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    20 July 2008, Volume 28 Issue 4
    A New Species of Dendrobium from Sichuan
    ZHU Zheng-Yin;ZHU Shi-Jie;WANG Hai-Bo
    2008, 28(4):  385-386.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.001
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    A new species of the family Orchidaceae(Dendrobium Sw.),Dendrobium jiajiangense Z.Y.Zhu,S.J.Zhu et H.B.Wang,from Jiajiang Sichuan,China is described.
    Anatomic Observation on Female Flower Development, Megasporogenesis and Embryo Development of Fraxinus mandshurica
    KONG Dong-Mei;SHEN Hai-Long;LÜJin-Hui
    2008, 28(4):  387-391.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.002
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    The development of female flower, megasporegensis and the development of embryo of Fraxinus mandshurica were observed by the paraffin sectioning method. The tree species was dioecious and usually bloomed in May. Female flower bloomed about a week after pollen luxuriantly released. The stigma was receptive as soon as female flower opened. Female flower had two rudimental stamens beside its ovary. The ovary was twicarpellum, twilocular with two anatropous ovules each loculus. The ovule was unitegmic and tenuinucellar. The archesporium was unicelled. The development of embryo sac was of the Polygonum type. Four megaspores arranged linearly. Generally the megaspore of the chalaza was functional, while a few functional megaspores came from the second megaspore at the chalaza site or the two at the micropylar and chalaza sites. Endosperm was nuclear type. The embryogeny conformed to Asterad type, which passed through proembryo, heart, torpedo and cotyledonary stages. The embryo finished morphological differentiation in the end of June. Only one of the four young ovules developed to mature seed and every seed had one embryo in general. The typical embryological characteristics and some abnormal phenomena in embryogenesis of F. mandshurica were discussed.
    Study on Meiosis Comparison of Pollen Grain of F1 Hybrided by Gametocidal Substitution Lines and Wheat
    CHEN Xia;XING Lu-Lu;DING Hai-Yan;XU Ying-Bo;LI Ji-Lin*
    2008, 28(4):  392-395.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.003
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    The study uses the gametocidal chromosome 2S derived from Ae.speltoides, inducing chromosonie breaks in Triticum aestivum ningnong and 5R/5A wheat-rye substitution lines.Observation of the meiosis of the hybrid F1,in metaphaseⅠand Ⅱ,there are appearing the high-frequency of univalents and multivalents;in anaphaseⅠand Ⅱ,there are forming many chromosomal abnormalities such as a large number of lagging chromosomes,chromosomal fragments and chromosomal bridges;in dispores and tetraspores,there exist micronucleus.In this experiment, the meiosis behavior of GCl substitution lines hybrid with 5R/5A subtitution lines is more complex than of ningnong F1 hybrid. Through statistical analysis, the dual function on meiosis behavior,which is the hybrid between the gametocidal substitution lines and the 5R/5A substitution lines,is more markable than the sole gametocidal substitution lines function.Therefor,the use of the dual function on inducing chromosome translocation is an effective way.
    Morphological Characters of Leaf Epidermis of Eleven Species Belonging to Six Genera in Lactuceae (Compositae)
    AO Cheng-Qi;ZHENG Xiao-Yan;HE Yan;YUAN Ying-Bo;LIN Xi-Qin
    2008, 28(4):  396-401.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.004
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    The leaf epidermis of 11 species belonging to 6 genera in Lactuceae(Compositae) was investigated using light microscopy. Morphological characters of leaf epidermis, such as the shape of leaf epidermal cells, patterns of anticlinal wall, stomatal type and distribution, are of important taxonomic significance. The results show that the shape of epidermal cell is irregular, and rarely polygonal; the patterns of anticlinal walls are sinuolate or sinuate, and rarely straight; the stomatal apparatus, which are randomly distributed, only exist in the abaxial epidermis for a few species, but for others, they occur in adaxial and abaxial epidermis simultaneously. All the stomatal apparatuses fall into anomocytic type. In a certain extent, leaf epidermal characters reflect the relationship among or between the taxa, thus providing new evidence for taxonomy of Lactuceae.
