG Xiang-Cai;SUN Hui;WANG Xi-Jun*
    2008, 28(5):  627-631.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.026
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    The germination rate and germination vigor of Saposhnikovia divaricata seeds are all lower. The phenomenon is mainly caused by the variations among individuals and species characteristics. Low germination rate is firstly expressed as low germination rate of individuals, germination rate of 15 strains S. divaricata in trial varies from 28.0% to 92.0%, and overall germination rate of seeds is so low. Because the relieve dormancy time and aging time of every seed are not synchronous, results in all of seeds do not simultaneously entered fastigium of seeds germination. The initial time and duration of seed germination are all beyond two weeks. The mixture of 5~50 mg·kg-1 GA, 1~10 mg·kg-1 6-BA, 1% KNO3 and 3% H2O2 can remarkably enhance germination rate of dormancy seeds, among these influential factors, GA and 6BA can release dormancy of S. divaricata seeds, however, 1%KNO3 and 3%H2O do not express this effect. Trace elements such as 10~100 mg·kg-1 Mn2+, 10 mg·kg-1 Cu2+ and 1 mg·kg-1 Mo, etc, can notably enhance germination rate of S. divaricata seeds. Hence, these trace elements were spurted into plants at green fruit period of S. divaricata, the germination rate of seeds is also increased. The green fruits were treated with GA and NAA, which also increase the germination rate of S. divaricata seeds.
    Discussion on Optimization of Forest Spatial Structure of Larix olgensis Plantation
    ZHANG Cheng-Cheng;LI Feng-Ri;ZHAO Ying-Hui*
    2008, 28(5):  632-636.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.027
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    Spatial structure of Larix olgensis plantation was studied based on the pertree survey data of sampling plot ML707 and the common characteristics of low mixture degree and uniform distribution in L. olgensis plantation. In consideration stand competition mechanism and the utilization of the nutrition space of the crown, this article proposed a new method using Hegyi competition index(CI), Growth space index(GSI) and Growth space competition index(GSCI) to analyze and optimize the spatial structure. Further comparisons of stand spatial structure were made in terms of different selective cutting intensity. The results showed that the optimal Selective cutting intensity is about 14 percent at which the optimization of forest spatial structure is achieved. After optimization, the forest competition situation reduced, nutrition space utilization increased and forest spatial structure got improved.
    Effect of Seed Coating Agent on the quality of Astragalus membranaceus
    MA Wei;LIANG Xi-Long;MA Ling;JIANG Bo;WANG Bao-Qiu;XIE Jia-Quan;YANG Chuan-Ping*
    2008, 28(5):  637-640.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.05.028
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    The quality of astragalus membranaceus was studied with the treatment of Astragalus membranaceus seed coating by different concentrations (2%, 4%, 6% and 8% of seed dry weight), ND general seed coating (8% of seed dry weight) and seed uncoated. The contents changes of astragaloside Ⅳ, total flavonoids and pesticide reside were analyzed.The results indicated that treated by astragalus membranaceus seed coating. It could both improve the main active component-astragaloside Ⅳ and total flavonoids in radix astragali, and the pesticide residue of seed coating could be fully degradationed with the grow of plants. Proved that seed coating can improve quality of A. membranceus(Fisch) Bge.