    Optimization for ISSR-PCR System of Freesia refracta Klatt Through Orthogonal Design
    ZHOU Ling-Yu;WU Chen-Wei;TANG Dong-Qin;SONG Hui-Shu;LIU Qun-Lu*
    2008, 28(4):  402-407.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.005
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    The effects of various factors on ISSR-PCR reaction, such as concentration of Mg2+, dNTPs and primers, DNA template and Taq DNA polymerase, were investigated to optimize the ISSR-PCR reaction system of Freesia refracta through orthogonal tests. The optimized ISSR-PCR system of F. refracta incloded 1×Taq DNA polymerase buffer (10 mmol·L-1 KCl, 8 mmol·L-1(NH4)2SO4, 10 mmol·L-1 Tris·HCl, pH 9.0, 0.05% NP-40), 2 mmol·L-1 MgCl2, 0.06 U·μL-1 Taq DNA polymerase, 0.4 μmol·L-1 primer, 4.0 ng·μL-1 DNA template, 0.6 mmol·L-1 dNTPs in 25 μL PCR reaction system. By temperature gradient PCR, the optimum annealing temperature was determined as 51.5℃. The optimized system laid the groundwork for ISSR molecular analysis of F. refracta.

    Construction of cDNA Library in Florescence and Screening Specifically Expressed Genes in Sugar Beet M14
    MA Chun-Quan;ZHANG Ying;CUI Ying;WANG Bing;WANG Yu-Ting;LIU Jin-Ling;WANG Hong-Jian;LI Hai-Ying*
    2008, 28(4):  408-411.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.006
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    The cDNA library of sugar beet M14 in florescence was constructed using ZAP expression vector. Two ESTs, which were specifically expressed in M14 and obtained by suppression subtractive hybridization, were used as probes to screen the cDNA library. Then, two cDNA fragments Me-84 and Me-86 specifically expressed in M14 were obtained. Full length cDNA sequence of gene M14-86 was later obtained using the method of RACE. Bioinformatic analysis of M14-86 and Me-84 cDNA fragments showed high homology with the 26S ribosomal RNA gene in Sarracenia purpurea and Portulaca grandiflora, respectively.
    Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Nitrate Reductase Gene from Beta vulgaris by RT-PCR
    ZHANG Jie;PENG Sheng-Min;ZHOU Bo;ZHAN Qing-Qing;ZHANG Rong-Shu;MA Feng-Ming*
    2008, 28(4):  412-416.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.007
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    A pair of primers was designed according to the sequence of nitrate reductase gene in GenBank (gb∣ABW05098.1∣). The homolog cDNA with 2 760 base pairs of nitrate reductase gene was obtained by RT-PCR from total RNA using Beta vulgaris treated by 50 mmol·L-1 KNO3 as material. DNA sequence analysis showed that it contains the entire open reading frames that encode deduced protein with 905 amino acid residues and shows 99% sequence identity to B. vulgaris nitrate reductase gene. Southern hybridization experiments revealed that nitrate reductase gene might be exist as two copy or low copy in the genome of B. vulgaris. According to the amino acid sequences, the subcellular location and structure of the nitrate reductase were predicted.
    Reaction System Optimization and Specific Identification of Picea koraiensis and P. koraiensis var. nenjiangensis by RAPD and ISSR Marker
    WANG Xin;AO Hong;WANG Qiu-Yu*
    2008, 28(4):  417-421.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.008
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    Picea koraiensis and Picea koraiensis var. nenjiangensis were used as the materials. The genetic differences in genomic level between Picea koraiensis and its variety were identified using RAPD and ISSR markers. The optimal reaction system and program of the markers were found through the orthogonal experimental design. Three RAPD primers OPN07,OPA17,S25 and one ISSR primer ISSR67 were screened out to make identification between Picea koraiensis and Picea koraiensis var. nenjiangensis, in which the specific bands were amplified in genomic DNA of Picea koraiensis var. nenjiangensis at 1 000, 950, 1 500 and 2 000 bp in molecular size, but not in Picea koraiensis. The results indicated that RAPD and ISSR marker could be used to differentiate these two spruces. In conclusion, two spruce species were identified in molecular level in this study. The results will provide basic information for systematical evolution, species identification, and interspecies crossing of spruce in the future.
    Dynamics of Soluble Sugar and ABA Contents in Leaves and Roots of Catharanthus roseus Seedlings Subjected to Natural Drought Condition
    GUO Xiao-Rui;TANG Zhong-Hua;SUN Yan-Fei;LI Xiao-Wei;ZU Yuan-Gang*
    2008, 28(4):  422-425.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.009
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    Slow rate of water loss (RWL) in leaf surface is induced by removal of plants from soil, leading to drought stress to some extent. In the present paper, Catharanthus roseus with strong desiccation tolerance was conducted to investigate the dynamics of ABA and soluble sugar contents in leaves and roots. The ABA content in roots of seedlings was lower than that in leaves in control condition, while dehydration treatment promoted its accumulation in roots, arriving at the peak value at 6 h. The activity of acid invertase (AI) may be activated by elevated ABA and increased by 30% after 6 h treatment. Total soluble sugar content in control leaves was observed to be very stable, but when exerted in stress, they appeared to increase linear with prolong of stress time (r2=0.964). At the same time, sucrose and hexose also exhibited the trend of enhancement due to drought stress, to play a role of osmotic adjustment.
    Preliminary Analysis on Flower Color Inheritance and Relations Between Flower Color and Pigments in Primula vulgaris
    CAO Jian-Jun;LIANG Zong-Suo;*
    2008, 28(4):  426-432.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.010
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    Kinds of pigments in flowers and inheritance of flower color of Primula vulgaris were studied by analyzing absorption spectrum and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of pigments and by crossing analysis of different flower colors in order to get hereditary rules for seed production. The results show that there could be kinds of anthocyanins in colony or single primrose that forms various red, pink and blue colors of flowers. Depth of yellow was mainly determined by content of carotinoid. The color of white is recessive. Yellow and pink are dominant and they also have quantitative inheritance characteristics. The flower color of yellow and pink are independent in heredity. Color of blue was determined by recessive multi-genes and also had quantitative characteristics.
    Changes in Photosynthesis and Uultrastructure of Chloroplasts During Leaf Senescence of Ginkgo
    WEI Xiao-Dong;CHEN Guo-Xiang*;XU Yan-Li;LEI Hua;SHI Da-Wei
    2008, 28(4):  433-437.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.011
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    Ginkgo(male and female) was selected to measure the changes in some photosynthetic characteristics and ultrastructure of chloroplasts during natural senescence of its leaves. The results showed that net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll (Chl) content decreased during leaf senescence, while the activities of SOD, CAT and APX increased at first and then decreased, which resulted in the accumulation of MDA. In chloroplasts thylakoid membranes became loose gradually, whereas the number and size of osmiophilic granule increased till the chloroplasts disappeared. There were no variations between male and female in their physiological indexes.
    Comparison of Leaf Gas Exchange and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters in Three Species of Aesculus Linn.
    WU Jia-Sen;SONG Fu-Qiang*;CHEN Rong;LU Wei-Ming
    2008, 28(4):  438-441.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.012
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    The gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in leaves of three broadleaved tree species including Aesculus chinensis, A. octandra, A. hybrida were determined under field conditions. The results showed that light compensation point is different in three speciec, light compensation point in A. chinensis is lower (12.53 μmol·m-2·s-1) than other two speciec (respectively 12.53, 36.11, 46.41 μmol·m-2·s-1); Light saturation point is different in three speciec, Light saturation point in A. chinensis is highter (1 475 μmol·m-2·s-1) than other two speciec (respectively 1 366.67,1 025 μmol·m-2·s-1); Maximum net photosynthetic rate is different too, Maximum net photosynthetic rate in A. chinensis is higher (9.47 μmol CO2·m-2·s-1) than other two speciec (respectively 5.91,2.30 μmol CO2·m-2·s-1). indicating that A. chinensis had higher photosynthetic capacity and stronger utilization ability for light energy. The electron transport rate(ETR), PSⅡ efficiency(Yield) and photochemical quenching(qP) in the leaf were much higher in A. chinensis than in A. octandra and A. hybrida. These results indicated that the quantum yield of PSⅡ electron transport and the efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ.
    The Influence of CaCl2 on the Frost Hardiness and Electrical Impedance Parameters in Stems of Ligustrum vicaryi During Hardening
    LIU Hui;ZHANG Gang*
    2008, 28(4):  442-446.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.013
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    To study the influence of CaCl2 on the frost hardiness (FH) and the parameters of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in stems of Ligustrum vicaryi during the hardening period, as well as to find the relation between the EIS parameters and the FH, the cutting plants of L. vicaryi is CaCl2 treated on 15 September, 2006, and the water was used as control. The FH was assessed by methods of EIS and electrolyte leakage (EL), and the FH results between the two methods were compared. The results indicated that the FH of the stem in plants with CaCl2 treatment was 3.5℃ hardier than that in control plants during early days of the hardening period. The FH has high correlation with relaxation time (τ) of stem (not exposed to controlled freezing tests), extracellular resistance (re) of stems (after controlled freezing tests) and the water content of the stems.
    Effect of La2+ on the Growth of Allium sativum L. and Cadmium Accumulation under Cd Stress
    ZHAO Hu;LI Yu-Hong;CHEN Jie
    2008, 28(4):  447-451.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.014
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    The effects of La2+ on the growth of Allium sativum L. and Cadmium(Cd) accumulation under Cd stress were studied in the present paper by soil cultivation experiments. The results showed that the seedlings growth of A. sativum L. could be promoted a little under low concentration of Cd(<5 mg·kg-1), while the seedlings growth could be obviously inhibited under high concentration of Cd. When La2+(concentration range from 5 to 20 mg·kg-1) was exerted on A. sativum L. seedlings under high concentration Cd stress one time, the growth of seedlings was obviously reconditioned, Their average fresh or dry weight and the average length of roots, overground height significantly increased to some certain degree. Assay results also showed the roots of A. sativum L. absorbed large amounts of Cd, the Cd accumulated mainly in the roots and small amounts of Cd were translocated to the leaves. Accumulation of Cd of seedlings roots and translocation of Cd to overground part were obviously inhibited when La2+ was exerted on A. sativum L. seedlings. According to the growth of A. sativum L. and Cd accumulation of seedlings under high concentration Cd stress when La2+ was exerted on seedlings, valid concentration of La2+ was respectively 10~15 mg·kg-1 or 5 mg·kg-1 when Cd stress concentration was 20 or 40 mg·kg-1.
    Photosynthetic Characteristics of Broussonetia papyrifera Seedlings Inoculated AM Fungus in Limestone Soil Substratum
    HE Yue-Jun;ZHONG Zhang-Cheng;*;LIU Jin-Chun;LIU Ji-Ming
    2008, 28(4):  452-457.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.015
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    It’s difficult to restore vegetation in limestone area, due to the severe and thin soil layer of the limestone habitat. However, some plants adaptive to limestone soil like Broussonetia papyrifera grow in this habitat, the reason maybe that these plants possess rhizospher microbes like arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. In this paper, an experiment was conducted on B. papyrifera seedling by disposals of single inoculation, co-inoculation and noninoculation used three mycorrhizal fungus,which are Glomus.mosseea, G. versiforme and G. diaphanum. Some photosynthesis indexes are measured to study the physiological responses in this experiment after 3 months. The results show that, the disposal of inoculated AM fungus improve the growth of host plants about height ,ground diameter, leaf area while compareing with the none. The pcolonization rate root increase by inoculation AM fungus. The net photosynthesis rate(Pn) increase significantly in each disposal inoculated AM. Transpiration rate(E) and stomatal conductance(Sc) decrease in this disposal by G. diaphanum while the others represent significant enhancement compared with non-inoculation. By inoculation, the photosynthesis-water-comsumtion decrease significantly in host plants, it indicate that the water use efficiency(WUE) improve by inoculation. The content of Chl a and Chl b increase extremely significant.
    Establishment of High-frequency Regeneration System from Leaves and Stems of Pueraria lobata
    HONG Sen-Rong;YIN Ming-Hua;SHAO Xing-Hua
    2008, 28(4):  458-464.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.016
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    To illustrate the effects of several factors on the highfrequency regeneration plant system of Pueraria lobata leaves and stems. Plant tissue culture, orthogonal design and single factor treatment were applied. The best disinfection way of P. lobata leaves and stems was firstly using 70% ethyl alcohol to process 30 s, then using 0.1%HgCl2 to process 15 min again; The best culture medium of P. lobata leaf callus induction was MS+NAA 1.0 mg·L-1+2,4-D 2 mg·L-1; The best culture medium of P. lobata stem callus induction was MS+NAA 1.0 mg·L-1+6-BA 1.0 mg·L-1+2,4-D 2 mg·L-1; The dark culture was more advantageous for P. lobata callus induction; The best sucrose concentration of P. lobata leaf and stem callus induction was 30 g·L-1 sucrose. The best culture medium of P. lobata leaf callus redifferentiation was MS+NAA 1.0 mg·L-1+6-BA 3.0 mg·L-1. The best culture medium of P. lobata stem callus redifferentiation was MS+ NAA 0.5 mg·L-1+KT 2 mg·L-1; The light culture was more advantageous for P. lobata leaf and stem callus redifferentiation; The best culture medium of P. lobata leaf callus regenerated buds rooting was MS+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1+PP333 0.5 mg·L-1+30 the g·L-1 sucrose. The best culture medium of P. lobata stem callus regenerated buds rooting was MS+NAA 0.5 mg·L-1+PP333 3.0 mg·L-1+30 the g·L-1 sucrose; 1.0 mg·L-1 PP333 and transplant matrix of vermiculite: perlite (2:1) could remarkably improve the transplant survival rate of P. lobata leaf regeneration seedling, 3.0 mg·L-1 PP333 and transplant matrix of vermiculite: perlite (2:1) could remarkably improve the transplant survival rate of P. lobata stem regeneration seedling.
    Effects of Iso-osmotic Potential Salt and Water Stress on the Seed Germination of Periploca sepium Bge
    MA Chuang;ZHANG Wen-Hui;LIU Xin-Cheng*
    2008, 28(4):  465-470.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.017
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    The seed germination rates, seeding fresh weights, daily taproot lengths, seed vigor indexes and germination value of Periploca sepium Bge. was investigated under iso-osmotic potential NaCl and PEG with different osmotic potential. The regression analyses were done between the seed germination and different osmotic potential. It was shown that (1) the total germination rates, seeding fresh weights, seed vigor indexes and seed germination value of P. sepium Bge. tended to decrease as the osmotic potential of NaCl and PEG become intensified; the seed germination was restrained more seriously by PEG than by NaCl under the high osmotic potential (≥-0.5 MPa),and low osmotic potential (≤-1.4 MPa) through meta-analysing seed vigor indexes and germination value, but it reversed under other ranges; (2)the daily germination rates and taproot lengths of P. sepium Bge. indicated that compared with NaCl, PEG delayed the seed germination and inhibited taproot lengths growth more seriously; (3)the regression equation between the seed germination and different osmotic potential under salt and water stress showed that the critical value of the seed of P. sepium Bge. was -0.9 MPa and the maximum value was -1.3 MPa under NaCl, while they were -1.0 MPa and -1.4 MPa under the PEG. When the osmotic stress was released, the germination recovery rates of the different osmotic potential has achieved 100%. It was resulted that P. sepium Bge. owns the characteristics of salinity tolerance and drought resistance.
    Response of Photosynthetic Capacity and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Quercus mongolica and Tilia amurensis Seedlings after Light Intensity Transfe
    CHEN Jie;MAO Zi-Jun*;MA Li-Xiang;XIA Ying-Ying
    2008, 28(4):  471-476.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.018
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    Dynamic chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic capacity of Quercus mongolica and Tilia amurensis seedlings were measured immediately after suddenly exposing to 10%, 30% and 100% daylight from greenhouse (5% relative light intensity). The aim of the study was to investigate the light acclimation and photoprotective mechanisms to the change of light environment on the two species. The results showed that: maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm) decreased immediately on sudden exposure to 100% daylight, with the maximal decrease occurring 3 days (0.52) after transfer on Q. mongolica and 1 day (0.67) on T. amurensis. The decrease on Q. mongolica was obviously higher than that on T. amurensis. During the light acclimation, the Fv/Fm was followed by a subsequent recovery to the initial value, indicating that photodamage in the two species did not occur in the short term; the value of the photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) and actual efficiency of PSⅡ (ФPSⅡ) under 30% daylight was higher than 10% and 100% daylight, indicating that relative to high and low light, moderate light was better to the growth of seedlings; the variation of Pmax, Fv/Fm, ФPSⅡ, NPQ between 100% and 30% daylight in Q. mongolica was greater than that in T. amurensis, indicating that Q. mongolica was more susceptible to high light than T. amurensis; and the two species dissipated their excess light energy both depending on the increase of non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (NPQ) and the Car/Chl ratio, and on the decrease of the Chl content.
    Effects of Weight and Store Temperature on Turion Germination and Seedling growth of Potamogeton crispus L.
    SHEN Jia;XU Wen;SHI Fu-Chen*
    2008, 28(4):  477-481.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.019
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    Effects of ecological factor such as water depth and light on turion germination of Potamogeton crispus L. had been studied much. By field investigation, the authors found that turion weight ,their quantitive ratio and the time to germinate differed significantly. Effects of these factors on turion germination and seedling growth were not studied before. Germination experiment was done in our laboratory to supplement data about turion propagation of P. crispus L. and it may supply reference for population scale controlling of P. crispus L..The results showed that weight of turions differed widely. Of all the turions, a 80% percentage was those with medium weight. Weight of turions had no effects on the final germination ratio but small turions germinated relative early. Big turions brought relative more seedlings lastly and the relationship between turion weight and finally seedling number was positively linear(p<0.05). During continuous removal of seedlings, germination ratio and seedling number of big turion were keeping high. After three months store under different temperature, all turions germinated earlier and concentrative than those unstored. High temperature(25℃) and low temperature(4℃) went against to the number of seedlings. Store temperature had no effects on final germination ratio and the length of seedlings.
    The Induction for Adverse Temperature Tolerance During the Germination of Radish Seeds
    WANG Guang-Yin;CHEN Bi-Hua;CHEN Qun;MO Yi-Fan;GAO Ai-Xia
    2008, 28(4):  482-485.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.020
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    The changes of adverse temperature tolerance during the germination of radish seeds pretreated by different temperatures were studied. Results showed that the vigor of germination remarkably decreased when the seeds were germinated under the temperatures of higher than 35℃ or lower than 15℃. The mild temperature stress could improve the germination ability of radish seed greatly in high temperature(35℃). The optimal pretreatment low and high temperature are 15℃ and 25℃ respectively. The optimal pretreatment time is 6 hours(at 15℃). The pretreatment of high temperature (at 30℃,12 hours) also could improve the seed vigor in low temperature subsequently, which shows that the seeds have cross adaptation for heat and chilling stresses.
    The Relationship Between the Growth of the Camptotheca acuminate Artificial Compound Community and Meteorological Factors
    LI Lei-Hong;YANG Feng-Jian*;PANG Hai-He;GAO Yin-Xiang;SUN Jia-Yin
    2008, 28(4):  486-490.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.021
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    This research takes Camptotheca acuminate which is grade two of national key protective plant and Taxus chinensis var.mairei which is grade one of national protective plant two plants as objective species and manually collocates the upright structure of aboveground and underground of C. acuminate, T. chinensis var.mairei and Catharanthus roseus,establishes compound. To study the dynamic characters of the growth of the C. acuminate artificial compound community and solid area, the dynamic characters of the meteorological factors and the relationships of them. This study results indicate that in one growth reason the dynamic tendency of the growth of the compound community and solid area is similar,but the difference of the plant height, the basal diameter and the growth rate of the compound community and solid area is obvious.The soil humidity is favorable to the the plant height of C. acuminate and the month cumulation of net radiation is favorable to the basal diameter of C. acuminate of the compound community and solid area; The relationship between plant height of T. chinensis var. mairei of the compound community and month cumulation of rainfall is positive, yet it is positive relation with the net radiation in solid area;The month temperature of soil is favorable to the plant height and the basal diameter of C. roseus of the compound community and solid area.In base of the relationships between the growth characters and the meteorological factors characters, and so we can actualize directional artificial cultivation in the progress of cultivation and provide academic guidances of the excellent cultivation of the compound community of three officinal plant.
    The Tolerance of Different Energy Willow’s Clones to Soil Cd Contamination
    XUE Jian-Yong;ZHANG Wen-Hui*;LIU Xin-Cheng
    2008, 28(4):  491-496.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.022
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    In this paper,the gradient(0,10,20,40,80 mg·kg-1)of soil Cd concentrations was established by mixing CdCl2 with soil,and some ecophysiological responses of five willow clones, Salix 1,Salix 2,Salix E,Salix C and Salix matsudana, to soil Cd contamination were studied by growing their cut seedlings in pots under the nature environment. The results revealed that the seedling growth of all test clones was enhanced under lower soil Cd concentrations (≤20 mg·kg-1),and Salix 2 had the strongest response under 10 mg·kg-1 treatment,with 132.0% and 120.0% of the root and plant growth, respectively, in comparing with the contro1. Then,the growth decreased with increasing soil Cd, and the growth of Salix C decreased the least under the highest Cd concentration, comparing with the control, the root, shoot, leaf and plant growth being 86.1%, 85.3%, 82.9% and 84.9%, respectively. With increasing soil Cd concentration, generally, the activity of SOD, POD, CAT and Root increased first and then declined. However, the CAT activity of every willow clone changed not much under different Cd concentration. For Salix E and Salix C, the activity of SOD and Root first declined significantly under the 40 mg·kg-1 Cd concentration, but other three clones first declined significantly under lower Cd concentration. Subordinate function analysis suggested that the tolerance of test willow clones to soil Cd contamination was in order of Salix C>Salix 2>Salix 1>Salix matsudana>Salix E. Five willow clones all had some tolerance to Cd pollution and different willow clone could be planted in different Cd polluted soil for different purpose.
    The Analysis of the Dynamics of the Landscape Structure of Mengjiagang Forest Farm
    WANG Lei;JIA Wei-Wei*;LI Feng-Ri
    2008, 28(4):  497-502.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.023
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    This paper, basing on forest type map and forest management survey database of 1989 and 2006 and on a GIS platform and the software of FragStats, calculates the index of landscape pattern,and systematically analyies the dynamic character of the landscape spatial structure of Mengjiagang Forest Farm Heilongjiang Province with the method of landscape index. The result indicates that with the landscape elemental types of the study area increases, and landscape diversity index and landscape dominance increases, the fragment index and isolation index of forest landscape increases. Larix gmelinii(Rupr.)Rup is the dominating landscape element type in this region, but its landscape dominance is decreasing gradually, so the result implies that L. gmelinii(Rupr.)Rup landscape element translate into other landscape elements. This paper firstly applied with landscape internal structural index analysis the dynamics of forest landscape of Mengjiagang Forest Farm, and the result implies that Broad-leaved forest and Mixed forest landscape were mainly made of mature and overmature age. Three main coniferous forest landscape elements are mainly made of middle age and near-mature age. Human activities are the main influence factor on forest, which accelerate the simplification of age structure of coniferous forest.
    Contents and Storages of Mineral Nutritive Elements in Plantations of Pinus koraiensis
    DING Zhuang;ZHANG Yan-Dong;QI Xue-Jun
    2008, 28(4):  503-508.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.024
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    The plantations of Pinus koraiensis at the compartment 26 of Laoshan experimental station of Northeast Forestry University were studied. The plantations are 20 years old, and there are 3 240 individual plant per hectare. The results indicate the total storage of nutritive elements is 502.37kg·h-1·m-2. The mean storage is 25.12 kg·h-1·m-2 per annum. The storage of arbor is 81.46%, followed by shrub 11.17%, herb 2.56% and litter 4.81%, respectively. To improve the content and storage of nutritive elements and production, the management of plantations is needed.
    The Process of Extraction Oil from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge. Seed
    WANG Li-Li;FU Yu-Jie;*;ZHANG Su;
    2008, 28(4):  509-512.  doi:10.7525/j.issn.1673-5102.2008.04.025
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    The article explained the study on oil extraction with petroleum ether (60~90℃) from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge. through single factor test and orthogonal test. It confirmed the optimum extraction condition were as follow: particle size 2 mm,extraction temperature 90℃,extraction time 10 h,ratio of solvent to seed 5:1(V/W). The average extraction rate under the optimum conditions was 62.49%. The composition of fatty acid in the oil was analyzed by HPLC. The results show that the component of the oil is mainly the same with biodiesel,and X. sorbifolia Bunge. seed oil will be a new resource of biodiesel production.